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n 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 59 



Alton A. Lindsey, Editor 



Spring- Meeting- 
May 13 and 14 
Clifty Falls 



Fall Meeting 

November 3, 4, and 5 

Wabash College 



Members planning to contribute abstracts or papers to future volumes 
are requested to consult "Instructions for Contributors" at the end of this volume. 

Copies of the Proceeding's may be purchased through the State Library, 
Indianapolis-, Indiana, at $3.00 per volume. All items sent in exchange 
for the Proceedings and all communications to officers of the Academy, 
when their names and addresses are not known, should also be sent to 
the State Library. 

Reprints of certain parts of recent volumes of the Proceedings are 
available for distribution as follows: copies of the constitution and by-laws 
(Vol. 44), and complete membership list (Vol. 56), may be secured by 
members elected subsequent to the publication of those volumes; copies 
of the codified list of duties of officers (Vol. 48) may be secured by officers, 
divisional chairmen, and chairmen of committees; and copies of the 
necrology can be supplied to relatives and friends of the deceased members. 
Inquiries concerning these reprints should be addressed to the Secretary 
of the Academy, Dr. W. A. Daily, Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Reprints of technical papers in recent volumes can often be secured 
from the authors. They cannot be supplied by the State Library nor by 
the officers- of the Academy. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Officers and Committees for 1949 v 

Minutes of the Executive Committee viii 

Minutes of the General Session xiii 

New Members of the Year 1949 xvi 

Junior Academy of Science xx 

Necrology 1 

Presidential Address — C. L. Porter 8 



Anthropology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 17 

W. R. Adams: Food animals used by the Indians at the Angel Site . 19 
Hilda J. Curry: Negative painting of Angel Site and southeastern 

United States 25 

Sanchia Schweinsberger: Bone flutes and whistles found in Ohio 

Valley sites 28 

C. P. Warren: The relationship between the folk-tale and the 

culture area in Central Africa 34 



Bacteriology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 37 

Botany 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 40 

Indiana plant distribution records, X. 1949 48 

William W. Bloom: The Pteridophytes of the Valparaiso Moraine 

of Porter County, Indiana 53 

John 0. Cottingham: Higher fungi of Marion County, Indiana . . 58 
Daniel Denuyl : Natural regeneration from planted conifers in 

Indiana 59 

Charles B. Heiser, Jr.: A comparison of the flora as a whole and 

the weed flora of Indiana as to polyploidy and growth habits 64 
John A. Jump: Observations upon a strain of Streptomyces albus 

antagonistic to certain phytopathogenic fungi 71 

J. H. Lefforge: An analysis of floret fertility in Agropyron repens 75 

M. S. Markle: The Algae of the Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve 80 
J. E. Potzger and Lfland Chandler: Beech in the forests about 

Laughery Creek valley 82 



ii Indiana Academy of Science 

J. E. Potzger and Esther Potzger: Secondary succession in an 

Illinoian tillplain habitat 95 

Richard A. Scott: A study of variation in leaf anatomy with 

reference to habitat in two species of Polypodiwm 102 

Kenneth A. Wagner: Notes on Indiana Liverworts — III. Some 

new county and state records 112 

Winona H. Welch: Studies in Indiana Bryophytes VII 115 



Chemistry 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 122 

Anne Deckard and R. C. Corley: Utilization of limit dextrins by 

the animal body 123 

Ed F. Degering and H. H. Chen: Acetylation with isopropenyl 

acetate 126 

Philip J. Elving and Melvin L. Moss: Centering of rotating micro- 
scope stages 129 

Robert B. Fischer: Academic training in analytical chemistry. . . . 131 

C. E. Kaslow, Jerome D. Genzer, and James C. Goodspeed: Beck- 

mann rearrangement of Oximes of certain quinolyl ketones .... 134 

W. G. Kessell: Look it up, freshman 140 

F. C. Mathers and Guy W. Leonard, Jr.: Preparation of fluoboric 
acid from fluosilicic acid and boric acid, and a comparison of 
the protective value of electrodeposited lead from fluosilicate 
and from fluoborate baths 144 

S. M. McClure: Achievement in chemistry under the single subject 

system 147 

T. J. Phillips: Rapid analysis of dolomitic limestones 149 

F. J. Riel, Ed. F. Degering, and H. B. Hass: The addition of 

nitrogen and tetroxide to ketene 150 

H. F. Schaeffer: Dehydrogenations by means of sulfur: adaptation 

as an experiment for general organic chemistry course 153 

W. E. Thrun: Modification of the orthotolidine method for deter- 
mining small amounts of iodine 155 

Entomology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 156 

Philip W. Berg: Laboratory tests on the toxicity of technical DDT, 

DDT isomers and analogues, and DDD 157 

Ray T. Everly: Legume pollination problems 164 

George E. Gould: The German roach as a laboratory test animal . 173 

G. Edw. Marshall: The control of insects in sod culture peach 

orchards 181 

R. P. Mullett: The relation of particle size to the toxicity of DDT 

dusts 185 

W. E. Ricker: Some evolutionary trends in Plecoptera 197 

Donald L. Schuder: Studies on the control of the Taxus Mealybug 210 



Table of Contents iii 

Geology and Geography 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 212 

Thomas F. Barton: Some geographic recreational aspects of un- 

glaciated Indiana 216 

C. L. Bieber: Distribution patterns of sand and gravel pits in 

northwestern Indiana 221 

Erwin J. Buls: The Grand Portage fur traders route and Indian 

reservation 225 

James L. Guernsey: The trade area of Terre Haute, Indiana 230 

Fred H. Klaer, Jr.: Ground-water levels in Indiana 236 

Frank E. Kottlowski: A new species of Atrypa from the Devonian 

of Montana 246 

E. A. Stoneman: Commerce of Ireland 251 

Stephen S. Visher: Indiana Thunderstorms 255 

William J. Wayne: A karst valley in western Monroe County, 

Indiana 258 

Mathematics 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 264 

Physics 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 266 

Ronald L. Ives: Preliminary theory of an electrical computer for 

mean deviations 273 

Psychology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 283 

Zoology 

Abstracts of papers not published in full 291 

C. J. Shellabarger and W. R. Breneman: The effects of pineal- 

ectomy on young White Leghorn Cockerels 299 

Instructions for Contributors 303 

Index 305 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES FOR 1949 



OFFICERS 
President, Charles L. Porter, Purdue University. 
Vice-President, Stephen S. Visher, Indiana University. 
Secretary, 0. B. Christy, Ball State Teachers College. 
Treasurer, Will P. Morgan, Indiana Central College. 
Editor, E. S. Gantz, Purdue University. 
Press Secretary, William A. Daily, Butler University. 

DIVISIONAL CHAIRMEN 
Anthropology, G. K. Neumann, Indiana University. 
Bacteriology, I. C. Gunsalus, Indiana University. 
Botany, Dr. A. R. Bechtel, Wabash College. 
Chemistry, William G. Kessel, Indiana State Teachers College. 
Entomology, Edward Kintner, Manchester College. 
Geology and Geography, Preston McGrain, Indiana Flood Control and 

Water Commission. 
History of Science, Paul Weatherwax, Indiana University. 
Mathematics, Paul Overman, Purdue University. 
Physics, Ancil R. Thomas, Valparaiso University. 
Psychology, E. J. Asher, Purdue University. 
Zooolgy, Murvel R. Garner, Earlham College. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

(Past Presidents, Current Officers, Divisional Chairmen 

and Chairmen of Standing Committees) 

William Wallace, Robert F. Ervin, A. R. Bechtel, William G. Kessel, 
Edward Kintner, Preston McGrain, Paul Weatherwax, Paul Overman, 
Ancil R. Thomas, E. J. Asher, Murvel R. Garner, C. A. Behrens, 0. B. 
Christy, W. A. Daily, J. J. Davis, C. C. Deam, E. F. Degering, W. E. 
Edington, H. E. Enders, R. C. Friesner, E. S. Gantz, Theodor Just, Eli 
Lilly, J. F. Mackell, E. G. Mahin, C. A. Malott, M. S. Markle, M. G. Mel- 
lon, H. H. Machard, W. P. Morgan, F. Payne, R. R. Ramsey, F. B. Wade, 
F. N. Wallace, Winona H. Welch, J. S. Wright, T. G. Yuncker, Stephen S. 
Visher, Charles L. Porter, K. S. Means, W. E. Ricker, Ralph E. Cleland, 
Nellie M. Coats, J. E. Switzer, Willis H. Johnson. 

BUDGET COMMITTEE 
(President, Secretary, Treasurer, Editor and Chairman of Junior 
Academy, Library, Program, and Relation of Academy to State) 
Charles L. Porter, Purdue University; 0. B. Christy, W. P. Morgan, 
E. S. Gantz, H. H. Michaud, Nellie M. Coats, W. H. Johnson. 



vi Indiana Academy of Science 

COMMITTEES 

(Elected by the Academy) 

Trustees of Academy Foundation (Term 4 years) : Chairman, J. S. 
Wright, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis (term ex. 1952) ; F. B. Wade 
(term ex. 1951). 

Bonding of Trustees (elected annually) : Chairman, R. C. Friesner, 
Butler University; Scott McCoy. 

Research Grants (term 5 years) : Chairman, T. G. Yuncker, DePauw 
University (term ex. 1949), E. G. Mahin (1952), H. H. Remmers 
(1950), Paul Weatherwax (1951), J. S. Wright (1953), Charles L. 
Porter and 0. B. Christy (ex. officio). 

COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 

Auditing: Chairman, K. S. Means, Butler University; S. E. Elliott. 

Biological Swvey: Chairman, W. E. Ricker, Indiana University; W. P. 
Allyn, W. B. Barnes, H. J. Brodie, L. C. Cole, Fay K. Daily, H. 0. 
Deay, R. C. Friesner, H. H. Michaud, H. H. Vogel, Winona H. Welch. 

Fifty-Year Index: Chairman, R. C. Friesner, Butler University; Nellie 
M. Coats, W. P. Morgan, F. N. Wallace, Paul Weatherwax. 

Invitations: Chairman, Professor Ralph E. Cleland, Indiana University; 
John S. Karling, Edward Kintner, Fred A. Loew, Edna Banta, Floyd 
Beghtel. 

Junior Academy: Chairman, H. H. Michaud, Purdue University; N. E. 
Adams, W. P. Allyn, F. R. Elliott, E. Kintner, M. S. Markle, R. Earl 
Martin, A. Strickler, F. B. Wade, P. L. Whitaker. 

Indiana Science Talent Search: A sub-committee of the Junior Academy 
Committee — Chairman, R. W. Lefler, Purdue University; F. Payne, 
P. D. Edwards, Winona H. Welch, Lawrence H. Baldinger, Charles 
L. Porter, and Walter Leckrone (ex officio). 

Library: Chairman, Nellie M. Coats, Indiana State Library, Indianapo- 
lis; W. G. Gingery, R. C. Friesner. 

Membership: Chairman, J. E. Switzer, Indiana University; M. H. 
Ahrendt, Juna L. Beal, E. Byren, Jr., M. Chanin, J. J. Davis, S. R. 
Esten, G. F. Hennion, L. B. Howell, J. L. Hyatt, Alma Long, J. A. 
Marling, A. H. Meyer, Bessie Noyes, A. E. Reynolds, J. E. Seybert, 
W. Shepherdson. 

Necrologist: W. E. Edington, DePauw University. 

Nominations: (Announced at the November meeting of the Academy). 

Program: Chairman, Willis H. Johnson, Wabash College; A. R. Bechtel, 
Crawford Polley, R. E. Martin, L. B. Howell, John E. Potzger, Scott 
McCoy, Alton A. Lindsey. 



Officers and Committees vii 

Publication of Proceedings: Chairman, E. S. Gantz, Purdue University; 
R. C. Corley, Paul Weatherwax, P. D. Edwards. 

Relation of Academy to State: Chairman, F. N. Wallace, Department of 
Conservation; H. J. Reed, Eli Lilly, J. S. Wright, Daniel Den Uyl. 

Representative on Council of A.A.A.S. : Paul Weatherwax, Indiana Uni- 
versity. 

Resolutions : Chairman, Stephen Visher, Indiana University; Arthur T. 
Guard, Howard Ray Youse. 



MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Crawfordsville, November 3, 1949 

The executive committee was called to order by C. L. Porter in the 
Library Building at 7:30 p. m. The minutes of the spring meeting held 
at Clifty Falls State Park were read and approved. The report of the 
officers and committee representatives were presented and accepted as 
follows: 

Academy Trustees. John S. Wright, chairman of the Trustees of the 
Foundation Fund, reported as follows for the year 1948-49: 

Balance from the Previous Year $375.01 

Total Receipts 165.75 



Total $540.76 

Expenditures: 

The Union Trust Co., fee 5% on $165.75 $8.29 



Cash Balance at the Union Trust Co $532.47 

Assets in the Fluid as of September 30, 1949 

(5) $1,000.00 U. S. Savings Bonds Series "D"— Cost $3,750.00 

$6,900.00 U. S. Treasury Bonds Series "G" — Cost 6,900.00 

(6) Shares Standard Oil of Indiana common stock Par 150.00 



Total at Par or Cost $10,800.00 

Treasurer. Final report of the treasurer, W. P. Morgan, for the year 
1949: 

Receipts 

Balance on hand January 1, 1949 $1,950.17 

Dues and initiation fees 1,189.00 

Designated gifts 450.00 

Publications sold 49.12 

Authors' reprints Vol. No. 54 3.22 

Authors' reprints Vol. No. 57 358.44 

Authors* reprints Vol. No. 58 299.70 



$4,299.65 



Disbursements 

1 — Program Committee $ 304.83 

2 — Editor Vol. No. 58 125.86 

3 — Expenses of Secretary 224.36 

4 — Expenses of Treasurer 106.50 

5 — Mailing Proceedings 136.28 

6 — Stationery 69.73 

7 — Publications for Library 20.00 

8 — Preparation of 10-Year Index . 4.98 

9 — Bookwalter Co., balance on Vol. No. 58 . . 119.83 

10 — Jr. Academy expenses 20.72 

11— Authors' reprints Vol. No. 58 699.29 

viii 



Minutes and Records 



12 — Author award 1949 Tom Daggy 25.00 

13 — Author award 1949 Helen Marsh Zeiner . . . 25.00 

14 — C. P. Hickman research grant 37.50 

15 — A. E. Reynolds research grant 18.75 

ltl — Returned checks 5.0(5 

17 — Expenses to five officers as directed by 

action of 1947 Executive Committee ... . 100.00 

18 — S. S. Visher* 300.00 



$2,343.69 
••Balance on hand 1,955.96 



$4,299.65 

* Drawn for use in preparation of material for "Indiana Men of 
Science" shown in 1949 records due to delay in closing- accounts of that 
year. 

** Balance includes $800.00 designated for the preparation for publi- 
cation of the "Indiana Men of Science." 

(Signed) W. P. Morgan, Treasurer. 
(Signed) Karl S. Means, S. E. Elliott, Auditors. 

Auditing Committee. The treasurer's report was audited and ap- 
proved by the committee. The Statement of the Union Trust Company 
as to the Society's account and holdings was checked by the trustees and 
the chairman of the auditing committee. 

(Signed) Karl S. Means, Chairman. 

Bonding Committee. Ray C. Friesner, Chairman, reported that the 
Academy carries with Hartford Accident and Indemnity Company a bond 
in the amount of $2000.00 for the Treasurer and $5000.00 each for the 
Trustees. These are on a position basis. The bond is renewable trian- 
nually at a total cost of $62.50 for the three-year period. The next 
expiration date is November 18, 1950, and the bond will be renewed on 
or before that time unless the Academy should instruct the committee 
otherwise. 

Editor and Publication of Proceedings. In the absence of E. S. 
Gantz no report was made by this committee. However, Dr. Friesner 
reported that he had ordered the reprints needed by the State Floral 
Committee which would amount to about $15. A motion was carried that 
the Academy bear this expense. 

Research Grant. Dr. T. G. Yuncker reported that no requests for 
grants have been received by the Committee during the past year. Grants 
made previously to Prof. Drummond of Indiana State Teachers' College, 
Prof. Hickman of DePauw University, Prof. Reynolds of DePauw Uni- 
versity, and Prof. Thrun of Valparaiso University have been continued 
during the year and installments paid as progress reports were received 
and approved by the Committee. 

Biological Survey. W. E. Ricker reported activities in faunistic 
and floristic studies continues along much the same lines as reported last 



x Indiana Academy of Science 

year. Drs. L. C. Cole and H. H. Vogel, being no longer resident in 
Indiana, have asked to be relieved of their position upon the Committee. 

Ten- Year Index. Chairman Friesner made the following report: 

1. Indexing of volumes 51-58 is complete and has yielded about 
8500 entries. 

2. Printing cost of 10-year index will be approximately $600. 

3. It is recommended that the index for volumes 51-60 be bound 
in volume 61. 

4. Volumes containing 10-year indexes should be bound in red 
cloth instead of the usual black. 

5. Format should be the same as for the 50-year index. 

Library. Chairman Nellie M. Coats reported that a revision of the 
1935 list has been prepared for distribution at the 1949 fall meeting. 
This 1949 edition records five hundred one titles, a gain of two hundred 
seventy. This fiscal year the State Library as agent has mailed copies of 
two issues of the Proceedings, v. 57 published Dec. 2, 1948 and v. 58 
published Oct. 29, 1949, the latter having just been posted to nine hun- 
dred six members. 

Press Secretary. Dr. W. A. Daily reported news items concerning 
the meetings of the Academy has been presented to the journal "Science", 
Indianapolis newspapers and "Newsweek". Printed announcements suit- 
able for posting were sent out to all the colleges and universities in the 
state. All of the high schools that have had at any time a chapter of the 
Junior Academy also received a notice. The archives of the Academy 
are in good condition and a complete series of presidential photographs 
are on file. Mr. Charles C. Deam of Bluffton has presented to the State 
Library the major part of his scientific correspondence which covers a 
period of nearly fifty years. 

Junior Academy of Science. Howard H. Michaud, Chairman, pre- 
sented the following report. There are at present twenty-six active 
Junior Academy of Science Clubs representing twenty-three Indiana high 
schools. Two new clubs were added beginning with this school year. An 
excellent news-letter of club activities was prepared and distributed 
again last year. A more genuine interest in the Junior Academy and 
science clubs has been stimulated through the Indiana State Science 
Talent Search. This is a cooperative effort between the Indiana Junior 
Academy of Science, Science Clubs of America and the Indianapolis 
Times. The renewed interest of the clubs is very encouraging and surely 
proves the value of working with our future potential scientists. An 
excellent program has been prepared for Saturday's meeting. 

Indiana Science Talent Search Committee. Ralph W. Lefler, chairman, 
explained the work of his committee in setting up rules and regulations 
for the Senior Science students of Indiana in competing for the awards 
offered by the Indianapolis Times. This was an excellent report and 



Minutes and Records xi 

was accepted with thanks. In addition, Dr. Lefler presented the following: 
on the relation of Indiana colleges to the Science Talent Search: 

The necessity for the early identification and for the continued 
development of our talented in all fields has long- been recognized. In 
the field of science there have been programs both local and national in 
scope which tended to encourage the more talented to strive for some 
reward, usually a scholarship. The Science Talent Search conducted 
by Science Service for the Westinghouse Scholarships is one of the most 
outstanding of such attempts. 

This Search with the concurrent fifteen state searches brings untold 
encouragement to all who participate. There are each year 40 National 
Winners and 360 National Honorable Mentions. In addition 294 students 
were honored last year in the 15 state searches. 20 of these were from 
Indiana. 

The rigorous selection procedure which requires an essay on an 
original project and the completion of a three hour Science Aptitude 
Examination is a maturing and desirable experience for any serious 
minded high school senior. 

All Indiana Winners are recommended to the admissions officers and 
scholarship committees of our Indiana colleges and universities. It is 
sincerely hoped that no really talented student will have to terminate 
his program of education because of inability to bear the financial 
obligation. 

The attendance of Indiana Scientists at the Junior Scientists Assembly 
held each spring as the culminating activity of the Indiana Science Talent 
Search will make possible personal interviews with these students and 
provide opportunity for appropriate encouragement in the field best suited 
for their continued study. 

Relations of Academy to State. Frank N. Wallace, chairman, reported 
that there has been no change in the status of the state appropriations 
for the Indiana Academy of Science. There are $3000.00 available this 
year for the publication of the proceedings. "I checked with the auditor, 
and so far there has been no commitment made on this, so the entire 
$3000 is available for this year's publications." 

Relation of Academy to A.A.A.S. E. F. Degering reported that he 
had attended the A.A.A.S. in Washington, but found few representatives 
from Indiana. 

Nominating. C. A. Behrens reported that his committee is recom- 
mending the following members for fellows: W. A. Daily, Eli Lilly and 
Butler University; R. W. Lefler, Purdue University; Preston McGrain, 
U. S. Flood Control; Daniel Den Uyl, Purdue University; L. H. Baldinger, 
Notre Dame University. 

Program. W. H. Johnson reported that some sectional meetings 
would be long. The program would proceed as scheduled. 

New Business. It was moved and carried that Dr. T. G. Yuncker be 
re-elected as a member to the Research Grants Committee. The members 
of the present bonding committee were unanimously re-elected for 
another year. 

Dr. W. E. Edington, chairman of the committee on "Indiana Men 
of Science", recommended that the committee be discharged and a new 



xii Indiana Academy of Science 

committee on arranging for compiling and publication be appointed as 
suggested in a Resolution to be presented at this meeting by Dr. John S. 
Wright. Dr. Wright presented the following resolutions: 

Whereas : Scientific activities in Indiana began over a century ago and 
include significant contributions to the advancement of science, the Indiana 
Academy of Science believes it desirable and in furtherance of scientific and 
educational interests to prepare an historical account of science in our state, 
including biographical records of the men and women of science, past and present, 
who originated, studied or worked in Indiana, and to do this as speedily as 
consistent with sound procedure, be it 

RESOLVED : 

(1) That the president be authorized to appoint a committee of two 
or more members to study the ways and means for preparing the text for and the 
publication of such a history. 

(2) That the committee be empowered to add to its membership if 
it so desires. 

(3) That the committee be allowed an amount not exceeding four 
hundred (400) dollars for the first year's work, to be paid out of the 
treasury's "designated fund," contributed for special publication projects. 

(4) That the committee report at the next annual meeting with 
recommendations for further procedure. 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted. President Porter an- 
nounced that he would appoint a committee. 

Dr. R. E. Martin issued an invitation for the Academy to hold its 
next annual meeting at Hanover College. 

The problem of raising the dues was raised and discussed at length. 
Dr. Friesner then moved that the chair appoint a committee to study the 
problem of dues and report its recommendation at the next annual meet- 
ing. The motion carried and President Porter appointed the following 
committee: R. C. Friesner, W. E. Edington, Howard Michaud, W. P. 
Morgan (ex officio). 

The meeting adjourned at 9:30 p. m. 



MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

Crawfordsville, November 4, 1949 

President Frank H. Sparks of Wabash College expressed his appre- 
ciation for having the Academy as guest of the college at its sixty-fifth 
meeting. The response to the welcome was given by President C. L. 
Porter. 

The minutes of the Executive Committee meeting was read by the 
secretary and approved by the Academy. 

President Porter appointed W. E. Edington, J. S. Wright, S. S. 
Visher, M. G. Mellon and Paul Weatherwax as a committee on the 
History of Science in Indiana as provided in the resolutions presented 
by John S. Wright at the executive committee meeting. 

Dr. Will E. Edington, chairman of the Necrology committee, pre- 
sented the list of those members who had died during the year. The 
names presented were: Benjamin H. Grove, Carl F. Hanske, Thomas F. 
Hargitt, G. Donald Klopp, and David A. Rothrock. 

Dr. Harry J. Fuller, University of Illinois, presented an interesting 
illustrated talk on "Ancient and Modern Life in the Andes Mountains". 
The primitive methods used by the people in this region of South America 
and the ancient ruins were very impressive. 

Duane Roller, Wabash College, read a well prepared paper entitled 
"Some Difficulties in Interpreting Basic Factors in the Relations of the 
Sciences to Society". The author expressed the Marxist attitude which 
regards science solely as a social instrument had reached what seems to 
be an incompatible conflict with the idea of freedom for "pure" scientific 
research. 

C. M. Palmer, Butler University, gave an illustrated talk "The 
U.N.E.S.C.O. Science Office of South Asia". Dr. Palmer had spent two 
years in India as a representative of the Friends helping to improve 
methods in agriculture. 

The meeting adjourned at 11 a.m. to meet in the various sections. 

Luncheon was served in the Crawfordsville Armory with 345 present. 

At the annual dinner in the Masonic Temple the Wabash College 
male quartet sang several appropriate numbers. 

H. B. Howell presented the names of 107 applicants for membership. 
These were duly elected. 

Prof. C. A. Behrens of the nominating committee presented the 
following names for fellows: W. A. Daily, Eli Lilly Co.; L. H. Baldinger, 
Notre Dame; R. W. Lefler, Purdue University; Preston McGrain, Indiana 
Flood Control and Water Resources Commission, Indiana; Daniel Den 
Uyl, Purdue University. These persons were unanimously elected. 



xiv Indiana Academy of Science 

The Divisional Chairmen who were elected to serve the various sec- 
tions for 1950 were as follows: Anthropology, Harold E. Driver, Indiana 
University; Bacteriology, H. Koffler, Purdue University; Botany, M. S. 
Markle, Earlham; Chemistry, Kieth Seymour, Butler University; Ento- 
mology, George Gould, Purdue University; Geology and Geography, Otis 
P. Starkey, Indiana University; History of Science, M. G. Mellon, Purdue 
University; Mathematics, Walter H. Carnahan, Purdue University; 
Physics, Duane Roller, Wabash College; Psychology, Robert Bruce, 
Wabash College; Zoology, Sears Crowell, Indiana University. 

P. D. Edwards reported for the awards committee as follows: 

The fields of science selected for 1949 are anthropology and entomology. 
The Eli Lilly prize in anthropology is awarded to Mrs. Helen Marsh Zeiner 
of Denver, Colorado, for her paper entitled "Botanical Survey of the Angel 
Mounds" which appeared in Vol. 54. The J. J. Davis prize in entomology 
is awarded to Tom Daggy of Olivet College, Olivet, Michigan for his 
paper entitled, "Notes on the ecology and taxonomy of certain pupae of 
the family Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera)" which appeared in Vol. 56. 

C. A. Behrens of the nominating committee recommended the fol- 
lowing persons for the 1950 officers: 

President S. S. Visher, Indiana University 

Vice-President O. B. Christy, Ball State 

Editor A. A. Lindsey, Purdue University 

Secretary W. A. Daily, Eli Lilly Co. 

Treasurer W. P. Morgan, Indiana Central College 

Press Secretary Preston McGrain, Indiana Flood Control 

This recommendation was approved and the officers unanimously 
elected. 

An invitation to meet at Hanover College in 1950 was accepted. 

Dr. S. S. Visher, chairman of the resolutions committee, read the 
following report: 

The Academy expresses appreciation to the Program Committee, chair- 
man Willis H. Johnson, A. R. Bechtel, L». B. Howell, Alton A. Lindsey, 
R. E. Martin, Scott McCoy, Crawford Polley, and John E. Potzger for their 
earnest efforts to make this meeting the success it has been. 

The arranging for places of meeting of the various sections, committees 
and the entire academy and for the meals and lodging is a far larger job 
than those who have never done it realize. The Academy is under special 
obligation to Chairman Willis Johnson for much devoted service. 

To Wabash College, we are grateful for kind hospitality. Everytime 
that the Academy meets here, we have increased reason to appreciate 
this splendid college, which has for many decades contributed much to the 
educational life of Indiana. 

The Academy also expresses appreciation for the devoted services of 
O. B. Christy as secretary, who after several years of service finds it 
necessary to retire. 

Vice-President S. S. Visher presented President C. L. Porter who 
read an excellent paper on "Responsibilities of a Mycologist." 



Minutes of the General Session xv 

The Sixty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science 
with 430 registrants, 345 attending the luncheon, and 177 the dinner, was 
adjourned. 

O. B. Christy, Secretary. 



NEW MEMBERS OF THE YEAR 1949, 
INDIANA ACADEMY 

Alexander, Raymond L., 5020 E. Iowa St., Indianapolis. B 
Anthonisen, Robert P., 8011 S. Muskegon Ave., Chicago 17, 111. G, Geo 

Beecher, A. B., Journal-Review Office, Crawfordsville. B 
Blackburn, Jack B., 224 Waldron St., W. Lafayette. Highway Engr 
Blasingham, Miss Emily Jane, Anthropology Museum, Indiana Univ., 

Bloomington. A 
Blumenthal, Harold Jay, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., 

Lafayette. Ba 
Bohman, Frank E., 46 Newport Ave., W. Hartford 7, Conn. E 
Boling, Richard C, 2830 Brookside Ave., Indianapolis. Z 
Buck, Dr. Miriam G., 798 N. Walnut St., Franklin. C 
Buser, Franklin B., D-20 Woodlawn Courts, Bloomington. Bo 
Buss, Arnold H., Psychology Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Psych 

Canright, Dr. James E., 1604 E. University St., Bloomington. Bo 
Carpenter, T. R., Dept. Bot. and PL Path. A.E.S., Purdue Univ., 

W. Lafayette. PI Path 
Chamberlin, Miss Lois, Dept. of Botany, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. Bo 
Clemmons, George E., 6811 Anthony Ave., Chicago, 111. G, Geo 
Coulter, Miss Kathryn E., 211 S. 12th St., Richmond. B 
Crandall, Richard B., 611 Ridge Ave., Greencastle. Z 
Crawford, Dr. Wiley W., 635 S. Englewood Drive, Evansville. B, Z 
Cummings, Robert H., 432 N. Grant St., W. Lafayette. Mycol 
Curry, Miss Hilda J., Route 6, Bloomington. A 

Davis, Hugh N., Jr., 624 N. Drexel Ave., Indianapolis. A 
Day, Richard E., Dept. of Biology, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. Mycol 
Daykin, P. N., Dept. Physics, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. P 
Deckard, Mrs. Anne DeBoer, 314 W. Fowler St., W. Lafayette. C 
DeLanney, Dr. Louis E., 900 S. Grant Ave., Crawfordsville. Z 
Dillingham, Elwood Oliver, Florence Hall, Greencastle. Ba 
Driver, Dr. Harold E., Anthropology Dept., Indiana Univ., Blooming- 
ton. A 
Ducommun, Dale J., Sigma Nu House, Greencastle. Z, Psych 

Eliason, Miss Alma E., Richmond Sr. High School, Richmond. B 

Fiandt, Dallas, Jr., Hoosier Court Apts., Bldg. 29, Apt. 3, Blooming- 
ton. G 

Finnegan, Cyril V., Wabash College, Crawfordsville. Z, Embry 

French, Richard C, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., W. Lafa- 
yette. PI Physio 

Fry, Prof. Cleota G., 213 Varsity Apt., W. Lafayette. M 



New Members of the Year 1949 xvi 

Geyer, Prof. J. Hubert, 38 S. Edwards St., Franklin. Z 
Gorsline, William W., 923 E. 56th St., Indianapolis. M 
Gould, Dr. S. H., 117 DeHart St., W. Lafayette. M 
Grassi, Gino V., 958 Bridge Ave., Windsor, Ontario, Canada. B 
Green, Ralph J., Jr., 1835 S. 31st St., Terre Haute. Bo 

Greenspoon, Joel, Psychology Dept., Science Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloom- 
ington. Psych 

Haenisch, Prof. Edward L., 309 S. Walnut St., Crawfordsville. C 
Hammond, Phillip V., School of Pharmacy, Purdue Univ., W. Lafa- 
yette. Pharm 
Haicourt, Robert S., 4915 N. Illinois St., Indianapolis. Z 
Haxby, Dr. R. 0., Dept. Physics, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. P 
Hennigar, Prof. Lewis Albro, Anderson College, Anderson. Psych 
Hilliker, Eugene F., Shortridge High School, Indianapolis. 
Hoffman, Max Norman, Route 2, Cory. B, C 
Hovorka, Edward J., 314 E. 6th St., Bloomington. Psych 
Hughes, Dr. Howard K., 617 Dodge St., W. Lafayette. M 
Huse, Erie S., Hanover College, Hanover. C 

Hurst, Mrs. Fannie Mae, Dept. of Biology, Purdue Univ., W. Lafa- 
yette. Bo 

Johnson, Miss Laveta Audrey, 4315 Cold Spring Rd., Indianapolis. 
Johnson, Dr. Vivian A., Dept. Physics, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. P 
Judson, Dr. James Edward, 286 Forsythe St., Franklin. Ba, Bo 

King, Roger F., 524 N. Jefferson St., Madison. Ba, Myco 

LaCroix, J. Donald, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. Bo 
LaTouriette, Miss Eleanor J., 309 E. 3rd St., Bloomington. 
Lefforge, Prof. Jesse H., 434 N. Grant St., W. Lafayette. Bo, Agro 
Lehman, Eldon D., 664 E. 17th St., Apt. 4, Indianapolis. C 
Lewis, Robert Owen, 311 3rd St., Carmi, 111. Z 
Livesey, Dr. Robert L., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame. B 
Luck, John Virgil, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. Ba, My 

Maatman, Prof. Russell W., Chem. Dept. DePauw Univ., Greencastle. C 

Mann, David Edwin, Jr., 142 Sheetz St., W. Lafayette. B 

Maysilles, Prof. James H., Dept. Botany, Hanover College, Hanover. Bo 

Meinerding, William L., Quonset No. 1, 200 Olive St., Greencastle. Z 

Mindach, Fred Carl, 951 W. 20th St., Box 855, Indianapolis. Bo, Ba 

Mockford, Edward L., 4140 Graceland Ave., Indianapolis. Z 

Mullett, R. P., 663 King Ave., Marion Ohio. E 

Nichols, Kenneth E., Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso. B 

Opp, Edward D., Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. Bo 

Ort, Robert Stanley, Psych. Dept., Wabash College, Crawfordsville. Psy 

Overmyer, Robert, 10001 S. Hoyne Ave., Chicago 43, 111. P 

Perrey, Joseph I., 522 Board of Trade Bldg., Indianapolis. G, Geog 
Peterson, Dr. J. B., 633 Russell St., W. Lafayette. Agro 



xviii Indiana Academy of Science 

Pierard, Louis H., P.O. Box 461, 3d Observation Ct., Greencastle. G 
Powelson, Prof. Dorothy M., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., 

W. Lafayette. B 
Punke, Miss Helen, Evansville College, Evansville. B 
Pursell, Lyle E., Route 3, Paola, Kans. M 

Quinn, Miss Charlene M., 407 Howard St., Greencastle. Z 

Reddix, Lloyd E., Indiana Central College, Indianapolis. P 

Rice, Michael W., 215 Longden Hall, Greencastle. P 

Rieke, Dr. Foster F., Dept. Physics, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette. P 

Roberts, Carroll N., Dept. of Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington. G 

Rohrer, Charles St., Chem. Dept. Indiana Univ., Bloomington. C 

Rueve, Rev. Charles R., St. Joseph College, Collegeville. M 

Schipper, Dr. Arthur L., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame. B 
Schneller, Miss Myrtle V., Dept of Zoology, Ind. Univ., Bloomington. 
Schuder, Donald L., Dept. of Ento. A.E.S. Annex, Purdue Univ., W. La- 
fayette. E 
Seifert, Dr. R. L., Dept. Chem., Indiana Univ., Bloomington. C 
Simpson, Ralph S., 248 W. 44th St., Indianapolis. C 
Sipple, Guy C, Bldg. 11, Apt. 7, Ross-Ade Dr., W. Lafayette. M, P 
Smith, Prof. Howard W., Dept. Entomology, Purdue Univ., W. Lafa- 
yette. E 
Spencer, Dr. Joseph Nuten, 2141 S. 7th St., Terre Haute. Phy, Phar 
Springer, Clifford H., 333 W. Sherwood Terrace, Ft. Wayne 6. M 
Stark, Ralph W., 122 S. Lebanon St., Lebanon. Bo 

Stark, William Max, Stanley Coulter Hall, Purdue Univ., W. Lafa- 
yette. Ba 
Stearns, Forest, 515-3 FPHA, W. Lafayette. Bo 
Stuntz, Edgar Cheadle, Sigma Chi House, Crawfordsville. Psy 
Sybil, Dr. Edward, Jr., Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre 
Dame. Bo 

Thevathasan, Oliver, Florence Hall, Greencastle. Z 

Trabant, Prof. E. A., 215 Forest Hills Dr., W. Lafayette. M 

Treece, Prof. Walter A., Apt. 12-B, 500 S. Rotherwood, Evansville. Geog 

Uhrhan, Miss Jane A., 3005 Broadway, Indianapolis. M 

Walerstein, Dr. I., 1334 Vine St., W. Lafayette. P 

Warner, Dr. Glen W., Lakeville. 

Webster, Dr. J. Dan., Hanover College, Hanover. Z 

Whaley, Dr. R. M., 19 David Ross Rd., W. Lafayette. P 

Willis, Myron J., State St., Ct. B No. 30, W. Lafayette. M 

Woods, Prof. Kenneth B., 902 N. Chauncey Ave., W. Lafayette. Geog 

Young, Charles Edward, FPHA 318-3, W. State St., W. Lafayette. M, P 
Young, Dr. Frank N., Jr., Dept. of Zoology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington. 

Zieman, Dr. Clayton, 314 V 2 W. Main, Crawfordsville. P 



New Members of the Year 1949 



JUNIOR ACADEMIES 



Science Club of Senior High School, Whitewater Bldg., Richmond. P, C, B 
Science Club, Hunting-burg High School, Wilmer K. Pellett, sponsor, 

Huntingburg. G. S 
Morton Science Club, 7040 Marshall Ave., Hammond 

Photography, area of biological sciences 



INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 



Officers for 1949: 

President: Richard Elzay, Phi Chem Club, Elmhurst High School, 
Fort Wayne. 

Vice-President: Tom Moon, Junior Academy, Central High School, 
South Bend. 

Secretary: Marjorie; Tapscott, Biology Club, New Castle Senior 
High School, New Castle. 



PROGRAM OF THE SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 

Saturday, November 5, 1949 

Waugh Hall, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 

9:00-10:00 A.M. Exhibits, Room 101, Waugh Hall 

10:00 A.M. Morning Session, Room 1, Waugh Hall 

Richard Elzay, presiding. 

Greetings, Dean B. K. Trippet, Wabash College. 

Program presented by club members: 

1. Plastic Microscope Slides — Kay Boese, Nature Study Club, Ar- 
senal Technical High School, Indianapolis. 

2. Hybridizing Roses at Hill's Greenhouse — Robert Milligan, Science 
Club, Richmond High School, Richmond. 

3. Rabbit Royalty — Mary Martha Curd, Nature Study Club, Arsenal 
Technical High School, Indianapolis. 

4. Bird Population Study (Illustrated) — Marjorie Tapscott, Biology 
Club, New Castle Senior High School, New Castle. 

5. Interesting Facts About Astronomy — Robert Usher, Biology Club, 
New Castle Senior High School, New Castle. 

6. The Water Problem of South Bend — Tom Moon, Junior Academy, 
Central High School, South Bend. 

7. Gems of the Ocean — Mary Jane Patrizi, Biology Club, Lew 
Wallace High School, Gary. 

8. Demonstration — Vandegraff Generator — Tom Miller and John 
Goodman, Science Club, Mishawaka High School, Mishawaka. 

xx 



Junior Academy of Science xxi 

9. Bird Adaptations — Judith Douthitt, National Scientific Honor 
Society, Bloomington High School, Bloomington. 

10. What Will a Frog Heart Do? (Demonstration)— Tao Yuan Chen, 
Chemistry Club, Shortridge High School, Indianapolis. 

12:30 P.M. Junior Academy Luncheon 

First Baptist Church 

Miss Audrey Johnson, Scientific Honorary Student, Purdue Uni- 
versity, and one of the last year's National Science Talent Search 
Winners will speak on "Experiences as a National Winner in Wash- 
ington, D.C." 

1:45 P.M. Room 1, Waugh Hall 

11. How to Make a Bird Identification Board — Bill Zander, Biology 
Club, Lew Wallace High School, Gary. 

12. Destruction of Wildlife on Our Highways — Kelly Wise, Biology 
Club, New Castle Senior High School, New Castle. 

13. Out of the Past (Illustrated) — Bill Luckey, Junior Academy, 
Elkhart High School, Elkhart. 

14. Somatotyping — Jim Heuston, Science Club, Howe High School, 
Indianapolis. 

15. Geology Field Trip — Vivian Shilling, Chemistry Club, Short- 
ridge High School, Indianapolis. 

16. Additional Investigations of a High Frequency Oscillator — 
Charlie Bob Ellis, University High School, Bloomington. 

17. Pathogenic Mold — Watson Laetsch, Science Club, Howe High 
School, Indianapolis. 



MINUTES 

The seventeenth annual meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy of 
Science was held Saturday, November 5, 1949, in room 1 of Waugh Hall, 
Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. 

The exhibit room opened at 9:00 a.m. Exhibits and demonstrations 
were displayed by a number of individuals and clubs. 

The general session was opened by President Richard Elzay, Phi 
Chem Club, Elmhurst High School, Fort Wayne. Tom Moon, Jr., Acad- 
emy, Central High School, South Bend, and Marjorie Tapscott, Biology 
Club, New Castle High School, were introduced as vice president and 
secretary, respectively. Following these introductions, the president 
welcomed the new clubs. These new members of the Junior Academy 
are Richmond, Hammond, and Huntingburg High Schools. Due to a 
shortage of the time, the officers dispensed with the reading of the 
previous year's minutes. Next Dean B. K. Trippet, Wabash College, 
welcomed the Junior Academy of Science and told of the contributions to 



xxii Indiana Academy of Science 

science made by Wabash College. Mr. David Wells, sponsor of the 
Crawfordsville High School Science Club, announced plans for the 
luncheon to be held in the First Baptist Church. Then the president 
introduced Professor Howard H. Michaud, State Sponsor, who conducted 
a short memorial service in honor of G. Donald Klopp. Mr. Klopp, a 
member of the Junior Academy Council, died on May 30, 1949. 

Kay Boese, Nature Study Club, Arsenal Technical High School, 
Indianapolis, opened the morning program with a talk on plastic micro- 
scope slides. She discussed the various methods of preparation and the 
advantages of using plastic microscope slides. 

"Hybridizing Roses at Hill's Greenhouse" was the topic presented 
by Robert Milligan, Richmond Senior High School Science Club. After 
reviewing the reproductive parts of the flower, he took roses and dem- 
onstrated methods used in hybridizing plants. Several real roses were 
shown as good examples of flowers produced through hybridization. 

Another representative from Arsenal Technical High School's Nature 
Study Club gave a talk on "Rabbit Royalty." Mary Martha Curd dis- 
cussed the histories of our domestic rabbits and showed their present 
day importance in the study of medicine and genetics. 

Marjorie Tapscott of the New Castle High School Biology Club gave 
a report of a beech-maple woods. A colored movie was shown to illus- 
trate the methods used in making a bird population study. 

Robert Usher, also of the New Castle High School Biology Club, 
gave a talk entitled, "Interesting Facts About Astronomy." He ex- 
plained some of the ancient beliefs about the solar system and how they 
compare with present day scientific knowledge. 

The water problem of South Bend was presented by Tom Moon, 
South Bend Central High School. After discussing ways of obtaining 
and purifying water, he mentioned the methods used in testing water. 

Using her own shell collection as an example, Mary Jane Patrizi, 
Biology Club, Lew Wallace High School, Gary, demonstrated how shells 
can be used in making jewelry. 

Two boys from the Science Club of Mishawaka High School demon- 
strated their home-made Vandegraff Generator. Tom Miller and John 
Goodman told how the generator was made and how it performs. They 
expressed a desire to make a new, improved generator in the future. 

Next Judith Douthitt, Bloomington High School Scientific Honor 
Society, presented colored bird slides she had made. While showing the 
slides, she discussed the various characteristics of several common birds 
found in Indiana. 

The last talk scheduled for the morning session was given by Tao 
Yuan Chen, Chemistry Club, Shortridge, Indianapolis. In searching for 
the ideal cardiac drug, he has experimented with a number of drugs. 
Using live frogs he demonstrated the actual effect of various drugs on 
the heart beat of the frog. Since the audience could see the heart beats 
being traced on a kymograph, they were able to understand the variation 
caused by the different drugs. 



Junior Academy of Science xxiii 

At the close of the morning program, President Richard Elzay 
conducted the election of officers for the coming year. The following 
students were elected: President: Tom Moon, Junior Academy, South 
Bend Central High School; Vice President: Sue Schaffner, Chemistry 
Club, Shortridge High School, Indianapolis; Secretary: Marilyn Beckett, 
New Castle High School Biology Club. 

Professor Howard Michaud closed the meeting with an announce- 
ment concerning the new council members. He stated that Mr. Harold 
Stewart, Bloomington High School, and Mr. A. L. Smith, South Bend 
Central High School, were to be added to the council. 

The morning session was closed at 12:30 p.m. A number of Junior 
Academy members and sponsors attended the Junior Academy luncheon 
held at the First Baptist Church in Crawfordsville. 

At the luncheon Dr. R. W. Lefler from Purdue gave a brief explana- 
tion of the Science Talent Search plans for this year. He then introduced 
Miss Audrey Johnson, Purdue University, who related her experiences 
in Washington, D. C. as a Science Talent Search Winner. 

Following the luncheon, the group returned to the Wabash College 
campus where the meeting was resumed in Waugh Hall. The afternoon 
session was called to order at 2:00 p.m. 

"How to Make a Bird Identification Board" was the topic presented 
by a representative of the Biology Club at Lew Wallace High School, 
Gary. Bill Zander showed how such a board could be wired for general 
use in the laboratory. 

The second speaker of the afternoon was Kelly Wise, New Castle 
High School Biology Club. While discussing the destruction of wildlife 
on our highways, he showed colored slides of the animals often killed. 
The general trend of his records showed that the English sparrow, 
rabbit, and the opossum were killed most frequently. 

"Somatotyping" was the topic presented by Jim Heuston, Science 
Club, Howe High School, Indianapolis. He explained how the body build 
of a human being somewhat determines the characteristics of his 
personality. 

Vivian Schilling, Shortridge Chemistry Club, Indianapolis, described 
a geology field trip taken by a group of high school students. While 
showing pictures of the ancient animal fossils, she named the areas 
where these fossils could be found. Gastropods, crinoids, and brachiopods 
were several of the more common fossils located by the group. 

Charlie Bob Ellis, Junior Academy of Science, University High 
School, Bloomington, presented the next topic. By using an oscillator, 
he showed the group how radio waves are transmitted through the air. 

The last speech of the afternoon was given by Watson Laetsch, 
Science Club, Howe High School, Indianapolis. He discussed his 
experiments in culturing pathogenic molds found on the human body. 

Several student representatives from various science clubs gave 
suggestions to the group for planning money-making projects. 



xxiv Indiana Academy of Science 

President Richard Elzay then turned the meeting over to Pro- 
fessor Howard Michaud who announced the winners of the best girl 
and best boy titles. Judith Douthitt, Bloomington High School National 
Scientific Honor Society, was chosen to be "Outstanding Girl." The 
title of "Outstanding Boy" went to Tao Yuan Chen, Chemistry Club, 
Shortridge High School, Indianapolis. 

Following these announcements, President Richard Elzay adjourned 
the meeting at 4:00 p.m. 



NECROLOGY 

Will E. Edington, DePauw University 



Benjamin Harrison Grave 

Monrovia, Indiana Indianapolis, Indiana 

December 5, 1878 January 25, 1949 

In a memorial service for Benjamin Harrison Grave, held in his 
home a few days after his death, by friends and associates from DePauw 
University and Wabash College, the tributes to the man and his work 
were spoken by both men and women in no prearranged ritual but only 
as the spirit moved them. This was in keeping with the life that Ben 
Grave had lived, for as a birthright Friend his whole career was charac- 
terized by simplicity, sterling integrity and fearless defense of what 
he believed to be right and true. 

Born in Monrovia but descended from Wayne County pioneers, 
most of his life was spent in Indiana. Graduating from the Friends 
Central Academy at Plainfield, he entered Earlham College and received 
the Bachelor of Science degree in 1903. He immediately went to Carleton 
College as an instructor in biology where he remained until he received 
the M.S. degree three years later. Following a year at Earlham College 
as Assistant Professor of Biology he entered Johns Hopkins University 
as a Fellow where the Ph.D. was conferred on him in 1910. He spent 
the next three years as Professor of Zoology at the University of 
Wyoming, followed by seven years at Knox College as Professor of 
Biology. In 1920 he became Professor of Zoology at Wabash College, 
leaving there in 1928 to accept the departmental headship in Zoology 
at DePauw. Dr. Grave became a Fellow in Embryology in the Marine 
Biological Laboratories at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in 1919, and he 
spent a number of summers there as an instructor. He was also a Fellow 
at Yale in 1926-1927. He was stricken by a serious illness and was 
forced to retire in 1942 as Emeritus Professor of Zoology. Following 
his retirement he remained in Greencastle, except for short periods 
spent in hospitals and clinics in an attempt to relieve his suffering, until 
his passing on January 25, 1949. 

Dr. Grave as a teacher and lecturer had that intense enthusiasm 
that was contagious. Students who began their work with indifference 
were inspired to continue their study on to advanced degrees and the 
records show that approximately 85 per cent of his major students 
received advanced degrees either in zoology, medicine or kindred sciences. 
He possessed an uncanny ability quickly to recognize and appraise the 

1 



2 Indiana Academy of Science 

innate abilities of students and many of his former students are now 
in the leading laboratories of the United States. He insisted on 
accuracy, rigor and high educational standards and he had little 
patience with indifference, laziness or superficiality. He was deeply 
interested in spiritual values and the problems of human welfare and was 
a bitter foe of intolerance or tyranny in any form either on or off the 
campus. 

Dr. Grave was a member of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science for almost forty years and was made a 
Fellow in 1915. He was also a long time member of the American 
Society of Zoologists. He joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 
1920 and was active in its work, serving as chairman of the Zoology 
Section several times and also on the Membership Committee. His first 
paper before the Academy was presented in 1924 and this was followed 
by others of which a half dozen were published in the Proceedings. His 
research and publications in the Proceedings and other scientific 
journals were in the fields of embryology and physiology. 

Dr. Grave derived a deep and intense enjoyment in the study of 
nature. An athlete in his undergraduate days and holder of several 
campus records in track and field sports, he was never happier than 
when he was on a hike in woods or along streams, and it was not 
unusual for him and Mrs. Grave to take long moonlight walks as long 
as his health permitted. Dr. Grave recognized no conflict between 
religion and science and his studies in nature only strengthened his faith 
in the supreme good. This faith characterized his work and influence on 
the numerous successful students who constitute a living memorial to 
his memory. 



Carl F. Hanske 

Kiel, Wisconsin Indianapolis, Indiana 

September 13, 1892 November 28, 1948 

Less than a century ago, long after a number of Indiana colleges 
had been founded, the first high school in Indianapolis was established. 
Known as the common people's colleges these high schools became just 
that, and it is difficult for one to realize the tremendous influence such 
great high schools as Shortridge, Arsenal Tech, and Manual Training, 
with numbers in attendance greater than any but the largest Indiana 
universities, have wielded and continue to wield on Indiana and American 
thought and action. Likewise the great science departments of these 
high schools pour out a never ending stream of more or less scientifically 
minded and scientifically enthusiastic youngsters from whom come and 
will continue to come the scientists who make America great. Instructor 
in such a department for twenty-nine years, twenty-two years of which 
he served as Head, Carl F. Hanske was widely known and prominent in 



Necrology 3 

high school scientific circles and his untimely death on November 28, 
1948, at the age of fifty-six years, is much to be regretted. 

Carl F. Hanske was born at Kiel, Wisconsin, where he spent his 
boyhood and received his grade and high school education. He entered 
Ripon College and following his graduation in 1913, he became a science 
teacher and later principal in the Menominee, Wisconsin, High School. 
Early in 1918 he entered the army, serving at Yale University in Gas 
Defense in the Chemical Warfare Division. Following his discharge from 
the army he came to Indianapolis in the Fall of 1919 as a teacher 
in chemistry in the Emmerich Manual Training High School. He was 
made Head of the Science Department in 1926, which position he held 
at the time of his death. He also completed work for the M. A. degree 
in 1929 at the University of Wisconsin. He taught summer school at 
the Culver Military Academy in 1921 and 1922, and directed the Manual 
High school night school from 1941 to 1943. 

Mr. Hanske was a very stimulating teacher and capable administra- 
tor, who had deliberately chosen to enter the field of education rather 
than that of chemical engineering for which he was also prepared. Of a 
kindly and friendly disposition he endeared himself to his students and 
others and he frequently made his scientific discussions more interesting 
and effective through his humourous approaches and keen wit. 

Mr. Hanske was an excellent photographer and he had considerable 
talent in drawing and painting. His interest in science was general and 
his teaching was enhanced by several trips to Cuba and a summer spent 
in Europe. 

Professionally Mr. Hanske was prominent in the Federation of 
Indianapolis Public School Teachers, having served as treasurer and 
vice-president. He was active in the Central Association of Science and 
Mathematics Teachers and only his illness prevented his having a very 
active part in the Association's annual meeting in Indianapolis in 1948. 
He was also a member of Phi Delta Kappa educational fraternity. Mr. 
Hanske had been a member of the Indiana Academy of Science since 
1945. 



Thomas Frederick Hargitt 

Waldron, Indiana Bloomington, Illinois 

September 30, 1881 June 1, 1949 

Thomas Frederick Hargitt was born near Waldron, Indiana, and 
was related to Charles Wesley Hargitt, one of the Founders of the 
Indiana Academy of Science. Thomas F. Hargitt received his elementary 
education in the Decatur County public schools. In 1903 he began 
teaching in Indiana schools and between sessions attending the Indiana 
State Normal School at Terre Haute, from which he graduated in 1915. 
During the next four years he taught in Cynthiana in Posey County. 
He entered Indiana University in 1919, received the A. B. degree in 1920 



4 Indiana Academy of Science 

and the M. A. degree the next year. Following a year as Professor of 
Physics at Kansas Wesleyan University, he returned to Indiana Uni- 
versity and completed his work for the doctorate in 1924, serving as an 
acting instructor in physics during the last year. He accepted the pro- 
fessorship of Physics at Illinois Wesleyan University in 1924 and re- 
mained there until illness forced his retirement some four years before 
his death on June 1, 1949. During the last World War he was on leave 
to teach Navy V-12 men for eight months at Wesleyan University, 
Middletown, Connecticut, and at Illinois State Normal University from 
August 1943 to June 1944. 

Dr. Hargitt was recognized as a scholar. He was intensely interested 
in the discoveries of modern physics and their influence on philosophic 
thought and this interest enabled him to convey a certain enthusiasm 
to his students, particularly those in his advanced courses, for the 
subject of physics, so that many of them have made exceptional 
advancement since graduating from Illinois Wesleyan. He was a man 
of small stature, clear blue understanding eyes, a ready smile and 
infinite patience, whose ability as a teacher was recognized by both 
his students and Faculty associates. While primarily a teacher he had 
done some research work in sound and he was the author of Physics 
Experiments Laboratory Manual published in 1933. 

Dr. Hargitt was a Fellow in the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science and he held memberships in the Optical Society, 
the Society of American Physics Teachers, the Physics Teachers of 
Illinois, the Illinois Academy of Science, and Sigma Xi. He joined the 
Indiana Academy of Science in 1923 and while unable to attend its 
meetings he had maintained his interest in its work through the years. 



George Donald Klopp 

Reading, Pennsylvania Indianapolis, Indiana 

July 1, 1908 May 30, 1949 

The sudden death- of George Donald Klopp on May 30, 1949, at the 
age of forty, came as a great shock not only to his family but to his 
students and associates at Shortridge High School and numerous friends 
at Indiana Central College and in the Junior Academy of Science. And 
what is more to be deplored is that he was stricken while at the height 
of his powers and at a time when he had become most effective. 

He was born at Reading, Pennsylvania, but was brought to 
Indianapolis as a boy and completed his public school education at 
Shortridge High School. He immediately entered Indiana Central College, 
in 1928, and was graduated in 1932. The following year the Master's 
degree was conferred upon him at Butler University. He then returned 
to Indiana Central College as an instructor in botany which position 
he held for four years. In 1931 he also became an assistant to Dr. 
William P. Morgan, Professor of Zoology at Indiana Central College, 



Necrology 5 

in Indiana University Extension work and he continued in this work for 
seventeen years. He began teaching at Shortridge High School in 
January, 1939, and remained there until his death. 

Mr. Klopp's Master's thesis was research in plant cytology but he 
was mainly interested in field work in botany and zoology. He was very 
skillful in dissection work and through his suggestions new laboratory 
methods were originated in the Indiana Central College and Shortridge 
laboratories. He had made a hobby of collecting a great mass of 
material in the form of posters, scrapbooks, demonstrations, reproduc- 
tions of colored bird plates and kodachrome slides of flowers in their 
natural state, to be used in his teaching, and his large collection of 
plates and slides and his extensive file of scientific articles are now at 
Shortridge. He spent three summers as a nature guide at McCormick's 
Creek State Park and three summers as nature instructor at Camp 
Chank-Tun-Un-Gi, in the Indianapolis Boy Scout Area, and he was active 
in Boy Scout Merit Badge work on birds and other nature study up to the 
time of his death. He possessed a pleasing personality and his deep 
interest in character building coupled with his skill and popularity as a 
teacher made him a real force in his classes and his other youth work. 

Mr. Klopp joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1930 when 
he was only twenty-two years of age, and he was active in furthering 
the Club work of the Junior Academy. He was elected a Council Member 
of the Junior Academy in 1947 for a term of four years and his passing 
is great loss to that organization as well as to the Academy itself. 
Likewise, quoting from a memorial issued by the Superintendent of 
the Indianapolis Public Schools, "In his sudden death the public schools 
and the community have lost an outstanding man whose career had 
demonstrated unusual capacity for public service. His memory will be 
cherished by all who knew him." 



David Andrew Rothrock 

Milltown, Indiana Lafayette, Indiana 

January 31, 1864 September 2, 1949 

Another tie with the most interesting and probably the most out- 
standing period in the history of Indiana University was broken with 
the death of David Andrew Rothrock whose association with Indiana 
University as a student began over sixty years ago. He was born at 
Milltown January 31, 1864, and after completing what the public schools 
of the village offered, as was common in those days, be began teaching 
at the age of seventeen in a one room country school. Between terms 
of teaching he attended Indiana University and was graduated in 1892 
at the age of twenty-eight. Thus he came under the influence of David 
Starr Jordan, who left Indiana University in 1891, and John M. Coulter 
who succeeded Jordan as President. 

Following his graduation Mr. Rothrock was immediately employed 
as an instructor in mathematics and he began his long association with 



6 Indiana Academy of Science 

Robert J. Aley and Schuyler C. Davisson and a little later with Ulysses 
S. Hanna. These four became known as the "Big Four" in mathematics 
at Indiana University but this "Big Four", unlike the "Big Four" at 
the University of Chicago who were primarily research men in mathe- 
matics, was composed of outstanding and inspirational teachers of 
undergraduates whose work resulted in the remarkable fact that in 
1930 more members of the American Mathematical Society had received 
their undergraduate training at Indiana University than at any other 
University in the country except Harvard. 

In 1893 Joseph Swain, a graduate and former Head of the Mathe- 
matics Department of Indiana University who had gone with Jordan to 
Stanford University, succeeded Coulter as President. Robert J. Aley, 
also a graduate of Indiana University, had succeeded Swain as head of 
the Mathematics Department in 1891, and Schuyler C. Davisson had 
been made an instructor in mathematics immediately following his 
graduation in 1890, as was Rothrock following his graduation in 1892. 
Mr. Rothrock spent the year 1894-1895 at the University of Chicago and 
was promoted to an assistant professorship on his return to Indiana 
University. U. S. Hanna graduated from Indiana University in 1895 and 
was immediately appointed to an instructorship and thus what were to 
become the "Big Four" were working together under a President who 
also was a mathematician. In 1897 Professor Rothrock went to Germany 
where he received the Ph.D. degree in 1898 from the University of 
Leipzig. Promotions followed rapidly as he became associate professor 
in 1900, junior professor in 1905 and professor in 1908. A study of this 
period from 1888 to 1908 inclusive shows that out of 2084 students who 
received the A. B. degree at Indiana University one eleventh had majored 
in mathematics. 

Dr. Rothrock was appointed Dean of the College of Arts and 
Sciences in 1920 from which he retired in 1937 to serve his last active 
year as Director of Admissions, following which he retired as Professor 
Emeritus after forty-six years of service to Indiana University. Dean 
Rothrock was methodical and careful in his records and at the time of his 
retirement he stated that 8,791 students had been enrolled in his classes. 
Dr. Aley once said that Dr. Rothrock was the best teacher of mathematics 
he had ever known, and the history of the period would seem to indicate 
his excellence within a group of splendid teachers. 

However, Dr. Rothrock was more than a university teacher for 
he was civic minded and a man of action. He served as city engineer 
for Bloomington for two years and was a member of the Bloomington 
City Council from 1918 to 1926 and led the movement to construct the 
waterworks at Griffey Creek to insure an adequate water supply for the 
city and the University. He was a representative in the Indiana Legis- 
lature from 1919 to 1921. He was appointed a member of the State 
Conservation Commission in 1925 and served eight years with Stanley 
Coulter and Richard Lieber, all three retiring from the Commission in 
1933. 

Dr. Rothrock was long a member of the American Mathematical 
Society and the Mathematical Association of America, and he had been 



Necrology 7 

a member and Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. He was also a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. He 
joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1898, became a fellow in 1906, 
and was active in its work for forty years, his last service being to help 
organize the Mathematics Section of the Academy in 1935. In his 
earlier years before administrative work absorbed most of his time, he 
did research in invariant theory and differential geometry, and among 
his publications eight appeared in the Proceedings of the Academy. He 
was also the author of two textbooks, one on algebra in 1904 and the 
other a trigonometry published in 1910. 

Dean Rothrock was prominent in Bloomington Masonic circles and 
received the Indiana Grand Lodge Award of Gold, given to Masons who 
have completed fifty years of service. He was active in church work and 
also in the Bloomington Rotary Club. 

Saddened by the death of his wife a few months before and ill 
himself for eight months, he passed away on September 2, 1949, at the 
age of eighty-five years, in Lafayette where he had been visiting one 
of his sons. In David A. Rothrock Indiana had one of its finest citizens 
and public servants and his work as an educator has brought glory both 
to the State and to Indiana University. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

The Responsibilities of a Mycologist 

C. L. Porter, Purdue University 



Every science has three objectives; (a) self improvement, which 
can be accomplished only by investigation and research, (b) a better 
an J more closely integrated relationship with other, and more particu- 
larly, closely allied sciences, (c) a recognized responsibility to the public, 
and to society generally. Mycology must, along with other sciences, 
recognize these three objectives. 

Voltaire once said "If you wish to converse with me, define your 
teims". When I am asked concerning my profession, I reply that I am 
a mycologist. The second question follows usually, "What is a mycolo- 
gist"? I then give the brief dictionary definition — "Mycology is the 
science of fungi". For some reason the obvious third question does not 
follow. Either my inquirer is too polite to quiz me further, or he 
thinks he knows what is meant by the word "fungus". It is fortunate 
for me that the inquisition stops where it does for a definition of this 
term is most awkward. The definition for fungus given to my classes 
is this — "A fungus is a plant without roots, stems, leaves, or chlorophyll, 
and whose vegetative body is a thallus". Students accept this definition 
usually without question, as is the nature of students everywhere; but 
there are many grave doubts in the mind of the professor who gave it. 
Dr. G. W. Martin, one of our most able mycologists, throws doubt on 
the initial premise, that a fungus is a plant. Also, the definition as 
stated does not differentiate between slime molds, bacteria, and the 
kinds of plants such as molds, mushrooms, etc., that ordinarily come to 
mind when the word "fungus" is spoken. To overcome this difficulty 
we must differentiate further between Myxomycetes, Schizomycetes, and 
Eumycetes. The latter division, Eumycetes, includes the fungi with 
walled-thalli producing exospores as well as endospores, with some type 
of mycelial development the most common form of thallus. There is so 
much diversification and so many exceptions that the Eumycetes can 
not be too sharply delimited. The mycologist is concerned principally 
with the Eumycetes. Mycology, in the present discussion includes the 
Eumycetes only. When fungi are mentioned, reference is made only 
to Eumycete species. 

Fungi were objects of interest to men of the most remote antiquity. 
There are a number of references in the Bible concerning fungi and 
their effects. The ancient Greeks and Romans used mushrooms as food. 
Mushrooms also played an important role in ancient and mediaeval 
toxicology. While ancient records indicate that the knowledge of fungi 

8 



Presidential Address 9 

was concident with the history of man the earlier ideas concerning the 
nature and origin of fungi were extremely naive and crude. In the herbal 
of Hieronymus Bock published in 1560 I find these words, "Mushrooms 
are neither herbs nor roots, neither flowers nor seeds, but merely super- 
fluous moisture of the earth and trees, of rotten wood and other rotten 
things." ''From such moisture grows all fungi." "This is plain from 
the fact that all the above mentioned mushrooms, those especially which 
are used for eating, grow most when it will thunder or rain." "Porphyrius 
speaks also in this manner and says that fungi are called children of 
the gods, because they are born without seed and not as other kinds." 

The detailed structures of fungi, their life-histories, and their true 
relationships among themselves and other members of the plant kingdom 
could not be ascertained until after the development of the compound 
microscope and the complete overthrow of the doctrine of spontaneous 
generation. ' 

Modern mycology was brought into being by the advent of a world- 
shaking catastrophe, — the Irish famine of 1845. The potato disease 
responsible for the famine was of fungus causation. The control of 
this disease was a matter of terrible urgency and all of the best 
botanical brains of the period were concentrated on such a study. It 
was evident that if the fungus, Phytophthora infestans were to be halted 
in its devastation of the potato crop that more would have to be 
learned concerning the life history of this causal agent. Anton DeBary 
made in connection with his study of Phytophthora infestans the most 
notable contribution. He was probably the first investigator to apply 
the scientific method to the study of a pathogenic fungus. So funda- 
mental was this study of Phytophthora; and others, equally important 
concerning heterocism of rusts, and the morphology of various other 
fungi that DeBary is credited with being the father of two lusty 
offspring — mycology and plant pathology. 

Modern mycology had its beginning with the pioneering work of 
DeBary. American mycology was stimulated by the organization of the 
Mycological Society of America, in 1931 and the adoption of Mycologia 
as the official mouthpiece. It was however, the announcement of the 
discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1929 that gave an 
entirely new direction to mycological endeavor. 

Much of the early work relative to fungi in the United States was 
exploratory and descriptive. New species were being discovered, de- 
scribed, and classified. It was recognized generally during this period 
that fungi constituted an important part of the flora of any region; 
that they contributed an important phase of that never ending cycle 
of nature in which organic life is born, dies, and returns to the elemental 
forms from which it was derived. If a fungus were found to cause a 
plant disease it was turned over promptly to the Plant Pathologist. If 
a fungus were found to contribute to human ailments it was donated 
to the medical doctor. A fungus that had no apparent economic im- 
portance became the property of the mycologist; an object upon which 
to gaze, to be written about, and then stored away in dusty boxes, 



10 Indiana Academy of Science 

perhaps with moth-balls. If you should peruse the pages of Mycologia 
you will become impressed with the fact that you have become closely 
akin to the man in Thanatopsis who "in the love of nature holds 
communion with her visible form" and who has few ambitions beyond 
communion. You must read through many pages before you will find 
mention of a fungus that is being discussed because of some economic 
value which it may possess. The meetings of the Mycological Society 
has many resemblances to a social meeting of war veterans. The 
members of the society meet to reminisce concerning collections, and 
forays, to swap collection experiences and to quibble over moot points 
of taxonomy and nomenclature. 

The discovery that fungi were capable of producing antibiotics and 
the exploitation of that discovery has altered the mycological outlook 
very considerably. This new development demonstrated not only that 
fungi are able to produce products of the greatest economic significance; 
but it indicated also, that fungus fermentation products of various sorts 
produced previously only on an experimental scale, could be quantity- 
produced. Thus, such products could compete effectively with synthetic 
types of manufacture. As a result of these amazing discoveries an 
entirely new field of fungus exploration was revealed. 

According to Ainsworth and Bisby there are approximately forty 
thousand valid species of fungi. Most of these species include numerous 
strains whose physiological potentialities may vary within wide limits. 
Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in antibiotic production that the 
substrate may alter markedly the nature of the substances produced by 
the fungus strain. Thus, if we attempt to make a conservative estimate 
there are probably four hundred thousand strains or varieties of fungi 
that must be investigated in order to determine their economic possibili- 
ties. These investigations must be made on various types of media, at 
various pH levels, at different temperatures, under different light condi- 
tions, etc. Also, it is not necessarily true that these fungus strains will 
perform best in cure cultures, but in combination with others. 

Perhaps the mathematician can compute for us the possible combi- 
nations and permutations that could be made with four hundred thousand 
fungus strains. There is no field in either physical or biological science 
that holds so much of promise. It is possible that fungi and their 
products could revolutionize our present national economy. With the 
proper sort of cooperative work, results of fungus exploitation will be 
more spectacular in the future than in the past. The mycologist will be 
unable to accomplish these things by himself. He must have the assist- 
ance of the bacteriologist and the biochemist. I have no quarrel with 
the contributions that have been made to mycology by these sister 
sciences, but I do have serious doubts whether the mycologist is aware 
of his opportunities or his responsibilities. 

Mycology, because of the developments of the past decade has 
ceased to be a hobby-science and is now as utilitarian in its outlook as 
are the sciences of chemistry, physics, or medicine. The mycologist 
does have certain responsibilities in connection with the new concepts 



Presidential Address 11 

of his science and some of these responsibilities constitute the material 
for discussion in this paper. 

The chemist in his omnipotence belives that he can solve all 
mycological problems involving industrial operations. Perhaps the 
chemist may be efficient with the limited number of fungi with which he 
works, but in order for any one to learn the limits of the industrial 
possibilities of any fungus, the origin, natural habitats, morphology, 
cytology, variability, and relationships must be understood. Such in- 
formation is available only to persons trained in mycological techniques. 

All the fungus species have not been discovered and the geographic 
distribution of known forms has not been well ascertained. The fungus 
collectors and explorers laid the foundation of the science of mycology. 
The services of such men are needed now and in the future. But, the 
mycology that goes no further than the discovery and naming of 
species is an impotent science. The enormous number of fungus species 
that have been described, made classification a necessity and laid the 
foundation for taxonomy. The perishable nature of the soft-bodied 
thalli has banned the possibility of an extensive paleontological mycology. 
Without a comprehensive knowledge of fossil forms a purely natural 
classification of fungi will never be possible. The present taxonomy is 
chaotic, and confusing and must in its present condition retard the 
progress of the science. An example of the sort of condition to which 
I refer is the confusing state of the taxonomy and nomenclature in 
medical mycology. The physician and the botanist speak an entirely 
different language. 

In order to revise taxonomy along rational lines it will be necessary 
to have extensive monographs of the various fungus groups. Mono- 
graphing is a labor of love. There are no monuments erected to 
monographers, unless the inconspicuous marker in the pauper's cemetery 
may be considered a monument. A man who is able to monograph does 
not have the type of mind, or the time which will permit him to engage 
in more pecuniary labors. Furthermore, monographs require many pages 
of printed matter and most botanical journals are not prepared to allot 
the proper amount of space for comprehensive and exhaustive mono- 
graphs. Most men engaged in monographic work do not have the means 
to publish privately. Educational institutions will add new seats to 
the stadium, or pay for an oil painting of the prize bull, but there is 
too little advertising value in a fungus monograph to justify an outlay 
of cash in order to permit its publication. Monographs are essential 
to the continued development of this science and they must be published 
before the fullest exploitation of fungus production can be realized. 
It should be the concern of all botanists as well as those directing 
the fermentation industries to see to it that monographic publications 
are made possible. 

Monographs may contribute little to our knowledge of fungi if they 
depend solely on musty herbarium specimens and the inadequate descrip- 
tions so often given by the original investigators. There is scarcely a 
genus of the fungi that would not benefit by a searching, painstaking, 



12 Indiana Academy of Science 

and detailed study of all the species that we consider at the present time 
to be its component parts. Such investigations would reveal that some 
species have no reason for existence, and that others may belong in 
entirely different categories. I realize that I am giving aid and comfort 
to the "lumpers" and "splitters"; but revision of a genus should have 
a more solid basis in fact than that offered by a cheap publicity. 
Mycology has suffered enormously from the antics of taxonomic exhibi- 
tionists. Thorn and Raper in their recent revision of the genera Asper- 
gillus and Penicillium have given to the mycological world examples 
of the type of studies that need to be made in nearly all genera. At 
Purdue we are attempting studies of a similar sort with the genera 
Trichoderma and Verticillium. Too much of the older type of taxonomic 
research has been based almost solely on comparative morphology 
studies. New studies in this field must include physiology and cytology, 
utilizing every technique available to the microbiologist. 

The type of research which I am discussing is essential in establish- 
ing the industrial potentialities of any fungus species or race. My thesis 
is that only the mycologist with a background training in chemistry and 
bacteriology is capable of handling industrial problems involving fungi. 
The bacteriologist has his hands full if he comprehends the 1500 pages 
of Bergey's manual. He has neither the time nor the energy remaining 
to attempt an understanding of the great world of the Eumycetes. The 
chemist is absolutely incompetent to engage in fungus investigations 
unless he is willing to devote as much time to the study of mycology as 
he has to the study of chemistry. There remains then the properly 
trained mycologist as the only scientist capable of handling in an 
intelligent manner the multi-faceted problems of industrial mycology. 

This then is the responsibility that has been thrust upon the 
mycologist during the past decade. Living up to this responsibility is 
not only a matter of adequate preparation but includes also a change 
in the mental attitude which he has toward his profession. The 
mycologist may lose his opportunity and evade his responsibilities 
because of two very unfortunate fixations. First, many mycologists 
object to the fun being taken out of fungi. They dislike leaving the 
peaceful contemplation of beautiful and interesting fungi and knuckling 
down to the difficult task of learning just what a fungus can do; and 
finding that, to learn how to make it still more productive. We are told 
that a number of the eminent mycologists refused to attend a recent 
annual meeting of the American Mycological Society because there 
were too many papers dealing with purely practical aspects of fungus 
research. 

The other complex which may limit our opportunities has to do 
with what Dr. Neil Stevens termed "The excessive meekness of American 
botanists." The chemist, the physicist, and more lately, the bacteriologist 
have demonstrated the utility of their sciences. Their discoveries have 
been associated closely with those technological developments that have 
contributed so much to our modern mechanical civilization. The publicity 
from these discoveries has made the public believe that their finely 



Presidential Address 13 

equipped laboratories and their high salaried personnel have been worth 
all the cost. Graduates from these sciences are easily placed as well 
paid technicians in industry- The botanists know that the animal world is 
absolutely dependent on the plant world, but they have a way of 
losing all the publicity advantages of plant improvement which more 
than any discovery of the chemist or the physicist has kept mankind 
from sinking into oblivion from famine and disease. Dr. William Tre- 
lease has said that "the chief difficulty with botany was that as soon 
as it became practical it was called something other than botany: — 
agronomy, horticulture, genetics, forestry, etc. The chemist and the 
physicist do not seem to have the same trouble; no matter what the 
practical angle may be, it is still chemistry or physics. Is the botanist 
meek because he is robbed of the utilitarian phases of his subject; or 
is he robbed because he is meek ? Some one has said that you never have 
to inquire for the botany building when you go to a strange campus: — 
just search for the most run down and the poorest equipped building on 
the campus. Mycology suffers from this same type of robbery. Its 
practical phases become Plant Pathology or Medical Mycology. Now, 
there is a movement on foot to take the industrial mycology away from 
the parent science and place it under a new name, — "microbiology". The 
inferiority complex so often felt by the botanist and the mycologist in 
his contacts with other scientists arises from the fact that he can offer 
only theoretical solutions to the problems of mankind. Today the 
properly trained mycologist is just as necessary to our society as is 
the chemist or the physicist. He must not only realize this, but he 
must be aggressive enough to claim his share of the rewards that are 
attached to services rendered. The mycologist has every right to feel 
as Marmion felt when he found himself surrounded by critical and 
supercilious Noblemen — "And if thou sayest I am not peer to any Lord 
in Scotland here; lowland or highland; far or near; Lord Angus, thou has 
lied." 

Given the desire to become practical, how do we sell our product to 
the public? It is my belief that those of us engaged in school work 
have the immediate task of impressing our students with the opportuni- 
ties and the far reaching objectives of our science. Taxonomy should be 
taught as well as the comparative morphology which is so necessary 
for the proper comprehension of taxonomy. Taxonomy is the essential 
corner stone of any natural science whether it be zoology, entomology, 
bacteriology, botany, or mycology. The student should be made to 
realize that there is no substitute for taxonomy and there is no easy way 
to learn that subject. A proper understanding of taxonomy requires 
memory and a proper appreciation of the philosophy with which the 
subject is permeated. A man who is lacking in orderly mental processes 
can never become a taxonomist. 

Fungus physiology is a science which is able to inform us concerning 
the possible productiveness of a fungus. Fungus physiology is a study 
that will be so much extended in the next fifty years that it will make 
present knowledge seem primitive. Much of what we know concerning 



14 Indiana Academy of Science 

the functions of fungi is based on superficial and inadequate data; and 
these data are based on a few species only. Until we know as much 
about many of the forty thousand species of fungi as we know about 
Aspergillus niger, the essential science of fungus physiology is going 
to remain inadequate. No area of research offers so much promise, or 
so much of challenge as this one. 

Following the advent of penicillin there was an urgent demand for 
the mycologist to improve industrially important strains of fungi. This 
had a very close similarity to the more conventional demand for the 
farmer to improve his milk cows. Whether a fungus strain is improved 
by a breeding program or by the production of induced mutations the 
ever increasing science of fungus genetics must be comprehended. The 
fungus genetics that is available today is pretty sketchy and involves 
relatively few species. Further progress in this direction is dependent on 
cytological research. An adequate fungus-cytology must await new 
techniques in staining and microscopic observation. These deficiencies 
will disappear in time, but they again call attention to research possi- 
bilities in mycology. 

There is one phase that is too often ignored in the mycology 
teaching program. There are institutions where a student may get a 
degree in mycology having learned all of the ancient lore of the subject. 
He knows all the nomencatorial rules and can argue them pro and con 
in the same way that a lawyer knows the criminal statutes of his 
state. He is able to recite the fungus classification from Allomyces to 
Zythia, and he is thoroughly familiar with all known variations in 
classification systems. He has a green thumb and is able to make the 
most difficult cultures to grow and fruit. He knows every fungus enzyme 
and can name every organic acid produced by fungi. He can write the 
most complicated chemical formulae that involves fungi. In spite of all 
this knowledge which is certainly well to know, this student may have 
trouble in the identification of even the most simple molds, nor will he 
know the techniques that will enable him to make necessary identifica- 
tions. The principles and practices of identification are absolutely 
essential to the training of the modern mycologist; especially if he 
hopes to go into industrial employment. A department teaching identifi- 
cation must have a large pure-culture collection with the facilities 
necessary to maintain the cultures in typical form. Laboratory courses 
should be organized to give intensive and rigorous training in identifica- 
tion. The success of such a program may be judged by the ability of a 
student to identify a large number of "unknowns". 

The productive mycologist will not fail to tell his story wherever 
and whenever the opportunity presents itself. Much information that 
would be helpful now lies buried in incompleted and unpublished 
manuscripts. If students are taught properly they will be informed 
as to the investigational possibilities of the subject, and guided into 
research channels resulting eventually in publication. Few major dis- 
coveries in any field of science have been made at one time or by one 
man. Most of our discoveries and inventions have been made possible 



Presidential Address 15 

by the piecing and fitting together of a countless number of data. It is 
almost criminal to keep any known facts from co-workers in the field 
of science. The results of research become buried because of the inertia 
of the worker, a change of the field of interest, or deliberate suppression 
in order to prevent another investigator from "arriving first". Many times 
the investigator is too modest to realize that his few data may add up 
some day with others to something that will be tremendously important. 
The State Science Academies have been very useful in serving as publica- 
tion media for young scientists to make public the results of important 
but preliminary research. 

In the beginning of this discourse I state that every science had 
three objectives; one of these being a recognized responsibility to the 
public. The discoveries resulting from mycological research have 
fulfilled a part of this objective, but we have not been doing so well in 
another public relationship. We have not made our science known to 
and understood by that hypothetical, but very important man, — "the 
man on the street." Mycology along with other sciences takes pride in 
speaking a language that is understood only by its initiates. Technical 
terms in any field are unavoidable whether it be fungi, baseball, needle- 
point, racetrack gambling or canasta. Many times however, descriptive 
terms in common usage will serve as well and be more easily understood. 
For instance, in describing the common umbrella-type mushroom we can 
use cap instead of pileus; gills instead of lamellae; stalk instead of 
stipe; ring instead of annulus, and cup instead of volva. Writing on 
technical subjects for the benefit of the public should not only utilize 
easily understood terms, but attention should be given also to sentence 
structure and length. In his recent book, "Art of Plain Talk" Rudolf 
Flesh speaking of the relationship of sentence length to ease of under- 
standing classifies sentences as follows: 

Very easy to understand Eight words or less 

Easy to understand Eleven words 

Fairly easy to understand Fourteen words 

Standard Seventeen words 

Fairly difficult Twenty-one words 

Difficult Twenty-five words 

"Very difficult Twenty-nine or more 

Flesh states that scientific English averages thirty words a sentence. 
It would seem that most scientists pride themselves in making their 
subject as difficult to understand as possible. Perhaps this is a remnant 
of the dear, dead days when the robber barons of industry were wont to 
exclaim "The public be damned." Perhaps it partakes the mental complex 
that makes a man desire to join a fraternal organization so that he may 
have a few secrets from his wife and the other underprivileged members 
of mankind. Perhaps the basic reason is just snobbery — the desire to be 
exclusive. Whatever it is that makes a scientist write in a language 
that may be understood only by a few of his fellow scientists, it is a 
childish weakness and should be outgrown. The science that makes 
itself understood to the reading public will be the science that will receive 
public sympathy and support. More important than this; the science 



16 Indiana Academy of Science 

that serves most will be the science that is understood and appreciated 
by the most people. It is a weak argument to claim that a man 
capable of doing technical writing is incapable of writing for the 
general public. If this is true it is a fault in our educational training 
for scientists. Do we mean that we are to insist that the scientific 
scholar should be able to read and write in two other languages in 
addition to his native language, but it is not necessary to teach him to 
write and speak in the vernacular of his own people ? It is often claimed 
that a popular account of a scientific discovery is a distorted account. 
It is my contention that if you can write in technical language without 
distortion you should be able to write in common language. If you 
can relate your research in such a manner that it is interesting to a 
fellow mycologist you are lacking in ability if you can't write in a 
manner that will interest the nonprofessional man. In addition to our 
language requirements in the University, we should add a further re- 
quirement; that graduate students be able to describe the most difficult 
phases of their own research in a manner that would be acceptable to the 
science sections of a popular magazine such as Time magazine. Most 
of our scientists would benefit by a thorough course in journalism. 
However, it is not only an inability to write in simple language that 
does a disservice to the public, but also, some sort of an idea that 
prestige will be lost if one should write in interesting and understandable 
English. So long as this inane conception prevails so long will a scientist 
be regarded as a longhaired, impractical intellectual who has lost most 
of the attributes that make him human. As long as he is so regarded, 
the science which he represents will fail to meet the needs of the 
people who should be served. 

Mycology has lived through the childhood when its devotees were 
happy and satisfied to pick mushrooms in the cool damp woods of early 
spring. It is growing toward a healthy maturity. It is our job as 
mycologists to see it does not loaf, procrastinate, or deviate from a path 
of service. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: W. Wallace, Indiana University 
H. E. Driver, Indiana University, was elected chairman for 1950. 

ABSTRACTS 

A note on the physical anthropology of the Dominica Caribs. Elias 
Adis-Castro, Indiana University. — The Caribs of the island of Dominica 
are the sole remnant of the once powerful and large Carib tribes of the 
Antilles. The rest were exterminated or became greatly mixed because 
of their war-like nature and maritime expansion, on the one hand, and 
Spanish colonization and the introduction of negro slaves, on the other. 
Measurements and morphological observations on thirty-six adult males 
and eighteen adult females were analized to describe what the original 
inhabitants of the West Indies were like and to determine their relation- 
ship to a number of South American Carib and Arawak tribes. Due to 
the inaccessibility of the interior of the island and the lateness of the 
migration from the continent, it can be demonstrated that this series of 
Dominica Caribs show very little evidence of hybridization and are most 
closely related to the Carib and Arawak tribes of the Guianas. 

The spatial and temporal distribution of the notched rasp in the 
New World. Harold E. Driver, Indiana University. — The notched rasp 
is a musical instrument found in North America and the Antilles. There 
are no references to it from South America. Ethnological specimens are 
most often made of a piece of wood in which from a dozen to perhaps 
50 notches have been cut. This is rubbed back and forth with another 
stick or sometimes a bone. The lower end of the notched stick is often 
rested on a basket, pot, or gourd which acts as a resonator. Archaeo- 
logical specimens are mostly of bone, wood being seldom preserved in the 
ground. They are found in the same area as the ethnological specimens. 
To delimit this area more specifically, it includes the Antilles, Mexico, 
and the United States. The most northern tribes using the rasp, the 
Okanagon and the Plains Cree, straddle the Canadian border. The 
earliest specimens date from the first half of the first millenium of the 
Christian era and are located in Mexico, Texas, and Kentucky. While 
the rasp is also known in the Old World, it is more conservative to 
consider the New World forms as of independent origin until further 
research yields more evidence of its diffusion from one hemisphere to 
the other. The New World forms are thought to have a single origin. 

Skeletal material from the Archaic horizon in Posey County, Indiana, 

George K. Neumann, Indiana University. — The description and analysis 

17 



18 Indiana Academy of Science 

of six crania from an Archaic shell mound that was situated on the bluff 
that overlooks the left bank of the Wabash, south of New Harmony, 
shows that the most ancient inhabitants of southern Indiana were 
closely related to the shell mound people of Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and somewhat more distantly to the Basket-Makers of the Southwest. 
An antiquity of from five thousand to fifteen hundred years has been 
variously ascribed to sites of this kind. These early nomadic hunters 
and collectors were of relatively slight build, small stature, and had 
medium proportioned heads and faces. 

A method for analyzing numerical systems. Zdenek Salzmann, 
Indiana University. — The description of numerical systems in linguistic 
and ethnographic literature has so far failed to be wholly structural. A 
method for a structural analysis is proposed in the application of three 
patterns which are coexistent in almost any given numerical system. 
The three patterns are the frame pattern, the cyclic pattern, and the 
operative pattern. They all are definable in terms of morphology. (For 
paper see WORD 6:1) 



Food Animals Used by the Indians at the Angel Site 

W. R. Adams, Indiana University 



This report is based on the laboratory identification of a sample 
of the bones excavated at the Angel Site (2) in Southwestern Indiana. 
Although the selection was essentially at random, an attempt was made 
to obtain material from a wide geographical area and to obtain vertical 
depth series. Thus, although most of the faunal remains were taken 
from the main village excavations, part were chosen from the temple 
mound (Mound F), located one-half mile to the Southwest. Village 
site data represented excavation levels ranging from 0.0 feet, the modern 
ground surface, to 2.4 feet, the approximate vertical extent of the midden 
material. 

The sample was first divided according to biological classes, as shown 
in Table I, and was found to consist of 837 Birds, 222 Fish, 388 Reptiles, 
4,640 Mammals, and 2,459 bone fragments which, because of lack of 
markings, could not be identified. Probably the greatest single factor 
determining the large size of this latter group is the aboriginal practice 
of breaking bones to obtain marrow. The inability to identify these 
fragments is actually of little consequence since they represent in 
nearly all cases, portions of the diaphysis or shaft of long bones, the 
joints of which are identified in the remainder of the sample. The true 
sample then can be said to consist of 6087 identifiable bones and 
fragments. 

The mammal bones were then separated into their respective species 
as shown in Table I. The "residue" shown in this table includes mammal 
bones which I have been unable to identify to date for lack of adequate 
comparative material. 

It should be noted here that this sample comprises only a small 
part of an estimated quarter-million bones recovered from this large 
village site. In view of this, any suggestions drawn from this study 
must be considered tentative. For instance, the data indicated that in 
certain areas of the village large game animals were preferred to 
small species, while in other areas small animals seem to have been 
preferred to the larger ones. In one sub-division lying along the river 
bank, a very high proportion of reptile bones, consisting almost entirely 
of turtle, was encountered. These differences hint strongly of a possible 
specialization of hunting, but may be purely an artifact of the sampling 
method. 

An analysis of species occurrence by levels revealed no significant 
vertical trends, so we can assume pro tern, that the food habits remained 
comparatively stable during the period of habitation. 

19 



20 Indiana Academy of Science 

When comparing the faunal remains from many archaeological sites 
with checklists of the animals in that area at present, one is impressed 
by the number of species lacking in the aboriginal refuse. For instance, 
although some 82 species of mammals were probably indigenous to the 
vicinity of the Angel Site at the time of habitation, only 21 species were 
identified in the refuse (1). Table II was made to show the species 
utilized and their relative importance in this and other midwestern sites. 

Bird remains were plentiful in the Angel Site sample, where they 
constituted more than one-eighth of the total identifiable sample. Fish 
and reptiles (turtles) were also of some importance as together they 
form approximately one-tenth of the sample. The remains of bats, moles, 
shrews, and many of the smaller rodents were lacking in this material. 
Moles and several species of mice have been reported from other mid- 
western sites, but I think in every case these represent individuals which 
died in burrows. 

The opossum appears to have been relatively important at this site 
although shunned by the Illinois Hopewell and Mississippi groups. The 
present northern range of this animal includes Illinois, but may have 
been more limited in prehistoric times. 

Raccoon formed a substantial article of diet among most mid- 
western groups, ranking third among mammals at the Angel site. 

Marten, fisher, weasel, mink and otter are absent or practically so 
among the refuse of all groups. Although marten and fisher may have 
been rare or absent in the hunting area of the Angel Indians, weasel, 
mink and otter must have been rather plentiful. However, since these 
were considered as fur animals there is a possibility that they w<ere 
skinned on the spot rather than carried into the village. 

Skunks seem to have played a very minor role among these mid- 
western groups. 

No remains of badger were found at this site, nor would they be 
expected since their historic range lies north of central Illinois (3, pp. 
348-352). 

Wolves, coyotes and foxes were of sporadic occurrence among these 
sites and of little importance in any of them, while domestic dogs were 
numerous among Illinois Hopewell, but of little consequence among 
others. 

In a tabulation of species from many midwestern sites (1, Tables 
5, 6, 7), the cougar is conspicuous by its absence in earlier sites and its 
almost constant occurrence in Middle and Upper Mississippi sites where 
it likely supplied both food, hide and ornaments. 

Gray and fox squirrels were quite important at the Angel Site, the 
former being the second most numerous mammal in the sample. While 
present in the refuse of many other sites, they seldom appear in 
significant numbers. 

Beaver were fairly important to most groups and probably were 
used for both food and fur. 



Anthropology 21 

The rice rat has been reported only from Middle and Upper 
Mississippi sites in Southern Ohio, Southern Indiana and Central Illinois. 
The former two locations are just within the known northern range for 
this species (3, pp. 202-204). However, its presence in Central Illinois 
represents either a new northern range or transportation, perhaps as 
pets, into the area from the South. 

Muskrat show a fairly widespread aboriginal usage, although they 
are much less represented in this sample than would be expected. 

Porcupine bones have been identified at the Angel Site, but not in 
this testing of material. They have been reported from several Missis- 
sippi sites and must have served as a food source, although their quills 
may have been utilized in some manner. 

Rabbits were used to a considerable extent by Mississippi peoples 
but seem to have been avoided by Woodland groups. Myer (4, p. 608) 
points out that the avoidance of rabbit may be due to the belief of 
southern Indians that rabbit flesh imparts timidity to the consumer. 
Among certain Eastern Woodlands groups the rabbit represents the 
Culture Hero and may have been avoided for such reason. 

Remains of the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) have not been 
identified as such from any site in the Ohio Valley to my knowledge. 
One specimen from the Angel Site may well represent this species by 
reason of its greater size, but for lack of adequate comparative material, 
it was listed in this report as the cottontail (Sylvilagus mearnsii) . 

Wapiti were of widespread use and because of their large size must 
have been much in demand. Deer, however, seem to have formed the 
staple animal food for all of these groups, as evidenced by the tremen- 
dous numbers of their bones. 

The absence of bison remains at the Angel Site has been a particu- 
larly disturbing problem. It was thought that perhaps since these 
inhabitants were a sedentary, agricultural people, they had no need or 
inclination to hunt this animal. This explanation is considerably weak- 
ened by the presence of bison remains in other related sites. In most 
known bison-hunting tribes the meat is removed from the carcass where 
it is killed, so one would not necessarily expect to find a large number 
of bones in the village refuse, even among persons largely dependent 
on them (5, p. 35). There is an even stronger probability that the 
variety found in this region during early historic times were represen- 
tatives of the Eastern Bison, being driven west by European settlement. 
When it is seen that other Indiana and Ohio sites lack bison remains, this 
possibility becomes more acceptable. It seems likely then that the Angel 
Site was deserted for a considerable length of time before bison filtered 
into this region. 

This investigation has raised a number of problems rather than 
actually solving any. A great deal of work will be involved in answering 
these questions, and it would be greatly simplified if archaeologists 
would refrain from listing species in their reports as "Present", "Com- 
mon", "Abundant", or simply as "25 bushels of deer bones." 



22 Indiana Academy of Science 

Although the fauna from the Angel Site will be rather continuously 
identified for an indefinite time in the future, the author will be glad to 
undertake identifications from other Indiana or Midwestern sites at any 
time. 

Table I. Fauna from the Angel Site 

BIRDS 837 

FISHES 222 

REPTILES 388 

MAMMALS 4640 

UNIDENTIFIABLE 2459 

Opossum — Didelphis virginiana 67 

Black Bear — Euarctos americanus 9 

Raccoon — Procyon lotor 182 

Eastern Skunk — Mephitis nigra 2 

Illinois Skunk — Mephitis mesomelas 5 

Eastern Gray Fox — Urocyan cinereoarg enteus 2 

Gray Wolf — Canis nubilus 1 

Domestic Dog — Canis familiaris 12 

Adirondack Cougar — Felis cougar 34 

Bay Lynx — Lynx rufus 10 

Southern Woodchuck — Marmota monax 3 

Franklin Ground Squirrel — Citellus franklinii 1 

Gray Squirrel — Sciurus carolinensis 280 

Fox Squirrel — Sciurus niger 166 

Carolina Beaver — Castor canadensis 35 

Rice Rat — Oryzomys palustris 19 

Muskrat — Ondatra zibethica 1 

Porcupine — Erethizon dorsatum x 

Cottontail Rabbit — Sylvilagus floridanus 47 

American Wapiti — Cervus canadensis 20 

Virginia Deer — Odocoileus virginianus 3609 

Residue 133 



Anthropology 



23 



Table II. Species Percentages from Various Reports 



Indian 
Knoll 



Illinois 
Hopewell 



Angel 
Site 



Illinois 
Middle 
Miss. 



Tennessee 
Middle 

Miss. 



Birds . . . 

Fish. . . . 
Reptiles 



Didelphis virginiana 

Scalopus aquaticus 

Euarctos americanus 

Procyon lotor 

Maries americana 

Martes pennanti 

Mustela cicognanii 

Mustela vison 

Lutra canadeyisis 

Mephitis nigra 

Mephitis mesomelas 

Taxidea taxus 

Vulpes fulva 

Urocyon ciner e oar gent eus 

Canis nubilus 

Canis familiaris 

Felis cougar 

Lynx rufus 

Marmota monax 

Citellus franklinii 

Tamias sp 

Sciurus hudsonicus 

Sciurus carolinensis 

Sciurus niger 

Castor canadensis 

Peromyscus leucopus 

Oryzomys palustris 

Microtus sp 

Ondatra zibethica 

Erethizon dorsatum 

Sylvilagus floridanus 

Cervus canadensis 

Odocoileus virginianus . . . 
Bison bison 



5.85 
1.18 
2.02 

.14 

.01 
1.47 



.01 



.01 
.01 



.03 
.03 



.36 



.04 
.26 



.01 



.09 
.09 
.05 



.04 
88.37 



4.1 
17.4 
10.2 



2.8 
2.2 



.2 
3.4 



.75 



1.1 



.75 



5.3 

50.2 

.6 



13.7 
3.6 

6.3 

1.1 

.1 
2.9 



.03 
.08 



.03 

.01 

.2 

.5 

.1 

.04 

.01 



4.6 

2.8 



.01 
x 

.8 

.3 

59.3 



14.5 

12.6 

3.8 



.07 
.07 



1.1 



.9 



1.9 
64.1 



9.3 
3.1 
4.2 

1.1 

4.6 

2.7 



1.1 
.2 



.9 

.9 
.03 



.1 



.5 

.2 

74.1 



24 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Adams, W. R. 1949. Faunal Remains from the Angel Site. Ms. of M. A. 

Thesis, Indiana Univ. Library. 

2. Black, Glenn A. 1944. Angel Site, Vanderburgh County. Indiana Pre- 

history Research Series. Indiana Historical Soc, Indianapolis. 

3. Cory, Charles B. 1912. The Mammals of Illinois and Wisconsin. Field 

Museum of Natural History Zoological Series, vol. II, Chicago. 

4. Meyer, William Edward. 1928. Two Prehistoric Villages in Middle 

Tennessee. Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, No. 41. 

5. Tucker, Sarah Jones. 1946. Preliminary Summary of Data Relating 

to Old Kaskaskia and the Illiniwek Indians for the Period 1670-1700. 
Ms., University of Chicago. 



Negative Painting' of Angel Site and 
Southeastern United States 

Hilda J. Curry, Indiana University 



Negative painting is a technique in which a portion of the designing 
appears on the vessel in the original color of the pottery. The actual 
process by which this designing was executed is still a problem, however, 
several techniques have been suggested. 

In one process, the portion of the vessel which is not to be colored 
is covered with wax; the vessel is then dyed and left to dry. After drying, 
the wax and the dye covering it, is removed thus leaving a portion of 
the vessel in its original color. 

In a variation of this process; after the wax and dye have been 
applied the vessel is fired, setting the dye and burning off the wax. The 
final result is about the same as in the first process. 

A third method has been suggested in that after a substance has 
been applied to the area not to be colored the vessel is fired without any 
dye being used. The process of firing, if controlled properly can change 
the color of the vessel which is exposed to the air and fire. Properties 
in the clay itself will help to determine the color change. That part 
covered would remain in the natural color. 

One of the above processes was probably used at the Angel Site in 
decorating the negative painted pottery there. 

With but few exceptions the decoration is confined to the rim of 
the vessel. On one large fragment the design goes over the entire inside 
of the vessel, both rim and base. In another instance where several 
sherds are probably from the same vessel the design is found on both the 
inside and the outside of the pieces. These examples, however, are rare. 

In some instances a coating of red ocher has been placed over the 
negative design. This film often covers the entire inside of the vessel, 
even if the negative design doesn't. It is thin enough for the negative 
design to show through. In four or five cases the application of this 
direct paint has been controlled to the extent that a design of red ocher 
has been painted over the top of the negative pattern. 

The shape of the negative painted vessels at Angel Site consist 
mostly of bowls and wide-rimmed plates. Three water bottles, one being 
an effigy of a woman, were found and enough sherds to represent perhaps 
a half dozen more bottles. The plates are often rather large; one recon- 
structed vessel measuring 12%" in diameter with a SV2" wide rim. This 
rim section is the portion which contains the designing. 

The designs of the ware are quite diverse. In approximately 85 
percent of the sherds they can be placed in three or four categories 

25 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

with but slight variations. In the other 15 percent, however, the motifs 
are varied and often occur on just one or two vessels or on only a few 
sherds. 

A large portion of the sherds have geometric designs. The most 
common of these is the diagonal lines which cover the entire rim of the 
vessel. There are three types of this pattern: a) diagonals forming 
chevrons in pyramid fashion going from the inner edge of the rim to the 
outer edge, b) the same pattern as above only the motif starts on the 
outer rim edge and builds up toward the inner edge, c) diagonal lines 
going clear across the rim forming alternately a V-chevron type motif 
around the vessel rim. In combination with these diagonal lines the 
so-called "sun-symbol" is sometimes found. This motif is an equal- 
arm-cross enclosed in a circle. There are about a dozen variations of 
this pattern; changes being found in the type of equal-arm-cross made 
and also in the circle which is sometimes double, sometimes radiating. 
The "sun-symbol" is also frequently found as the only design on a vessel, 
being placed more or less regularly around the rim. 

Another large category of sherds carries a scallop design around 
the outer edge of the rim. This motif is generally independent of any 
other design that might be on the rest of the rim. Even when the sherds 
are covered with a film of red ocher, this outer scallop motif is not always 
covered. 

Of the 15 percent of the sherds with such diversity in their designs 
some are so stylistic that the pattern cannot be determined. Also, some 
of the sherds are too small to get the complete design. There are a few, 
however, that deserve mention. 

The owl face is a design which appears on a large plate in com- 
bination with a motif looking like the letter N. The plate was broken 
when found but has since been reconstructed, and it shows that the 
double motif appears four times on the rim. This is the only example of 
the owl face found so far at the Site. 

The bi-lobed arrow appears on four different sherds. Three of the 
sherds are covered with a film of red ocher, while the fourth is not 
covered and the design is so faint that the exact outline is hard to follow. 

The stylized bird is a motif which is found in several variations but 
in most cases there are not enough sherds of the same vessel to allow 
determination of the complete design. Those few that are fairly com- 
plete, however, depict only the head and neck of the bird. 

Although this type of pottery decoration is an important item at 
the Angel Site the number of sherds compared to the total number of 
all pottery sherds taken from the site appears small. The total number 
of sherds excavated up to the end of 1948 was 1,719,164 pieces. This 
figure includes all plain ware, painted ware, rims, vessel lugs and 
handles. Of this figure 14,559 are painted — both direct and negative. 
4054 of these sherds contain negative painted designs. 

Negative painted ware is found over a large part of southeastern 
United States. A few vessels were found at two different sites in 
northwestern Florida. There are a number of sites scattered over south- 



Anthropology 27 

ern Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi which have produced examples of 
the ware. It appears as far north as Winnebago County, Wisconsin and 
as far west as. a single site in eastern Texas. As far as I know, the 
greatest number of negative painted sherds has been taken from the 
Angel Site. This may be due, however, to the method of excavation. At 
many sites the main point of excavation was in the mounds while at the 
Angel Site only one mound has been dug, and the rest of the digging has 
been in the village area. If other sites were dug in the same manner, 
more negative painted material might be found. 

The main area producing this type of pottery appears to be located 
along the Ohio River, on the Mississippi River below the mouth of the 
Ohio, and along the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. Outside of this 
area the sites have produced only one or two vessels and in a few cases 
merely a few sherds. 

It is the general opinion of the authors who have reported on these 
outlying sites that the appearance of negative painted ware was due to 
trade. In at least one case (Crystal River, Florida) the ware seems to 
have been made differently from the rest of the pottery at the site. 

Negative painting also occurs in parts of Mexico, Central and South 
America. Most archaeologists believe that the technique of negative 
painting was developed in either Central or South America and that it 
was carried in some manner to the southeastern part of the United 
States. How, when and by what route it reached the Southeast are 
questions which are still being studied. 

Two routes were available, one via the Antilles and the other up 
through Mexico and across the southwestern part of the United States. 
Both routes produce gaps where negative painted ware is not found, or 
at least it has not been found yet. 

There is a possibility that negative painting may have appeared in 
the Southeast as a part of a trait complex. During the Middle Mississippi 
period a strange cult, which seems to have had no relationship with any- 
thing already established in the area, appeared and spread rapidly over 
the whole Mississippi Valley. Many of the traits of this cult showed 
Mexican influence. Among these traits are designs such as have been 
described from the Angel Site — the bi-lobed arrow, owl face and the 
stylized bird motif, and the technique of negative painting itself. 

If this Southern Cult, as it is called, first appeared in the Southeast 
during the Middle Mississippi period, and if negative painting is 
definitely a part of this cult then its appearance could be dated between 
1300 and 1700 A.D. As yet no one feels free to say that these assump- 
tions can be considered facts. Excavations in both the Southeast and 
Southwest United States as well as Mexico are still being carried on and 
another few years may give us more definite information. 



Bone Flutes and Whistles Found in Ohio Valley Sites 

Sanchia Schweinsberger, Indiana University 



About fifty specimens of bone flutes and whistles occur in Ohio 
Valley archaeological sites. They are perforated, open tubes made from 
bird bones. Table I shows measurements and information which were 
obtained from archaeological reports. Where precise measurements were 
not given by the author, they were taken from photographs and have 
been marked as approximations in the table. 

In 1916 Moore (5) included in his report on the Indian Knoll Site 
in Ohio County, Kentucky, a photograph of a short bone tube with one 
perforation. Over twenty years later, Webb and Haag (8) suggested 
that the object might be a whistle. A much more extensive excavation 
of the site by Webb (7), reported in 1946, revealed a perforated bone 
tube whose use was very problematical. It was perforated in a peculiar 
manner; next to the large rectangular opening was a small, transverse 
hole. A similar specimen, which was, however, engraved geometrically, 
was found in a shell mound of nearby Butler County. Concerning the 
perforations, Webb wrote: "This suggests that some shaft with per- 
forated end might have been thrust into the notch, and if a bone pin 
could have been thrust through the side holes, the shaft might have 
been held in position. . . . The bones are hollow from end to end, which 
had led to the suggestion that this tube may be a musical instrument, 
the side hole being used to attach a mouthpiece." Webb did not seem 
at all willing to guess the use of these perforated tubes, and perhaps 
their inclusion in this paper is not justifiable. 

The investigation of thirteen Adena and eight Hopewell reports 
brought no evidence of the use of bone for flutes or whistles to light. 
Bone tubes were used in Hopewell pan-pipes. If bone flutes or whistles 
were present in these cultures, they should have been found. While 
no Adena or Hopewell village sites have been systematically excavated, 
nevertheless the material taken to build Adena and Hopewell mounds 
was from their village sites, and this fill should contain a representative 
amount of artifacts. 

It is significant that ninety-four percent of the reported flutes come 
from sites of the Middle and Upper Mississippi phases which are 
fairly late. The three previous occurences of the flute or whistle in the 
Ohio Valley were very questionable. If the flute first appeared in the 
Middle Mississippi phase in this area, it would be valuable as a diagnostic 
trait. 

From the Middle Mississippi phase, represented by the Angel Mounds 
Site, Vanderburgh County, Indiana, come two apparently complete, 

28 



Anthropology 



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Indiana Academy of Science 



w 
M 

5-1 

1 


"Flute-like" 

Same as above 

"Whistle-like" 

Same as above 
Same as above 
Same as above 
Same as above 


o 

03 r- 

S -a 
c O 

1—1 


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long bones 
of birds" 

Same as above 

"Made of the radius 
of various 
large birds" 

Same as above 
Same as above 
Same as above 
Same as above 


o § 
a g 


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some are oblong 

Same as above 

Same as above 

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Anthropology 



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32 Indiana Academy of Science 

perforated tubes. Mr. Black, who is in charge of the excavation of the 
site, kindly lent me the specimens for study. They are almost exactly 
the same length, and their curvatures are almost identical. Both 
produced the same note when blown hard with all the holes open, a C 
four octaves above middle C. 

The study of these two objects has convinced me that certain 
measurements, observations, and photographs or drawings are necessary 
or desirable, at least, for inclusion in reports on such material. The 
measurements are best shown on the photographs or drawings. Length, 
distances from the centers of the holes, and the range of the size of 
the holes are all important because they were determined by the manu- 
facturer. A tentative identification of the kind of bones which was used 
should be carefully made in order to aid any classification that might be 
attempted in the future. 

The photographs or drawings would be most useful if they are 
full-size; but whatever the scale that is used, it should be used con- 
sistently. It has been customary to show the side on which the holes 
are drilled. The distance between the holes and their comparative size 
are readily apparent in this view, but these measurements can also be 
shown on a side view, in which the curvature of the bone over the holes 
is best seen. The curvature is important because no musical note can 
be attained from a perforated tube which is straight. Greenman (1) 
reports finding two bone flutes. "(One) specimen gives no musical note. 
It is possible that the musical note of the other is due to the fact that 
its long axis is curved, while that of the smaller one is nearly straight." 
Mr. Black told me that he considered the possibility of musical notes 
depended on the curvature of the open tube. Therefore, the side view 
is more indicative of the present musical possibilities of the object than 
the top view showing the holes. Of course, the ideal portrayal shows the 
top and side views, as well as a photograph or drawing looking into the 
large end. The large end of the bone would indicate whether the holes 
were made on the flattened side of the bone or elsewhere. 

Many sites of the Upper Mississippi Phase contain perforated bone 
tubes. Smith (6) reported finding about four specimens in a Kentucky 
site. All stages of the manufacture of whistles were found at this site: 
natural bird bones, bones with the ends broken off, one bone with seven 
perforations and another perforation partly drilled, and the finished 
whistle. 

The Madisonville site in Hamilton County, Ohio, which was exca- 
vated by the Peabody Museum, contained about twenty "flute-like 
objects." Willoughby (3) describes them as small. The author states 
that, "judging from the unbroken specimens recovered, the number of 
holes range from five to nine, the usual number being five or six. The 
holes were commonly about one half inch apart, but in one specimen the 
centers of the perforations are placed about one fourth inch from each 
other, too near, it would seem, for its successful manipulation by the 
fingers of an adult." 

Another large collection of perforated tubes, this time described 
as "whistle-like," was found by Mills (4) in the Feurt Village Site in 



Anthropology 3.3 

Scioto County, Ohio. He reported, "The specimens . . . were made of the 
radius of various large birds such as the eagle, hawk, wild turkey and 
others; by cutting off the ends, thus leaving a hollow straight cylin- 
der . . . Many specimens . . . were found and several show where they 
had been marked for drilling. The holes were drilled with a flint drill, 
and were usually three in number. Now and then one would be found 
with two holes, and occasionally one with four holes. The holes were 
usually round, but a number show an oblong hole. Frequently the 
oblong hole would show that it was enlarged from the round hole by 
burning. The holes for the most part were bored in a straight line, 
usually equidistant apart; however one specimen was found where two 
holes were in line but the center hole was to one side." 

Greenman (1) found two tubes made of hollow bird bones, with 
flute-like stops, in the Reeve Village Site, Lake County, Ohio. The 
larger specimen has three stops and three tones, "but the number of 
tones does not correspond to the number of stops. The central stop 
does not alter the tone, and when it is closed, alone or with either or 
both of the others, there is no musical note. The notes A, B, and C may 
be produced respectively by closing the two end stops, then releasing 
one or the other, then releasing both." 

The final site belonging to the Upper Mississippi Phase was also 
excavated by Greenman (2). He found one perforated bone tube at the 
Tuttle hill Site and another at the South Park Site. Both sites are in 
Cuyahoga County, Ohio. 

Literature Cited 

1. Greenman, E. F. 1935. Excavation of the Reeve village site, Lake 

County, Ohio. Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, vol. 
XLIV. 

2. Greenman, E. F. 1937. Two prehistoric villages near Cleveland, Ohio. 

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, vol. XL.VI. 

3. Hooton, E. A. and C. C. Willoughby. 1920. Indian village site and 

cemetery near Madisonville, Ohio. Papers of the Peabody Museum of 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. VIII, No. 1. 

4. Mills, W. C. 1917. The Feurt mounds and village site. Ohio State 

Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, vol. XXVI. 

5. Moore, C. B. 1916. Some aboriginal sites on Green River, Kentucky. 

Jour. Acad. Natural Science of Philadelphia, vol. XVI. 

6. Smith. H. I. 1910. The prehistoric ethnology of a Kentucky site. 

Anthropological Papers American Museum Nat. Hist., vol. VI. 

7. Webb, W. S. 194 6. Indian Knoll, Ohio County, Kentucky, Univ. Kentucky 

Reports in Anthropology and Archaeology, vol. IV. 

8. Webb, W. S. and W. G. Haag. 1939. The Chiggerville site, site 1; Ohio 

County, Kentucky. Univ. of Kentucky Reports in Anthropology and 
Archaeology, vol. IV. 



The Relationship between the Folk-tale and Culture Area 
in Central Africa 

C. P. Warren, Indiana University 



The Congo culture area, an arbitrary geographical division in 
which similar cultures are found, covers an area which extends 
roughly from 8° N. to 15° S. Latitude and from 9° E. to 31° E. Longitude. 
It includes the political subdivisions of a portion of Nigeria, the Cam- 
eroons, Spanish Guinea, half of French Equatorial Africa, the Belgian 
Congo, Angola, and two segments of Northern Rhodesia. 

The general cultural characteristics which differentiate the Congo 
culture area from the other cultural divisions of Africa have been out- 
lined by Herskovits and others in several sources (2, 3). Briefly, the 
distinguishing trait-complex which differentiates the Congo culture 
area as a distinct geographic-cultural entity is as follows: (1) the 
absence of cattle; (2) the dependence upon an agricultural economy; 
(3) the use of rectangular houses, bark cloth, and raffia weaving; (4) the 
utilization of ceremonial masks; (5) the practice of body scarification; 
(6) the development of an art form exemplified by carved human 
representations; (7) the use of wooden drums; (8) the employment of 
the throwing knife as currency; (9) the importance of the secret 
society; (10) the flowering of political organization; (11) the presence 
of periodically held markets; (12) the importance of the craft guilds; 
and (13) the significance of the fetish in the religions. 

The above list can be reduced by grouping the various elements 
into a more general scheme which points out that, by and large, the 
Congo culture area is distinguished mainly by its agricultural, political, 
and artistic characteristics. Since the folk-tale is considered to be an 
art form by some students, the obvious development of other art forms 
would lead the student of the folktale to suspect that a definite pattern 
of the folk-tales which occur in these similar cultures might be present 
to some degree. The above cultural characterization does not suggest 
or imply that there in any uniformity of style, type, motifs, function, 
or role of the folk-tale within the culture area. The generalizations 
which have been made have either included all of Negro Africa or that 
portion of Africa which has been long under European influences (5). 

An examination of the literature reveals that this area, and the 
other areas which surround it, has been subjected to the spasmodic 
collection of the folk-tales of the indigenous groups which inhabited the 
area from a time coeval with the widespread interest aroused in Europe 
following the work of the early comparative folklorists. Concentrated 
efforts to collect tales, that is, efforts which have resulted in books 

:u 



Anthropology 35 

devoted exclusively to tales alone, have been limited, and the majority 
of the tales which have been recorded and put into print are to be found 
in the books, journals, and periodicals which are concerned with the 
numerous other aspects of African culture, or with folk-tales, proverbs, 
and lore from other portions of the world. The above mentioned fact 
emphasizes to the researcher that the bibliography of the material, of 
necessity, will be very extensive, and that the availability of the versions 
of the tales will be limited considerably by the relatively few tales which 
have been spread so thinly throughout a vast number of volumes. In 
a tentative bibliography of eighty four volumes, a total of 1,573 tales 
was counted. The largest collection in one volume equaled 170 tales, 
and nineteen volumes contained less than five tales each. 

The bibliography also indicates that tales have been collected 
from approximately thirty-four tribes in the area, whereas Leyburn (4) 
lists 332 tribes for Angola, Belgian Congo, and Cameroons alone, while 
more recent publications give lists which are considerably longer (6). 
The above statistics merely point out that a vast source of material 
has been left untouched. Possibly the generalizations which were formu- 
lated were influenced by the seemingly simple pattern which other 
aspects of the cultures presented to the ethnologist, but in light of what 
has not been done, it is unlikely that the generalizations will maintain 
their validity. 

A linguistic problem also presents itself. The tales have been re- 
corded in German, French, English, and Portuguese, while a few have 
been transcribed phonemically in the native language of the tribe from 
which the tale was collected. Concerning this problem, Doke (1, p. 352) 
writes, 

"In this part of Africa the choice of media and the development of 
literary work have suffered, as they have almost everywhere in Africa, 
through lack of cooperation by the pioneer missionaries with workers, in 
adjoining territories. Each mission worked independently and knew prac- 
tically nothing of the language or language work of the neighboring 
mission. Additional artificial barriers of orthography, grammatical treat- 
ment, and vocabulary choice in translation were unknowingly raised, 
which today it is our effort to break down or lessen, so that more concerted 
effort in literature production may be possible in African vernaculars." 

These are common problems to all researchers in folk-tale studies, 
but the difficulty is enhanced by a seeming disinterest in the folk-tale 
as an entity by numerous travelers, explorers, and traders who came into 
contact with the native populations. Those few who were interested 
and did collect tales were obviously biased by personal beliefs and desires 
to record stories of a particular type. Consequently, the tales which are 
in print do not give a complete survey of all forms of oral literature 
developed in the area. 

Since the student of African folk-tales is confronted with the 
problem of establishing a systematic means of approaching an areal 
study of the various types of folk-tales which have been recorded, a 
plan is here offered to aid in the development of such a project. 
Arbitrarily, the geographical boundaries of the culture area which has 



36 Indiana Academy of Science 

already been delineated for other aspects of the cultural picture of the 
region might serve as the limits of the initial effort of study. To 
insure a careful examination of the literature, all of the tales which have 
been recorded in this area must be brought together. Summaries of 
tales can be utilized in motif and type analyses, but little can be done 
with style from the summary alone. 

To prevent overlapping, the distribution of the tribes from which the 
tales have been collected should be mapped, and the synonymy of 
tribal names should be reduced to a minimum. This problem is important, 
as the following synonymies indicate: Balouba, Baluva, Baqua, Kalosh, 
Baluba, Louba, Luba, Turruba, Waluba, (6) are all names given to one 
distinct ethnic group by the several authors who have reported and 
described them. 

A single tale, or a group of tales, out of the context of the culture 
of which it forms a part, is of no more use as an aid in analysing the cul- 
ture than is a cultural artifact which is found out of context. Thus an 
effort must be made to determine the function or role of the tale in the 
particular culture. This would influence, and be influenced by, the 
conditions under which various tales are told. Such information must 
be sought in supplementary material which might possibly contain data 
and descriptions of the information sought. This ethnographical material 
might also throw considerable light upon group and individual attitudes 
toward particular tales and specific raconteurs. 

By utilizing the refined techniques which have resulted from the 
use of type-indexes, motif-indexes, and comparisons between trait-lists 
and tale-content lists, a more extensive approach can be made to this 
vast problem of unraveling the puzzle of the tale pattern of central 
Africa. In this way, the present generalizations will either be substanti- 
ated or discarded, and the description of the culture area may be 
complemented by the addition of a description of a folk-tale area based 
upon criteria other than generalized tale types. 

Literature Cited 

1. Doke, C. M. 1934. Lamba literature. Africa 7, London. 

2. Herskovits, M. J. 1930. The culture areas of Africa. Africa 3, 59-77. 

3. . 193 5. Social history of the Negro. Handbook of Social 

Psychology (C. A. Murchison, Ed.). Worcester, Mass.; Clark University 
Press. 

4. Leyburn, J. G. 1931. Handbook of Enthnography. New Haven, Conn.; 

Yale University Press. 

5. Thompson, S. 1946. The folktale. New York; Dryden Press. 

6. Wieschhoff, H. A. 194S. Anthropological bibliography of Negro Africa. 

Am. Oriental Soc, New Haven Conn. 



BACTERIOLOGY 
Chairman: I. C. Gunsalus, Indiana University 
H. Koffler, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1950. 



ABSTRACTS 

A tentative plate assay method of vitamin B12. R. E. Bennett and 
I. Roy Cohen. Research Department, Commercial Solvents Corpora- 
tion. — A cup plate assay for vitamin Bi 2 has been designed using 
Lactobacillus leichmanii ATCC 4797 and a medium modified from that 
suggested by Skeggs et al. The assay range is from 0.05 to 2 micro- 
grams per ml, based on growth zones from 12 to 22 mm diameter. 

The acetate-acetyl phosphate system of Leuconostoc. R. D. DeMoss 
and I. C. Gunsalus, Indiana University. — In a study of the intermediary 
metabolism of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, it became pertinent to deter- 
mine if an acetyl phosphate forming system existed in this organism, 
and if so to determine its properties as a possible intermediate step in 
the formation of ethyl alcohol. 

Vacuum dried cells, and a cell-free enzyme obtained from them by 
sonic oscillation, have been shown to contain an active acetyl phosphate 
forming enzyme with adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) and acetate as 
substrates. This enzyme has been shown to possess a metal activator. 

The reaction has been followed by measuring both the formation of 
an anhydride by the hydroxamic acid reaction of Lipmann and by the 
accumulation of a labile phosphate compound of the acyl type. 

The cell-free enzyme preparations when dialyzed lost most of 
their activity and could be reactivated by divalent ions, of which 
manganese was the most effective. Magnesium and cobalt were also 
active. The enzyme from Leuconostoc mesenteroides is specific for 
acetate, that is, does not catalyze acyl phosphate formation with 
propionate or butyrate. 

Multiplication of Brucella in the yolk sac of embryonated chicken 

eggs. Kathleen Gay and S. R. Damon, Indiana State Board of 
Health. — As one phase of the Indiana Brucellosis Study Project, the 
embryonating egg was tested as an enrichment medium for the isolation 
of Brucella from blood specimens. The rate of multiplication of 
Brucella melitensis, when injected in small numbers into the yolk sacs of 
white leghorn eggs of varying ages of embryonic development, was first 
determined. The growth curves indicated a definite bacterial inhibition 
by 1- to 2-day old embryos and optimum growth in 5-day old embryos. 

37 



38 Indiana Academy of Science 

As few as 1 to 10 organisms multiplied rapidly when introduced 
into the yolk sacs of 5-day old embryos. Comparable growth curves 
were obtained for B. suis and B. abortus. 

A new crystalline antibiotic from an unidentified streptomycete. 

R. L. Harned, P. H. Hidy, C. J. Corum, and K. L. Jones. Commercial 
Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute. — A new crystalline antibiotic has 
been isolated from a streptomycete obtained from Nigerian soil. Data 
on the biological synthesis, isolation, in vitro activity, chemical proper- 
ties, and toxicity in mice are presented. 

An in vitro study of the combined effect of drugs and antibiotics on 
bacteria responsible for urinary infections in man. Marion J. McBurney, 
DePauw University. — This study has shown that combinations of various 
drugs are more effective on some organisms than either agent alone. 
The combined effect was greater when a sulfa drug and an antibiotic 
were used than when two sulfa drugs or two antibiotics were used. 

Combinations of streptomycin and sulfathiazole and of streptomycin 
and sulfadiazine were bactericidally effective against Micrococcus pyo- 
genes var. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. Complete 
inhibition of Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus was also obtained with 
penicillin and streptomycin, penicillin and sulfathiazole, and penicillin and 
sulfadiazine. 

Streptococcus sp. was susceptible to the combined action of sulfa- 
thiazole, or sulfadiazine, and mandelic acid. 

Aerobacter aero genes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not af- 
fected by the drugs employed either singly or in combination. 

The microbiological determination of lysozyme. A. N. Smolelis and 
S. E. Hartsell. Purdue University. — A rapid, accurate method is 
described for the assay of lysozyme, based on the increase in light 
transmission of a suspension of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. 

The turbidimetric assay, after standardization with a crystalline 
lysozyme preparation, can be applied to lysozyme in natural material. 

The Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells used for assay were grown in 
large quantities, treated with ultraviolet light, lyophilized, and stored in 
the ice box. These cell preparations were stable and of constant 
sensitivity. 

The assay method was applied successfully to a bentonite-pyridine 
extract of natural materials. Hens' egg albumin extract contained 
0.86 mg lysozyme per ml, dried albumin 19.7 mg per gm, and rat kidney 
extract 0.024 mg per ml. The lysozyme content of kidney extract could 
be determined with an error of less than 7%. The assay procedure is 
adaptable to small or large quantities of lysozyme, is reproducible, and 
accurate. 

Effect of some haloacylamides on multiplication of the vaccinia 
virus. R. L. Thompson and Marian L. Wilkin, Indiana University, 
Indianapolis. — During the course of an investigation to determine the 



Bacteriology 39 

effect of analog's of pyrimidines and purines on the growth of the vac- 
cinia virus in chick embryonic tissues, it was observed that several pyri- 
midine derivatives containing halogenated acylamide groups in the 
5-position prevented viral multiplication. The presence of the pyrimidine 
ring is not essential for virostatic activity, since the chloracetamido 
group can be coupled to the benzene ring with the formation of an 
active substance. Compounds of the latter class structurally resemble 
Chloromycetin. The mode of action of the halogenated acylamide group- 
ing has not been determined. 



BOTANY 

Chairman: A. R. Bechtel, Wabash College 
M. S. Markle, Earlham College, was elected chairman for 1950. 



ABSTRACTS 

Some observations on the taxonomy of Oenothera, subgenus Eaoe- 
nothera in North America. Ralph E. Cleland. — The North American 
Euoenotheras show much variability but few clear-cut boundary lines, 
and their taxonomy is in a very unsatisfactory state. A study of the 
cytogenetics of the group is uncovering facts which should make it 
possible to arrive at a system of classification which will express rather 
accurately actual phylogenetic relationships. The cytogenetic methods 
used in this study are briefly described, and the major groupings of 
phylogenetic significance are described. The possibility of elevating these 
groupings to the rank of species in any future taxonomic revision should 
be seriously considered. 

An evaluation of fireblight resistance in pear seedlings. T. R. 

Carpenter. Purdue University.— Seedlings of Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim 
were inoculated with Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. in, 1) 
early growth stages in the greenhouse, and 2) later growth stages in 
the nursery row to ascertain the relative merits of inoculations at the 
two periods of growth. Seedlings inoculated at the sixteen to twenty- 
four leaf stage could be divided into three general infection classes; 
namely, immune, resistant and susceptible. No appreciable resistance 
was expressed prior to the eight leaf stage. Immune individuals could 
be detected between the eight and twelve leaf stage. Resistant indi- 
viduals could be consistently detected between the sixteen to twenty leaf 
stage. A higher percentage of susceptible individuals were eliminated 
in the early growth stages in the greenhouse than were eliminated from 
similar progenies initially inoculated in the nursery row. There was 
less shifting to lower infection classes during the second year inocula- 
tions on the part of the greenhouse inoculated plants than among the 
seedlings initially inoculated in the first year nursery row. There was a 
tendency for plants to gain in resistance with age, especially among 
those plants inoculated in early greenhouse growth stages. A higher 
percentage of infection was obtained at a minimum greenhouse tempera- 
ture of 80° F. than at 60° F. 

A new life cycle variant of the Stipa~ma\\o\v rusts. George B. 
Cummins, Purdue University. — Recently Gaumann (Ber. Schw. Bot. Ges. 

40 



Botany 41 

57:248-249. 1947) has described Puccinia sphaeralceae as a new species, 
under a preempted epithet, producing aecia and telia on Sphaeralcea am- 
bigua Gray in California. The species also is known to parasitize S. 
orcuttii Rose in California and S. livularis (Dougl.) Torr. in Idaho. It 
represents a new life cycle species in the complex including the macro- 
cyclic autoecious South American P. digna Arth. & Holw. on Stipa, the 
demicyclic heteroecious P. interveniens Bethel on Mallows and Stipa, the 
demicyclic autoecious P. graminella Diet. & Holw. on Stipa, the micro- 
cyclic P. sherardiana Korn. on mallows and the endo-form Endophyllum 
tubercutatum (Ellis & Kellerm.) Arth. & Fromme on mallows. 

Possibilities of hybrid vigor in Liriodendron tulipifera. I. W. 
Carpenter, Purdue University. — Maintenance of Liriodendron tulipi- 
fera in forest stands in Indiana is desirable since it is a principal source 
of hardwood veneer stock and is also the state tree. Preliminary 
investigations into the requirements of this tree led to a study of its 
reproduction. High seedling mortality was observed in quadrat studies 
of several different sites. The low germinative capacity of tulip tree 
has long been known, and an attempt was made to discover if this was 
due to continual selfing of the flowers. 

Trees were cross pollinated with pollen from widely separated 
geographic localities. The seed thus obtained was compared with open 
pollinated seed from the same parents as to germinative capacity. Six 
lots of the hybrid seed and open pollinated seed were grown in the 
greenhouse and records kept to determine if there was any induced 
vigor. Results indicate marked increase in germinative capacity and 
possible hybrid vigor. 

Tolypella prolifera Leonh. found in Indiana. Fay Kenoyer Daily, 
Butler University. — A brief description is given of Tolypella prolifera 
Leonh. representing a genus of the algae evidently not found previously 
in Indiana. 

Chlorophyll therapy and its relation to pathogenic bacteria. Mabel 
M. Esteni, an d Albert G. Dannin2. — The achievements to date in the 
field of chlorophyll therapy are briefly summarized, with particular 
reference to the relation of such therapy to the pathogenic bacteria. The 
derivatives of chlorophyll used in the treatment of diseases, methods of 
treatment, chief diseases for which chlorophyll preparations have been 
used, toxicity of these preparations, and the chief results of chlorophyll 
therapy are reviewed. The efficacy of chlorophyll preparations in 
deodorizing and healing suppurative and other types of diseases has 
stimulated research to determine the effect of such preparations on the 
pathogenic bacteria. Results of research to date indicate that chlorophyll 
preparations have a bacteriostatic, rather than bactericidal, effect upon 
pathogenic bacteria in living tissues. (To be published in the Butler 
University Botanical Studies.) 



1 Mabel M. Esten, Instructor, Botany Dept., Butler Univ. 

2 Albert G. Dannln, Osteopathic Physician (Retired) 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 

Preliminary report on the phytopathology of Physoderma graminis 
(Busgen) Minden, 1911. K. S. Gopalkrishnan, Notre Dame Uni- 
versity. — Physoderma graminis (Busgen) Minden, first reported for 
this country from Madison, Wisconsin, was later collected at Ottawa, 
Canada, northern and southern Indiana, Illinois, and southern Michigan. 
This chytrid parasitises Agropyron repens Chev.; parasitism is systemic 
in which respect it differs from Ph. zeamaydis Shaw. There is a com- 
plete inhibition of the inflorescence, and the affected plants are readily 
recognizable in the field by their erect habit and yellowish color. Infection 
occurs through the overwintering sporangia in dead disintegrating 
leaves of the previous season. Artificial infection by inoculating the 
soil with sporangia was successful. Infection through leaves occurs 
only in very early stages. The incubation period is from eight to twelve 
days. The symptoms consist of yellow streaks which gradually coalesce 
and turn brown until the leaf dies. The peak period of infection in the 
field is June and there appears to be a second period of infection some 
time in the fall depending upon the warmth of the weather. In the 
laboratory the optimum temperature for the germination of the resting 
sporangia is 29° C. The resting sporangia require a dormancy period 
of three to four months but the dormancy can be broken by low 
temperatures ( — 10° C), burial in the soil, or alternate heat and cold 
treatments. Drugs tried so far have not produced any break in the 
dormancy of the sporangia. So far cross inoculations with zoospores, 
and sporangial suspensions on Agrostis alba, Phleum pratense, Dactylis 
glomerata, Euchloena mexicana and zea mays proved unsuccessful. The 
first four grasses which are naturally associated with Agropyron repens 
are free from infection in the field. These two facts suggest that the 
parasite is obligate on Agropyron repens. The possibility of the occur- 
ence of physiologic races should not be overlooked. Host hypertrophy is 
common, the infected leaf becoming many times thicker than the normal 
and often highly distorted and tubular. The hypertrophy is due to the 
enlargement of the cells. 

Rhizomycelium, ephemeral sporangia, and zoospores and the germi- 
nation of the resting sporangia all resemble those of Physoderma 
zeamaydis occurring on corn. Multiciliate zoospores were noticed in a 
small percentage of those liberated from the resting sporangia the 
significance of which cannot be definitely assessed at present. Apparent 
fusions were noticed but the very small percentage of such fusions 
cannot be satisfactorily explained at the moment. 

Data with regard to certain environmental influences on the germina- 
tion of the resting sporangia are presented. 

Growth-rainfall trend-coefficients shown by six species of hardwoods 
in Brown County, Indiana. Ray C. Friesner, Butler University. — 
Highest trend-coefficients shown are: Carya ovata, May-July; C. glabra, 
May-July, August-July, and June-May; Acer saccharivm, May-August 
and May-June; Liriodendron tnlipifera, July-June; Fraxinus americana, 
April-July; Sassafras albidnm, none of any significance. Trend-coeffi- 
cients for all species increase in percentage with increase percentages of 



Botany 43 

rainfall change. Higher trend-coefficients are shown when rainfall de- 
creases only are considered than when increases only are considered. 
When any individual tree is compared with any other individual tree, the 
highest percentage of agreement is as likely to be with an individual of 
a different species as with an individual of the same species. Lirio- 
dendron is the only species which shows a higher average percentage 
of agreements with individuals of its own species than with individuals 
of other species. • 

An investigation of the root-stem transition of Phaseolus coccineus 
Willd. Gino V. Grassi, University of Detroit. — This work consisted of 
an investigation of the root-stem transition of Phaseolus coccineus, 
Willd., which was found to be completed high in hypocotyl. The first 
indication of transition from the tetrarch exarch primary root to the 
endarch stem occurs where parenchyma is differentiated between the cells 
of the metaxylem arms forming four distinct triangular-shaped groups 
of protoxylem and metaxylem. Secondly, metaxylem differentiates tan- 
gentially so that there are bands of metaxylem alternating with the four 
transitional bundles. Continuing up the axis, the protoxylem elements 
of each bundle differentiate as two rows of spiral cells which are formed 
at right angles to the metaxylem. Eventually these rows are separated 
by parenchyma, and now each transition bundle consists of two units. At 
a higher level, the protoxylem points of the bundles mature in a line with 
the metaxylem elements. Farther up, there is centripetal differentiation 
of the protoxylem and a centrifugal differentiation of the metaxylem. 
Ultimately the endarch condition is reached. 

The relation of soluble aluminum ions to the common potato scab 
disease and to the growth of Actinomyces scabies in culture. GEORGE A. 
Gries, Purdue University. — Common potato scab may be invariably con- 
trolled in mineral soils by increasing soil acidity to pH 5.0-5.2. The same 
procedure often fails to give satisfactory control in muck soils, with 
cases being recorded in which scab was severe at pH 4.5. Many strains 
of the causal organism are found which fail to grow below pH 5.0 but 
others isolated from both muck and mineral soils will grow in culture at 
pH values of 4.2-4.3. As little as 16 ppm of aluminum added to the 
culture solution will inhibit the development of these acid-resistant 
organisms at pH 5.2 and below. There is a close inverse relation between 
the growth of Actinomyces scabies and the solubility of aluminum over a 
wide pH range. Maximum growth is obtained at pH 6.5-6.8 at which Al 
is extremely insoluble. Growth is inhibited in more acid solutions in 
which Al is soluble as the cation and in more alkaline solutions in which 
the soluble aluminate is present. It is suggested that scab control under 
field conditions may be related to soluble aluminum rather than to pH 
per se. The results of field experiments will be discussed. 

History of forests in the glacial Lake Chicago area. G. K. Guennel, 
Division of Geology, Indiana Department of Conservation. — A fossil 
pollen study of peat samples from Pinhook and Merrillville bogs was 



44 Indiana Academy of Science 

made. The bogs are located at the edge of the Glacial Lake Chicago 
basin in northwestern Indiana. The results of the pollen analysis showed 
that the general succession since glacial recession was Abies-Picea to 
Quercus-Carya. However, slight modifications of this sequence were 
recorded. Pinhook bog, located in LaPorte county, disclosed a transitional 
pine period, whereas Merrillville bog, in Lake county failed to show 
evidence of such a period between the Abies-Picea and Quercus-Carya 
forest types. A striking phenomenon was noted in the Merrillville profile. 
Pinus, according to the quantitative record, became a strong associate of 
Quercus-Carya during the more recent past. This increase in pine pollen 
in the upper layers of Merrillville bog was due to local, rather than 
climatic factors. It represents a Pinus strobus relic colony, which per- 
sisted on the bog mat until 1940, when a fire eliminated all but one tree. 
From the general succession, as indicated by pollen frequencies, the 
following deductions as to climatic changes can be made: The cold-moist 
climate, which fostered Abies-Picea, changed to a warm-dry climate 
which supported the Quercus-Carya association. 

Effects of various concentrations of 2,4-D on corn seedlings. 

Robert W. Hoshaw, Purdue University. — In the field most varieties of 
corn are tolerant of 2,4-D in concentrations which can be used for effec- 
tive weed control. However, in most cases corn is not resistant to higher 
concentrations of 2,4-D than those recommended for field use. Two 
yellow dent single hybrids, Wf 9 x Hy and Tr x 38-11, were grown in 
the greenhouse and treated by spraying with the triethanolamine salt 
of 2,4-D in concentrations ranging from 500 ppm. to 3000 ppm. Ten 
pots were treated with each concentration. Both pre-emergence and post- 
emergence methods of application of 2,4-D were used. The pre-emergence 
application was made immediately following planting, and the post- 
emergence treatment was made when the corn was between 8 inches and 
12 inches high. The effect of the pre-emergence treatment was noticeable 
as soon as the plants emerged, with the bending most evident in the pots 
sprayed with the higher concentrations of 2,4-D. Both the coleoptile and 
the sub-coleoptile internode were excessively elongated. In many cases 
the coleoptiles elongated to such an extent that the first leaves emerged 
from them with difficulty. Also many adventitious roots developed in an 
irregular manner above the soil level. The recovery of seedlings from the 
pre-emergence treatment was remarkable during a period of 10 days 
following emergence. The plants which were subjected to a post-emer- 
gence spray treatment showed evidence of bending within 24 hours and 
by the fifth or sixth day bending was at a maximum. At the higher con- 
centrations the lodging appeared to be permanent and some of the stems 
showed evidence of breaking. The higher concentrations of 2,4-D greatly 
reduced plant height and decreased the overall vigor of the plants. 

Effects of butyl ester of 2,4-D on some algae. J. Donald La Croix, 
University of Detroit. — Controlled laboratory experiments on four species 
of algae, three of which were algal nuisances, were carried out using the 
butyl ester of 2,4-D as the herbicide. Cladophora crispata (Roth) 



Botany 45 

Kutz., and Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L) Lagerh. were killed in a 2,4-D 
concentration of two hundred ppm. and were definitely inhibited in one 
hundred ppm. The alga, Phormidium ambiguwm Gom., was unaffected 
by one thousand ppm. 2,4-D and lower concentrations. The growth of the 
flagellate, Euglena viridis Ehr. was checked in all concentrations, but 
the higher dilutions had a greater effect. However, two hundred ppm., 
the minimum concentration required to kill the algae in this case, has 
been known to be lethal to fish and other aquatic organisms. It should 
be remembered that concentrations employed in controlled laboratory 
experiments may be less effective in ponds, but the laboratory findings 
should indicate the general trend of field experiments. The present cost 
of the chemical is so great that its general use will undoubtedly be 
limited. It is estimated that at the effective concentration of two hun- 
dred ppm. of the butyl ester of 2,4-D, the cost would well exceed $850 
per acre foot. However, other means such as serial applications of such 
a dilution to a floating algal mat might prove more feasible. Rotifers and 
ciliates were destroyed in a concentration of two hundred ppm. while 
snails were killed in a concentration of nine hundred ppm. 

An ecological study of the relationship between direction of slope, ele- 
vation and forest cover in Brown County, Indiana. Carl R. McQueeney, 
Butler University. — During the winter of 1948-49, the forest cover on 
four slopes facing north, south, east, and west respectively, were studied 
quantitatively by the quadrat method. Each slope was divided into upper 
and lower elevations. The four stands on the lower elevation level proved 
to have a different phytosociological complex than the corresponding 
stands on the upper elevation level. The forest cover of the area, as a 
whole, was dominated by Acer saccharum^, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus 
alba, Q. borealis v. maxima, and Q. velutina with Acer rubrum and two 
species of Carya playing a secondary part. Each individual stand was 
dominated by a combination of these species. The north facing slope was 
dominated by a mixture of species with Acer saccharum, and Fagus 
grandifolia controlling the lower elevation and Acer saccharum, Fagus 
grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Q. borealis v. maxima sharing the upper 
elevation. On the south facing, Fagus grandifolia dominated the lower 
elevation with Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Carya ovata and Quercus 
velutina playing an important part in the crown cover. The upper ele- 
vation of this slope was controlled almost exclusively by Quercus alba 
and Q. velutina. Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and 
Q. velutina shared dominance on the lower elevation of the east facing 
slope while Quercus alba, Q. velutina, and to some extent Carya glabra, 
dominated the upper elevation. The west facing slope was dominated by 
Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Q. borealis v. maxima on the lower 
elevation and Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Q. velutina on the 
upper elevation. Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia were in all 
cases less prominent in the upper elevation and almost completely absent 
on the latter elevation of the South and East facing slopes. On these 



1 Acer saccharum includes Acer nigrum. 



46 Indiana Academy of Science 

two slopes, Acer saccharwm dropped out rather abruptly at 48 ft. above 
the valley floor. Quercus was, on the whole, more prominent in the upper 
elevations though important in all stands and Carya apparently pre- 
ferred a habitat which was more xerophytic than that best suited to 
Acer-Fagus and less xerophytic than that best suited to Quercus alba. 

The effect of precipitation on the annual ring growth in three species 
of trees from Brown County, Indiana. Chester W. Miller, Butler Uni- 
versity. — An attempt was made in the late fall and early winter of 1948 
to ascertain the relationship between the precipitation and annual ring 
growth of three species of deciduous trees from Brown County, Indiana; 
also, to determine which area of the tree, i.e., the top area or the 
bottom area, gives the highest percentage of agreement between growth 
and rainfall. 23 different month combination rainfall periods were chosen. 
Fraxinus americana shows highest growth-rainfall trend coefficients for 
the rainfall periods May-August and June-August; Quercus alba for the 
periods June-August and May-August; and Quercus velutina for the 
periods June-July and June-August. With but few exceptions, growth- 
rainfall trend coefficients increased with increase in degree of rainfall 
change. When annual growth of individuals of each species and of 
different species is compared, the highest percentage of agreement is 
shown between individuals of the same species except in Quercus velutina. 
Q. velutina. shows higher average agreement with Q. alba than amongst 
individuals of its own species. Fraxinus americana shows higher growth- 
rainfall trend coefficients when decreases only in rainfall are considered. 
The same is true for Quercus alba except in the case of 40% or greater 
rainfall changes. Quercus velutina shows higher growth-rainfall trend 
coefficients when increases only are considered in rainfall than when 
decreases only are considered when comparison is based upon lower 
degrees of rainfall change, but the reverse is true when comparison is 
based upon higher degrees of rainfall change. The average trend coeffi- 
cients between growth in the top area and the bottom area of the same 
trees of Quercus velutina is 82% while the average for Quercus alba is 
80%. In both Quercus velutina and Quercus alba, the top areas give 
higher growth-rainfall trend coefficients than do the bottom areas. This 
would appear to indicate that annual growth in the top areas of these 
species are more sensitive to rainfall changes than annual growth in the 
bottom areas. (To be published in the Butler University Botanical 
Studies 9 (17). 1950.) 

The effect of sap-removal for syrup-making upon radial growth in 
sugar maple. Chester W. Miller, Butler University. — Annual growth 
data of Acer saccharwm is given for all the sections studied; the oldest 
dating to the year 1710. This data is presented because the trees offer 
growth data covering a longer period of time than has previously been 
reported in any Indiana studies. Sugar maple shows highest growth- 
rainfall trend coefficient for the rainfall period June-July. This would 
appear to indicate that the annual radial growth is more sensitive to 
rainfall during the early summer months. The removal of sap from a 



Botany 47 

sugar maple tree has a definite retarding effect upon the radial growth. 
The average yearly radial growth for fourteen years prior to the year 
following cessation of tapping is 0.8 mm. while the average yearly 
radial growth ten years towards the center of the tree from the inner- 
most limit of the spilehole is 1.8 mm. The year following cessation of 
tapping shows the maximum amount of radial growth attained in any 
one year. The annual growth then grades towards the normal ring size 
over a period of five years. (To be published in the Butler University 
Botanical Studies 9 (20). 1950.) 

The botanists of India and Pakistan. C. M. Palmer, Butler Uni- 
versity. — During a two year period, beginning in the summer of 1947, 
spent in India and Pakistan, the writer had opportunities of meeting a 
considerable number of botanists and other plant scientists in the educa- 
tional and research institutions. Photographs of a number of the workers 
and of the science buildings were taken. The scientists are facing a 
different situation as the new independent Indian and Pakistan govern- 
ments strive to increase facilities for scientific work, particularly for 
practical research and for opportunities for education for all the best 
qualified students. Several of the scientists have done research which 
has received worldwide recognition. They were exceedingly cordial and 
cooperative and were anxious to have additional contacts with scientists 
in America and elsewhere. 



Indiana Plant Distribution Records, X. 1949 



Genera are listed in the order used in Deam's Flora and species are 
given alphabetically within the genera. Symbols following the county in 
which specimens were collected indicate the herbaria in which confirming 
specimens have been deposited. Entities new for the state are given in 
bold face followed by literature references and name of the collector. 

The specimens listed below have been collected by the following col- 
lectors: Ball State Teachers College (BS) : Mrs. Marian Rector; Butler 
University (B) : C. M. Ek, Charles C. Deam, R. C. Friesner, V. 0. 
Graham, Johanna Jones, Jack McCormack, Chester Miller, J. E. Potzger, 
Kenneth Shockley, and Floyd A. Swink; Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum (F): Howard Benke and Floyd A. Swink; Deam Herbarium (D): 
Charles C. Deam, Ray C. Friesner, and Ralph Kriebel; DePauw Univer- 
sity (DP): Elmer E. Callaway, R. C. Friesner, D. Smith, and Winona H. 
Welch; University of Florida (Fl): C. M. Ek; Gray Herbarium (G): 
C. C. Deam, Howard Benke, and Ralph Kriebel; Indiana University (IU): 
C. J. Avers, Charles B. Heiser, Jr., Vernon Helmen, Gladys Price, Dale 
Smith, Paul Weatherwax, and Winona H. Welch; Huntington College 
(Hu): Fred Loew; Missouri Botanical Garden (Mo): Churchill; New York 
Botanical Garden (NY): C. M. Ek and R. C. Friesner; University of 
Texas (Tex): R. C. Friesner; U. S. National Herbarium (N): C. C. 
Deam and W. S. Blatchley. 

The committee maintains a card file showing published distribution 
of each species within the state. Botanical workers needing such infor- 
mation may obtain distribution maps of any species recorded in the 
Flora, or subsequently added in these reports, by requesting same from 
the secretary of this committee. 

Species 

Polystichum acrostichoides, Kosciusko (B). Camptosorus rhizophyl- 
lus, Daviess (B). X Asplenoso?*us ebenoides, Monroe (IU). Anacharis 
canadensis, Putnam (DP). Bromus commutatus, Daviess (B). B. kalmii, 
Huntington (Hu). B. latiglumis, Orange (B). B. secalinus, Daviess (B). 
Huntington (Hu). B. tectorum, Daviess (B). Vulpia octoflora v. tenella, 
Daviess (B). Poa annua, Hendricks (B). Elymus riparius, Huntington 
(Hu). E. virginicus, Orange (B). Lolium perenne, Huntington (Hu), 
Elkhart (D). Sphenopholis obtusata, Daviess (B). Danthonia spicata, 
Daviess (B). Digitaria ischaemum, Ripley (B). 

Panicum clandestinum, Daviess (B). P. commutatum, Daviess (B), 
Putnam (B). P. flexile, Kosciusko (B). P. linearif olium, Orange (B), 
Putnam (B). P. stipitatum., Clark (B). P. virgatum, Jay (D). Setaria 

48 



Botany 49 

faberi, Vermillion (B). Andropogon gerardi, Jay (D). Eleocharis engel- 
manni, Huntington (Hu). Carex crus-corvi, Huntington (Hu). C. 
davidsii, Huntington (Hu). C. hystricina, Huntington (Hu). C. interior, 
Huntington (Hu). C. tribuloides, Huntington (Hu). C. typhina, Hunt- 
ington (Hu). Arisaema airorubens f. zebrina, Jefferson (D,B). Juncus 
effiisus v. solutus, Huntington (Hu). J. interior, Huntington (Hu). 

Allium tricoccum, Fulton (B). A. oineale, Cass (B), Orange (B). 
Trillium grandifiorum, Franklin (B,D,DP). Smilax glauca v. genuina, 
Orange (B). Orchis spectabilis, Henry (BS). Liparis liliifolia, La- 
grange (B). Aplectrum hyemale, Henry (BS). Saururus cernuus, Madi- 
son (B). Populus deltoides, Madison (B). Salix alba, Jay (D). S.a. v. 
vitellina, Kosciusko (B). S. Candida, Jasper (B). S. fragilis, Hunting- 
ton (Hu). 5. glaucophylla, Carroll (B), Fulton (B). S. gracilis v. 
textoris, Carroll (B), Kosciusko (B). 5. hwmilis, Orange (B). S. inte- 
rior, Carroll (B). S. lucida, Kosciusko (B). 5. nigra, Union (B). 
S. pedicellaris v. hypoglauca, Carroll (B). S. rigida, Marion (B), Union 
(B). S. sericea, Huntington (Hu). 

Gary a cordiformis, De Kalb (D), Elkhart (D). C. ovata, Marshall 
(D). C. tomentosa, Brown (B), Marshall (D). Ostrya virginiana, Perry 
(D). Quercus bicolor, Jay (D). Q. borealis v. maxima, Adams (D). 
Q. macrocarpa, Jay (D), Warren (B). Q. palustris, Adams (D), Perry 
(D). Ulmus alata, Daviess (B). Celtis pumila, Orange (B). Morus 
rubra, Randolph (D). Humulus aniericana, Jay (D). Urtica dioica v. 
procera, Madison (B). Rumex acetosella, Hamilton (B). R. altissimus, 
Delaware (BS). R. obtusifolius, Delaware (BS). R. orbiculatus, Fulton 
(B). Polygonum erectum, Madison (B). P. hydropiper v. projectum, 
Fulton (B). P. hydropiperoides f. strigosum, Hancock (B). P. lapathi 
folium, Marion (B). P. neglectum, Fulton (B), Marion (B). P. pennsyl- 
vanicum v. laevigatum f. pallescens, Madison (B). P. persicaria, Fulton 
(B), Jay (D). P. punctatum v. confertifiloriim (Meisn.) Fassett. Brittonia 
6:377. Kosciusko (B), Marion (B,NY,Tex), Porter (Mo). Collected by 
R. C. Friesner. P. punctatum v. majus (Meisn.) Fassett. Brittonia 
6:373. Porter (F,G). Collected by Howard Benke. P. virginianum, 
Fulton (B). Acnida altissima v. subnuda, Morgan (IU). 

Cerastium nutans, Huntington (Hu). C. semidecandrum L. Gray 
Man. 7 ed. p. 383. Porter (B). Collected by Floyd A. Swink. C. vulga- 
tum v. hirsutum, Pulaski (D). Holosteum umbellatwm, Henry (BS). 
Arenaria serpyllifolia, Pulaski (D). Agrostemma githago, Elkhart (D), 
Gibson (IU). Silene antirrhina, Delaware (BS), Huntington (Hu). 
S. cucubalis, Huntington (Hu). Lychnis alba, Huntington (Hu). Dian- 
thus armeria, Gibson (IU), Putnam (B). Saponaria officifialis, Dela- 
ware (BS), Fulton (B). Hydrastis canadensis, Orange (B). Aquilegia 
canadensis, Orange (B). Anemone quinquefolia v. interior, Putnam 
(DP,B). Heptica americana, Huntington (Hu). Ranunculus abortivus, 
Jay (IU). Thalictrum dasycarpum, Warren (B). T. revolutum, 
Orange (B). 



50 Indiana Academy of Science 

Stylophorum diphyllum, Delaware (BS). Dicentr a canadensis, Dela- 
ware (BS). Lepidium virginicum v. typicum, Adams (BS), Warren (B). 
Thlaspi perfoliatum, Franklin (B,D,DP). Arabidopsis thaliana, Hunt- 
ington (Hu). Rorippa sylvestris, Hancock (B). Nasturtium officinale, 
Huntington (Hu). Armoracea aquat ica, Daviess (B). Cardamine penn- 
sylvanica, Huntington (Hu). Camelina microcarpa, Delaware (BS), 
Putnam (DP). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Pulaski (D). Arabis canadensis, 
Orange (B). Erysimum repandum, Delaware (BS). Alyssum alyssoides, 
Adams (BS). Sedum acre, Delaware (BS). Saxifraga pennsylvanica, 
Delaware (BS). Liquidambar styraciflua, Greene (B). Physocarpus 
opidifolius, Elkhart (D). Agrimonia pubescens, Huntington (Hu). 

Cassia fasciculata, Henry (BS). Medicago lupidina, Warren (B). 
M. sativa, Delaware (BS). Melilotus alba, Warren (B). M. officinalis, 
Orange B, Warren (B). Trifolium dubium, La Porte (B,F). T. pratense, 
Clay (B), Elkhart (D). Desmodium marilandicum, Greene (B). D. 
paniculatum, Madison (B). Lespedeza stipulacea, Greene (B). Amphi- 
carpa bracteata, Greene (B). A. 6. v. comosa, Madison (B). Oxalis 
stricta, Hancock (B). Linum virginianwm, Huntington (Hu). Poly gala 
sanguinea, Martin (B). P. verticillata, Martin (B), Ripley (B). Euphor- 
bia commutata, Orange (B). E. dentata, Henry (BS), Jay (D). Staphy- 
lea trifolia, Delaware (BS). Acer saccharinwm, Delaware (BS), 
Randolph (D). 

Abutilon theophrasti, Hancock (B). Malva neglecta, Henry (BS). 
Callirhoe involucrata, Daviess (IU). Hibiscus trionwm, Delaware (BS), 
Madison (B). Hypericum perforatum, Warren (B). Viola papilionacea, 
Huntington (Hu). V. triloba, Orange (B). Epilobium color atum, Fulton 
(B). E. leptophyllum, Jasper (B). E. striatum, Jasper (B). Oenothera 
perennis, Lake (B). Oe. pycnocarpa, Delaware (B), Henry (BS). Gaura 
biennis, Delaware (B). Osmorhiza longistylis, Lake (B). O.l. v. villicaulis, 
Marion (B). Taenidia integerrima, Orange (B). Sium suave, Fulton 
(B). Heracleum lanatum, Randolph (B). Nyssa sylvatica v. caroliniana, 
Orange (B). N.s. v. typica, Spencer (D). Cornus florida, De Kalb (D). 
Vaccinium stamineum, Orange (B). 

Samolus parviflorus, Daviess (B). Lysimachia hybrida, Martin (B), 
Warren (B). L. nummularia, Delaware (BS). L. quadrifolia, Orange 
(B). Anagallis arvensis, Martin (B). Fraxinus americana, De Kalb (D), 
Marshall (D), Perry (D). F. pennsylvanica, Huntington (D). Gentiana 
andrewsii, Fulton (B). Frasera caroliniensis, Delaware (BS). Acerates 
hirtella, Clay (B). Asclepias amplexicaulis, Cass (B). A. syriaca, War- 
ren (B). A. tuberosa v. interior, Martin (B). Gonobolus obliquus, 
Orange (B). Cuscuta campestris, Orange (B,DP). C. gronovii, Henry 
(B,DP), Warren (B,DP). C.g. v. latiflora, Engelm. Mem. Torr. Bot. CI. 
18:173. Jasper (B,DP). Collected by R. C. Friesner. Convolvulus 
sepium, Delaware (BS). Ipomoea payidurata, Orange (B). Ipomopsis 
rubra, Jasper (B). Ellisia nyctelia, Tippecanoe (B). 

Cynoglossum officinale, Randolph (B). Myosotis scirpoides, Elkhart 
(D). Lithospermum arvense, Delaware (BS). Echium vulgare, Dela- 



Botany 51 

ware (BS). Verbena bipinnatifida, Orange (B). V. bracteata, Marion 
(B). XI'. Engelmannii, Fulton (B), Greene (B). V. hastata, Fulton 
(B). T\ simplex, Warren (B). V. stricta, Orange (B). V. urticaefolia, 
Fulton (B). Phyla lanceolata, Hancock (B). Trichostemma dichotomum, 
Delaware (B). Agastache nepetoides, Madison (B). Prunella vulgaris, 
Warren (B). Lamium amplexicaide, Delaware (BS). L. purpureum, 
Delaware (BS). Blephilia ciliata, Orange (B). Lycopus virginicus, 
Huntington (Hu). Mentha piperita, Fulton (B). Physalis heterophyUa, 
Delaware (BS). P. pubescens, Delaware (BS). Datura stramonium, 
Fulton (B), Huntington (Hu), Jay (D). 

Verbascum blattaria, Delaware (BS), Warren (B), Wayne (BS). 
V.b. f. albiflora, Wayne (BS). V. thapsus, Delaware (BS). Linaria 
canadensis, Cass (B). Penstemon calycosus, Warren (B). Gratiola 
neglecta, Whitley (B). Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Bailey Man. Cult. Pit. 
p. 673. Harrison (B,D). Collected by C. C. Deam and Johanna Jones. 
Dasistoma macrophylla, Warren (B). Aureolaria flava v. typica, Hunt- 
ington (Hu). Conopholis americana, Orange (B). Epifagus virginiana, 
Kosciusko (B). Plantago virginica, Hamilton (B). Galium pilosum, 
Orange (B). G. tinctorium, Adams (BS). Viburnum dent atum v. deamii, 
Huntington (Hu). V. rufidulum, Orange (B). Valerianella olitoria, 
Franklin (B,D,DP). Dipsacus sylvestris, Delaware (BS). Specularia 
perfoliata, Gibson (IU). Lobelia car dinalis, Hancock (B). 

Vernonia altissima, Fulton (B). Eupatorium purpureum, Madison 
(B). Liatris aspera v. intermedia (Lunell) Gaiser. Rhodora 48:305. 
Benton (D,B), Cass (B), Crawford (D), Elkhart (D,B), Harrison 
(B,G), Jasper (B), Lagrange (D,B,G), Lake (B,D,N,NY), La Porte 
(B), Marshall (D,G,N), Newton (D,B), Porter (D,Mo,N), Pulaski (B), 
Starke (B,D,G,NY), Steuben (D,Mo,NY), White (B). Liatris aspera v. 
typica Gaiser. Rhodora 48:301. Jasper (Fl), Porter (G). Liatris earlei 
(Greene) K. Schum. Rhodora 48:336. Harrison (D,N). X Liatris 
nieuwlandii (Lunell) Gaiser. Rhodora 48:325. Allen (D,Mo), Cass 
(B,NY), Kosciusko (D,B,G,N,NY) , Lagrange (D,N), Marshall (N), 
Noble (B,D,G,N), Porter (B,G), Steuben (B,D,G,Mo,N,NY), Warren 
(D,Mo). Liatris scabra (Greene) K. Schum. Rhodora 48:316. Brown 
(D,G), Cass (NY), Clark (D,B), Crawford (D ; B), Franklin (B), 
Harrison (B,D,N), Jackson (G), Kosciusko (B,D), Perry (B), Spencer 
(B), Sullivan (B), Vigo (D,B,N), Washington (D,B,N). Liatris 
sphaeroidea Mx. Rhodora 48:312. Lake (D,G,N), Porter (G,N), Steuben 
(D,G). X Liatris steelei Gaiser. Rhodora 48:227. Lake (D,B), Porter 
(B,D,N). 

Solidago canadensis v. gilvocanescens, Fulton (B). S. graminifolia 
v. media, Kosciusko (B). S. patuliginosa Friesner. Butler Univ. Bot. 
Stud. 9:125. Huntington (B,D), Montgomery (B). Aster cordifolius, 
Kosciusko (B). A. drummondii, Huntington (Hu). A. dumosus, Hunt- 
ington (Hu). A. interior, Kosciusko (B). A. lateriflorus, Huntington 
(Hu), Monroe (IU). Antennaria plant agini folia, Huntington (Hu). 
Gnaphalium purpureum, Orange (B). Inida helenium, Huntington (Hu). 



52 Indiana Academy of Science 

SUphium terebinthinaceiim v. pinnatifidum, Greene (B). Iva xanthifolia, 
Porter (B). 

Eclipta prostratus, Hancock (B). Rudbeckia laciniata, Jay (D). 
Helianthus annuus X. H. petiolaris, Vigo (IU). Collected by George B. 
Heiser. H. decapetalus, Fulton (B). H. giganteus, Lake (B). H. 
laetiflorus v. rigidus, Vermillion (B). H. strwmosus, Harrison (B), 
Madison (B), Tippecanoe (B), Vermillion (B). H. tuberosus, Union 
(B). Bidens bipinnata, Lake (B). B. vulgata, Marion (B). Erechtites 
hieracifolia, Fulton (B). Cirsium arvense v. vestitwm, Delaware (BS). 
Cacalia muhlenb erg it, Warren (B). Krigia virginica, Cass (B). Soyichus 
oleraceus, Warren (B). Lactuca canadensis v. latifolia, Warren (B). 
L. saligna, Madison (B). L. scariola, Jay (D), Madison (B). L. villosa, 
Greene (B). 

Additional Species Added to the Deam Herbarium 

The following species previously reported in other herbaria have 
been added to the Deam Herbarium since the last report. 

Polypodiu?n polypodioides v. michauxia?ium, Jefferson. Sphenopholis 
nitida, Jefferson. Setaria lutescens, Jay. Ornithogalum umbellatum, 
Jefferson. Smilax herbacea v. herbacea, Jefferson. S. pulverulenta, Jef- 
ferson. Hypoxis hirsuta, Jefferson. Populus deltoides, Adams. Fagus 
grandifolia, Huntington, Jefferson. Quercus alba, Perry. Q. imbricaria, 
Adams. Uhnus rubra, De Kalb. Cerastiam vidgatum v. hirsutum, 
Elkhart. Silene antirrhina, Elkhart. Ranunculus hispidus, Jefferson. 
Duchesne indica, Jefferson. Cercis canadensis, Randolph. Desmodium 
paniculatum ., Huntington. Oxalis stricta, Elkhart. Acer nigrum, Jeffer- 
son. Daucus carota, Jay. Nyssa sylvatica v. caroliniana, Gibson. 
Lysimachia ciliata, Jay. Stachys tenuifolia, Randolph. 

State Flora Committee: 
Charles C. Deam, Chairman 
T. G. Yuncker 
Ray C. Friesner, Secretary 



The Pteridophytes of the Valparaiso Moraine 
of Porter County, Indiana 

William W. Bloom, Valparaiso University 



Porter County, Indiana is rich in species of plants owing to the 
varied physiography provided by the dune and sandy areas near Lake 
Michigan in the northern part of the county, to the moraine running 
through the middle of the county, and to the Kankakee marsh on the 
south. Of the eighty-two species, varieties, and hybrids of pteridophytes 
reported for Indiana in Deam's Flora of Indiana (2), forty-three were 
reported from Porter County. Four additional species have been reported 
for the county in the Indiana Plant Distribution Records published in 
the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science (3). 

Much of the botanizing done in Porter County has been done in the 
sand dunes. Because of the popularity of the dunes as a summer resort 
and the ease with which a wide variety of environments can be studied, 
many of the reports for the county have been made on the basis of 
collections in the dune area. The extent of the work done in the dunes 
and adjacent sandy areas is indicated by the several floras which have 
appeared, including the floras of the dunes and nearby areas. A few of 
such published floras are those by Lyon (4,5), Pepoon (7), and 
Peattie (6). 

The probability that the morainal region of Porter County has not 
been studied and reported as intensively as the areas to the north is 
evidenced by the collection during the present study of several species 
and varieties not previously reported for any part of the county. The 
following species and varieties collected while this study was made are 
not included in Deam's Flora (2) or in subsequent reports: Cystopteris 
fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. protrusa Weatherby, Athyrium pycnocarpon 
(Spreng.) Tidestr., Dryopteris spiiiulosa var. fructuosa (Gilbert) Tru- 
dell, Equisetum arvense var. boreale (Bong.) Rupr., and Equisetum 
hy em-ale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A. A. Eaton. 

The geological formation known as the Valparaiso Moraine extends 
across the middle portion of Porter County and covers a large area, 
with varied physiography, microclimates, soils, and water relations. This 
variation in environments has favored the development of a flora rich in 
species. The greater part of the moraine has been disturbed much more 
than the dune area. 

The most complete geological study of the area is that of W. S. 
Blatchley (1) published in the 22nd Annual Report of the Department 
of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana. The moraine in Porter 
County consists of about two hundred thirty-five square miles of land 

53 



54 Indiana Academy of Science 

and comprises a band seventeen miles wide on the western border of 
the county which swings northeast and narrows to seven miles in width 
at the eastern county line. The entire area is covered with a sheet of 
drift which is as much as one hundred twenty-five feet thick at Val- 
paraiso. The extent and location of the moraine in Porter County is 
shown on the map in figure 1. 

The richest pteridophyte collections were made in three areas, 
although a greater part of the moraine was covered. The first is a 
cut-over mesophytic forest located on the south side of U. S. Highway 6 
about three miles east of its junction with Indiana Highway 49. This 
forest has been ungrazed for about 17 years and is at present a classi- 
fied forest. The principal tree species in the forest at present are sugar 
maple (Acer saccharum) , beech (Fagus grandi folia) , white oak (Quer- 
cus alba), black oak (Q. velutina) , and red maple (Acer rubrum) . Many 
physiographic features of the moraine are represented in this forest. The 
second collecting site is a small beech-maple forest (Acer saccharum 
and Fagus grandifolia) , cut over, but not recently grazed. It is located 
about two miles northeast of Valparaiso, just north of the Grand Trunk 
Railroad and west of Indiana Highway 2. The third area is a small, 
partially drained tamarack bog along Salt Creek about two miles 
directly south of the main part of Valparaiso. This bog is unprotected 
from grazing and may soon cease to be as rich botanically as at present. 

Annotated List of Species Collected on the Valparaiso Moraine 

1. Botrychium dissectum var. obliquum, (Muhl.) Clute. Three speci- 
mens of this fern were observed in the beech-maple forest. 

2. Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw., the rattlesnake fern, was 
one of the more common ferns on the moraine. Many specimens were 
observed in all three collecting areas, as well as in many other places 
on the moraine. One specimen measured thirty-two inches from the 
ground to the tip of the fertile portion of the frond. 

3. Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) Gray, the royal 
fern, was one of the more conspicuous ferns in the wet mucky places 
in all three areas referred to earlier. 

4. Osmunda Claytoniana L., the interrupted fern, was one of the 
more difficult ones to find, but later findings suggest that many of the 
ferns which were at first glance considered to be the cinnamon fern 
were actually the interrupted fern without fertile portions on the fronds. 

5. Osmunda cinnamomea L., the cinnamon fern, was very common 
in the tamarack bog and on the slopes of the pockets and ridges in the 
mesophytic forest. 

6. Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh., the fragile fern, is one of the 
most common ferns on the moraine. It was found in all three areas 
referred to, as well as in many widely scattered woods. In many places 
it was the most common species in the herb layer. 

(a). C.f. var. protrusa Weatherby. One specimen which seems to 
belong to this variety of the fragile fern was collected. It was found. 



Botany 55 

growing on a rotting- log in a mucky portion of the beech-maple forest. 
Since it was the oniy specimen noted, it may have been an environ- 
mental variant of the typical form. 

7. Onoclea se7isibilis L., the sensitive fern, is a very common fern 
in moist areas. Numerous specimens were seen along roads, in the 
tamarack bog, in the beech-maple forest, and in wet places generally. 

8. Dryopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) C. Chr. Several small clumps 
of the broad beech fern were found in the higher parts of the beech- 
maple forest and on the slopes of pockets in the mesophytic forest. 
Some specimens were thought to belong to the narrow beech fern 
(D. Phegopteris) but the determination is doubtful, so for the present 
they are being considered variants of the broad beech fern. 

9. Dryopteris Thelypteris (L.) A. Gray var. jmbescens (Lawson) 
A. R. Prince, the marsh fern, was common in very wet places in numer- 
ous locations on the moraine. Frequently it was found growing together 
with the sensitive fern in wet meadows. 

10. Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray, the crested fern, was found 
only in the tamarack bog where it was common. 

11. Dryopteris spinulosa (0. F. Muell.) Watt. This fern is one of 
the more common ones on the moraine in wet areas. Many clumps were 
seen in the tamarack bog and in the mesophytic forest. It was less 
common in the beech-maple forest. 

a. D.s. var. fructuosa (Gilbert). This variety was found in the 
mesophytic forest in association with the typical form. 

12. Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott., the Christmas fern, 
was not common. Several small clumps were observed in the mesophytic 
forest and in the beech-maple forest. 

13. Athyrium pycnocarpon (Spreng.) Tidestr., the narrow-leaved 
spleenwort, was found growing extensively in the higher parts of the 
beech-maple forest. It was usually found growing in association with 
the silvery spleenwort. 

14. Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv., the silvery spleenwort, 
was one of the common ferns in the beech-maple forest, occurring in 
the higher, better drained parts of the forest. 

15. Athyrium ayigustum (Willd.) Presl., the lady fern, was found 
in moist places in the more open parts of the beech-maple forest and 
the tamarack bog. 

(a). A. a. var. elatius (Link) Butters. This variety was found 
growing with the typical form. 

(b). A. a. var. rubellum (Gilbert) Butters. This variety was found 
growing with the typical form. 

16. Adiantum pedatum L., the maidenhair fern, was found on the 
slopes of the pockets and ridges of the moraine in the mesophytic forest, 
but not observed elsewhere. 

17. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desv.) 
Underw. ex. Heller, the bracken fern, was very common over much of the 



56 Indiana Academy of Science 

moraine, especially along railroad tracks, country roads, and at the 
edges of some of the forests. 

18. Equisetum, arvense L. This horsetail was found growing along 
railroads, beside country roads, and in the wet meadows. It was also 
found in the tamarack bog. 

(a). E.a. var. boreale (Bong.) Rupr. This variety was found grow- 
ing in moist places in an oak-hickory forest and in the tamarack bog in 
sites less exposed to the sun than were the sites in which the typical 
form was common. 

19. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A. A. Eaton. This 
plant was found growing along the Pennsylvania railroad just east of 
Valparaiso and on a road fill several miles south of Valparaiso. The 
plants from the two areas showed considerable variation in size. 

20. Equisetum fluviatile L., the water horsetail, was found in a wet 
place along Sager's Road, just south of Valparaiso University and in 
the tamarack bog. In neither place was it abundant. 

The writer wishes to take this opportunity to acknowledge the help 
he has received in preparing the present study. Dr. Paul D. Voth and 
Dr. George D. Fuller, both of the University of Chicago, aided in 
identifying some of the more difficult specimens and made many helpful 
suggestions. It was impossible for the writer to visit all the herbaria 
containing specimens from Porter County in order to check such speci- 
mens to determine whether any of them had been collected on the 
moraine. Dr. Charles C. Deam, Dr. R. M. Tryon Jr., Dr. Winona H. 
Welch, Dr. Paul Weatherwax and Mr. Paul Holle kindly furnished 
information on the specimens in question. 



Literature Cited 

1. Blatchley, W. S. 1897. Soil Survey of Lake and Porter County. Twenty- 

second Annual Report of the Dept. of Geology and Natural Resources 
of Indiana, 25-166. 

2. Deam, Charles C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indianapolis. Dept of Con- 

servation, Div. of Forestry. 

3. Indiana Plant Distribution Records. 1941-1948. Proceedings of the Indiana 

Academy of Science. Volumes 50-58. 

4. Lyon, Marcus W., Jr. 19 27. List of Flowering Plants and Ferns in the 

Dunes State Park and Vicinity, Porter County, Indiana. Amer. Midland 
Nat. 10: 245-295. 

5. Lyon, Marcus W., Jr. 1930. List of Flowering Plants and Ferns in the 

Dunes State Park and Vicinity, Porter County, Indiana. Supplement. 
Amer. Midland Nat. 12: 33-43. 

6. Peattie, Donald C. 193 0. Flora of the Indiana Dunes. Published Ly 

Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 

7. Pepoon, Herman S. 1927. An Annotated Flora of the Chicago Area. 

Published by the Chicago Academy of Science. 
S. Thyon, R. M., Jr. 1936. Ferns of the Dune Region of Indiana. Amer. 

Midland Nat. 17: 425-429. 
9. Tryon, R. M., Jr. 1938. Recent Additions to the Flora of Indiana. 

Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 47: 76-77. 



Botany 



57 



MAP OF 

PORTER COUNTY 
INDIANA 




Fig-. 1. Map of Porter County, Indiana, showing the borders (dashes) 
and crest (arrows) of the Valparaiso Moraine. 



Higher Fungi of Marion County, Indiana 

John O. Cottingham, Indianapolis 



We have previously reported 238 species of fleshy, leathery and 
woody fungi found in Marion County and identified. We are now adding 
55 more, bringing the total to 293 species. 

Credit should be given to the following persons who assisted me in 
the search for fungi: Mrs. Arthur H. Beard, Mrs. R. V. Roberts, John C. 
Tacoma, Alvin Jose, John W. Baumgartner and Homer Knight; also my 
thanks to Dr. Alexander H. Smith, of the University of Michigan, who 
kindly identified some specimens that I sent to him. 



Agaricaceae 
Amamita verna Fr. 
A. cothurnata Atkin 
Amanitopsis strangulata Fr. 
Collybia strictipes Pk. 
C. plexipes Fr. 
C. myriodophylla Pk. 
Cajitharellus cinnabarinus Schw. 
Clitopilus abortivus B & C 
C. caespitosus Pk. 
Clitocybe odora Fr. 
C. cerussata Fr. 
C. cyathiformis Fr. 
C.sinopica Fr. 
C. albidula Pk. 
Cortinarius collinitus Fr. 
C. coloratus Pk. 
C. armillatus Fr. 
Coprinus ovatus Fr. 
Crepidotus haerens Pk. 
Entoloma clypeatum Fr. 
Hebeloma albididum Pk. 
Lepiota alluviinus Pk. 
L. miamensis Morg. 
Lentinas vulpinus Fr. 
Lactarius hygrophoroides B & C 
Hygrophorus conicus Fr. 
H. psitticinus Fr. 
H. roseibrun?ieus 
Mycena poly gramma Fr. 
M. epipterygia Fr. 



Pholiota aeruginosa Pk. 
P. marginata Fr. 
Pluteus umbrosus Fr. 
Russula fragilis Fr. 
R. pectinatoides Pk. 
Tricholoma alba Schaeff. 

Polyporaceae 
Daedalia steroides Fr. 
Boletus purpureus Fr. 
B. castaneus Bull. 
B. albellus Pk. 
B. chrysenteron Fr. 
B. pachypus Fr. 
B. Frostii Russell 
B. indecisus Pk. 
Polyporus dichrous Fr. 
Strobilomyces strobilaceus Berk. 

Lycoperdaceae 
Astreus Hygrometricus Morg. 
Cyathus stercoreus Schw. 
Dictyophora duplicata Bosc. 

Tremellaceae 
Tremella epigaea B & B 
Hydnaceae 
Hydnum nigrum Fr. 
H. imbricatum L. 

Ascomycetes 
Verpa conica Swartz. 
Daldinia vernicosa Schw. 
Patella umbrosum Seav. 



58 



Natural Regeneration from Planted Conifers in Indiana 

Daniel DenUyl, Purdue University 



Early tree planting in Indiana consisted mostly of farmstead 
planting of such species as White pine (Pinus Strobus), Norway spruce 
(Picea excelsa), Austrian pine (Pinus austriaca), red cedar (Juniperus 
virginiana) , and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana). The early settlers in 
Indiana often brought with them a few trees for homestead, school 
ground and cemetery planting. From some of these planted trees natural 
regeneration occurred which invaded adjacent areas and in some cases 
these conifers appeared to be native to the locality. 

Land use practices have caused many thousands of acres of former 
agricultural land to revert back naturally to forest cover. On other areas 
soil conditions have been so greatly changed that tree planting is neces- 
sary to establish a stand of forest trees. 

Investigations of forest tree planting began in Indiana about 1904 
when the first experimental plots were established on the "Forest Pre- 
serve", now the Clark State Forest, near Henryville in Clark County, 
Indiana. Since that time tree planting has continued and to-day there 
are approximately 15,000 acres of coniferous forest plantations that 
have become established and if properly managed will produce forest 
products. 

That planted conifers were capable of producing viable seed which 
led to natural regeneration becoming established adjacent to the seed 
producing trees was first noted in 1928. An old Scotch pine windbreak 
growing on a sandy soil in White County had produced seed crops from 
which seedlings became established on the area adjacent to the windbreak. 
Two other Scotch pine plantings in Pulaski County had also produced 
viable seed which resulted in the establishment of Scotch pine regenera- 
tion on both sandy and muck soils. Later during a period when intensive 
studies were made of several hundred forest plantations throughout the 
State, it was observed that natural regeneration from planted trees 
was frequently encountered though few such observations had been 
reported. 

In order to show what has taken place as well as what is taking 
place, a few specific examples of natural regeneration from planted 
conifers will be given. 

White Pine (Pinus Strobus) 
This species has been used for tree planting in Indiana for a good 
many years. It is well suited for planting on the better sites. Some 
of the established plantations of white pine will yield valuable forest 
product. 

59 



60 Indiana Academy of Science 

Viable seed is produced when planted trees are about 15 to 20 years 
old. One of the oldest white pine plantings from which natural regenera- 
tion has resulted is located on the Clark State Forest. The trees were 
planted in 1912. Survival has been good and at the present time the 
37 year old trees are from 6 to 16 inches d.b.h. and 60 to 90 feet in 
height. Seedlings have become temporarily established both under the 
planted trees as well as on adjacent areas. Although the growth of the 
seedlings has been slow it is interesting to note that they have persisted 
for several years. Seedlings which were 2 to 4 inches in height when 
marked 6 years ago still persist but show very little growth. 

Viable seed has been produced in several other white pine plantations 
on the Clark State Forest that are now 25 years old. Regeneration 
consists of white pine seedlings from one to 5 years old. 

The most unusual example of white pine regeneration on a un- 
favorable site occurs on an area of stripped coal lands in Greene and 
Sullivan Counties. There white pine trees planted on the spoil banks 
in 1927-28 have produced viable seed. From these seeds regeneration 
has become established. The naturally seeded trees are from one to 7 
years old and are found adjacent to the parent trees and extending out 
from the seed trees about 300 feet. These naturally seeded white pine 
appear to be thrifty and show promise of developing into trees of 
food form. 

These examples and similar ones that have been observed indicate 
that natural seeding of white pine can be expected from planted trees. 



Red pine (Pinns resinosa) 

Although this species has been planted very extensively in Indiana 
most of the plantings are less than 20 years old. Natural regeneration 
of this species was first observed on the strip coal lands. Like white 
pine, viable seed is produced on 15-20 year old trees. The trees which 
produced the seed from which natural regeneration developed were 
planted on the spoil banks in 1926-27. The planted trees that became 
established now occur in small groups with seed trees 4 to 8 inches 
d.b.h. and 25 to 35 feet in height. Adjacent to several of these groups of 
seed trees red pine seedlings have established. They vary in size from 
2 inches to 5 feet in height and are from 1 to 7 years old. Height 
growth of the naturally grown seedlings is like that of planted trees. 
The red pine planting is located in Sullivan County which is several 
hundred miles south of the natural range of red pine and therefore 
natural regeneration would ordinarily not have been anticipated. On a 
few other sites, particularly on the sandy soils in Northern Indiana, red 
pine seed trees have produced viable seed. The seedlings originating 
from these seed trees are from one to four years old but not as well 
developed as those occurring on the spoil banks. 

Since red pine is one of the best trees for reforestation purposes in 
Indiana these examples of natural regeneration from planted trees are 



Botany 61 

encouraging. It indicates that the species may eventually form a small 
component part of the mixed hardwood forest in some parts of Indiana. 

Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) 

This species has been and continues to be used very extensively 
for planting in all parts of Indiana. It makes a quick initial height 
growth and begins to bear viable seed when planted trees are 5 years 
old. Frequent seed crops are produced even though most of the jack pine 
stands are less than 20 years old. Natural regeneration from planted 
trees is encountered on many sites ranging from the light sandy soils 
to the heavy clay soils. There are numerous places where natural 
seeding of jack pine can be observed and of these, two will be described. 

The most unusual case of natural regeneration of jack pine has 
occurred in southeastern Indiana in Jennings county. Trees planted on 
a heavy clay soil in 1932 were destroyed by fire in October 1940. The 
fire burned over about seven acres and only a few trees survived the 
fire. Natural regeneration became established in the spring of 1941 
and it now covers almost the entire seven acres. These naturally seeded 
jack pine are from 5 to 15 feet in height and density of stocking varies 
from 2,000 to 15,000 trees per acre. 

The naturally seeded trees show growth characteristics similar to 
that of planted trees and the trees are generally straight-boled. 

On the stripped coal lands natural regeneration of jack pine is 
frequently encountered. The natural regeneration that has originated 
from seed produced by planted jack pine varies from seedlings to trees 
15 feet in height. In one case a 15 year old group of jack pine has 
produced viable seed from which seedlings have grown and have invaded 
an adjacent area which formerly supported an orchard. Natural seeding 
has gradually extended out from the parent trees to a distance of 
approximately 1,000 feet. 

Although many similar examples could be given it appears evident 
that jack pine natural regeneration from planted trees can be expected 
wherever land adjacent to seed sources is not used for agriculture and 
where fire and grazing have been excluded. 

Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) 

Recent studies have shown that the use of Scotch pine should be 
confined to Christmas tree and windbreak plantings. However, it has 
been planted in all parts of Indiana and natural regeneration from 
planted trees is commonly found. It appears that of all the species that 
have been used for planting in Indiana, excepting Virginia pine, that 
natural regeneration of Scotch pine was observed earlier than that of 
other species of pine. It does not begin to produce viable seed until trees 
are from 15 to 20 years old. Regeneration from seed produced by indi- 
vidual trees or blocks of seed trees is usually scattered and apparently 
seedlings do not quickly invade adjacent areas. Regeneration can be 



62 Indiana Academy of Science 

found on all sites from the sandy areas of Northern Indiana to the 
heavier clay soils of Southern Indiana. Like jack pine, natural regenera- 
tion is commonly encountered on the spoil banks. Scotch pine trees 
ranging from small seedlings to 15 foot trees have become established, 
from seed produced by planted trees. 1 However, dense stands like those 
described for jack pine have not been observed. 

Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) 

Although pitch pine plantings on non-agricultural lands occupy a 
relatively small acreage compared to red pine, jack pine or white pine, 
natural regeneration has occurred. Like jack pine, more naturally seeded 
trees can be found growing on the spoil banks than any other areas in 
Indiana. On lands in Warrick County, Lawrence County, Jennings 
County and Clark County trees from seed produced by planted pitch 
pines have become established. The largest trees that have been observed 
are approximately 5 feet in height. Most of the pitch pine seedlings are 
less than 5 feet in height and occur as scattered trees. 

Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) 

There are only a few small plantings of this species but in four 
different places natural regeneration has been observed. On the Clark 
State Forest naturally seeded trees ranging in size from 4 inches to 6 
feet in height can be found growing in mixture with naturally seeded 
white pine, jack pine and Virginia pine. It has also invaded a 36 year old 
plantation of sycamore on the Clark State Forest and here the Japanese 
red pine trees are from 1 to 7 feet in height. Stand density of the pine 
varies from a few trees per acre to 1,000 but most of the seedlings occur 
in small groups or as scattered individual trees. The planted trees 
from which seed has come are rapidly dying out while some of the 
largest of the naturally seeded trees have already produced a few cones. 
It is doubtful whether enough trees of this species will persist and 
consequently competition from other pines and hardwoods will eventually 
eliminate the Japanese red pine. It is not a suitable tree for planting in 
Indiana and its use was discontinued 10-15 years ago. 

Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) 

Until 1935 this species had not been generally used for reforestation 
purposes in Indiana. Natural regeneration has come from planted 
trees of this species where it has been used for farmstead, school ground 
and church yard planting. Some of these planted trees have been 
observed and reports of natural regeneration of Virginia pine have 
been published. These examples are not included and only those cases 
are considered where the pine has been planted on non-agricultural land 
as part of a reforestation project. 



1 DenUyl, Daniel. 194S. Forest plantations, their establishment, growth, 
and management. Purdue University Agr. Expt. Sta. Circular 331. 



Botany G3 

Natural regeneration from forest plantations of this species has 
been found in five places, namely, 2 plantations in Lawrence County — 1 in 
Jackson County and one in Tippecanoe County and one in Washing-ton 
County. Most of these planted trees from which seed has originated 
are less than 12 years old. Natural regeneration ranges from small 
seedlings to trees 6 feet in height. These occur as scattered individual 
trees adjacent to the parent trees. 

This species has been planted in many parts of Indiana during the 
past 10 years. Its early seeding habit indicates that natural regeneration 
from planted trees will be frequently observed during the next few years. 

Summary 

Case histories of natural regeneration of seven different conifers 
that have been used for reforestation in Indiana have been described. 
It is evident that planted trees of jack pine, Virginia pine, red pine 
and white pine and to a lesser extent Scotch pine, will produce viable 
seed from which under favorable conditions seedlings will become 
established. Protection from fire and domestic livestock grazing of 
adjacent non-agricultural land will often result in the establishment 
of pine regeneration from planted trees. Some of these naturally seeded 
trees may survive hardwood competition and occur as individual pines 
in a mixed hardwood stand. 



A Comparison of the Flora as a Whole and the Weed Flora 
of Indiana as to Polyploidy and Growth Habits 

Charles B. Heiser, Jr. 



Cytological surveys of floras as a whole have become increasingly 
popular in recent years, but few accounts have appeared which have 
placed particular emphasis upon weedy floras. With T. W. Whitaker (9), 
I recently surveyed the chromosome numbers and growth habits of the 
most wide-spread weeds of California. The conclusion reached was 
that, with certain exceptions, polyploidy is not a significant factor in 
the formation of weeds. In the study of the weeds of California, no 
comparison was made between the amount of polyploidy in the flora as 
a whole and that of the weed flora, and in the present paper such a 
comparison is made. 

Procedure 

Deam's "Flora" (4) has been used throughout this study for the 
species found in the Indiana flora. Chromosome numbers have been 
taken from the lists of Gaiser, Tischler, Maude, Rutland, and Darlington 
and Janaki-Ammal, and from the more recent works of Bowden (2) 
and Love and Love (10). Special monographs were consulted for a 
number of families and genera, chief among them being those by Senn 
(17), Wahl (21), Gregory (6), Perry (14), Myers (13), and Brown (3). 
Information regarding the growth habits have been secured for the 
most part from MacDonald's (11) special study. Species designated as 
weeds have been determined from the notes given in Deam's "Flora," 
from Muenscher's (12) "Weeds," and from the author's own field experi- 
ence.! Those weeds which have a purely local distribution or are known 
only from a very few localities have not been included, and hybrids have 
been also omitted from the computations. The methods of scoring 
follow the procedure used in the study of the weeds of California 
(Heiser and Whitaker, 9). This report is obviously a compilation. 

Results 

The principal results of the present survey are given in Tables 
I, II, and III. Of a total of 2073 species given in Deam's "Flora," counts 
have been located for 867 (42%), excluding those introduced species 



1 The definition that has been followed here is that weeds are plants 
which are adapted to areas which have been disturbed in some way by- 
man (or his domestic animals) but are not intentionally cultivated by 
li im. ( Heiser 8). 

64 



Botany 



Table I. Polyploidy and Growth Habit of the Indiana Flora 



Total No. 
of Species 



%of 
total flora 



woody perennials 

herbaceous perennials 

annuals (& biennials) 

diploids 

polyploids 

diploid annuals 

diploid perennials 

polyploid annuals 

polyploid perennials 

woody diploids 

woody polyploids 

herbaceous perennial diploids 

herbaceous perennial polyploids 

species with counts available 

species with growth habits available 



300 

1323 

409 

464 

435 

102 

362 

76 

359 

110 

60 

253 

299 

867* 

2032 



14.76 
65.11 
20.13 
51.61 
48.39 
11.35 
40.27 
8.45 
39.93 
64.71 
35.29 
45.83 
54.17 
41.82 
98.02 



Some species are reported with two counts. 



of limited distribution and escapes from cultivation. Growth habits 
have been tabulated for 2032 (98%) species. Of these, 409 (20%) are 
annuals; 1623 (80%) are perennials. In the latter group there are 1323 
herbaceous species as opposed to 300 woody species (Table I). 

For the flora as a whole, including both weedy and non-weedy 
plants, 52% of the species are diploid (Table I). It has been estimated 
that approximately half of the species of angiosperms are polyploids 
and the flora of Indiana does not fall far short of this mark. The 
amount of polyploidy in the Indiana flora is slightly less than that 
reported for the Scandanavian countries (see Love and Love, 10). 

If the diploids and polyploids are broken down into annual and 
perennial categories, one finds a total of approximately 11% diploid 
annuals, 40% diploid perennials, 8% polyploid annuals, and 40% poly- 
ploid perennials. These figures would tend to suggest that among the 
angiosperms of Indiana, polyploidy is not significantly higher among the 
perennials than among the annuals. As one would expect, the perennials 
significantly outnumber the annuals at both the diploid and polyploid 
level. 

Slight differences between diploidy and polyploidy are evident, if the 
perennial species for which chromosome counts are available are sub- 
divided into herbaceous and woody categories. Thirty-five per cent of 
the woody species are polyploid as compared to 54% for the herbaceous 
perennial species. Approximately 43% of the annuals are polyploid. 
These figures lend support to Stebbins' (19) contention that the 



66 



Indiana Academy of Science 



tendency toward polyploidy in the angiosperms is more pronounced in 
the herbaceous perennials than in woody plants and annuals. 

The total number of species considered as weeds in the present 
investigation is 287. Fifty-seven per cent of these weedy species are 
annuals in contrast to 23% annuals for the herbaceous flora as a whole 
(Table II). This result might be interpreted as indicating that there 
is a greater tendency for annuals than for perennials to behave as weeds. 
This tendency, except for specialized areas, may well be a general 
phenomenon and not applicable only to the Indiana flora. The number 



Table II. Polyploidy and Growth Habit of Indiana Weeds 



perennials 

annuals (& biennials) 

diploids 

polyploids 

diploid annuals 

diploid perennials 

polyploid annuals 

polyploid perennials 

species with counts available 

species with growth habits available 



Total No. 
of Species 



123 
164 
135 
112 

81 
54 
5(5 
56 
232* 
287 



%of 
total flora 



42.86 
57.14 
54.66 
45.34 
32.79 
21.86 
22.67 
22.67 
80.84 
100.00 



* Some species are reported with two 



counts. 



of annual weeds in the California flora is even more pronounced. For 
the 175 weeds of California analyzed as to chromosome number, 56% 
were annuals (Heiser and Whitaker, 9). If, however, all of the species 
in the "Weeds of California" (Robbins, Bellue, and Ball, 15) are included, 
it is found that over 80% of the species are annuals. However, in the 
California flora, no comparison between the weedy annuals and the 
annuals in the flora as a whole has yet been made; the annuals of Cali- 
fornia may be considerably more numerous than for the Indiana flora 
because of the great number of desert annuals. 

The total number of introduced species among the 287 weeds of 
Indiana treated in the present work is 53%, the great majority of the 
aliens coming from Europe or Eurasia. It is of interest to note that 
Blatchley, in 1912, records 51% aliens among the 150 weeds "most 
harmful to the farmers" of Indiana. Muenscher (12) analyzed 500 
weeds of the northern United States and found that 61%) of the species 
were introduced. The reason for the large number of introduced weeds 
in the eastern United States has been discussed by Gray (5). 

Chromosome numbers have been located for 232 of the weedy species, 
of which 55% are found to be diploid (Table II). The percentage of 
polyploidy among the weeds (45%) is actually slightly lower than that 



Botany 67 

for the flora as a whole (4870, but this difference is probably not 
significant. The data presented here would certainly seem to verify 
the conclusion that polyploidy, per se, has not been an important factor 
in the formation of weeds. This last statement, however, should not be 
taken to mean that polyploidy may not have been of importance in 
the development of some weedy species. 

When the weeds are subdivided into the various categories of growth 
habit and ploidy, the greatest number are found in the diploid annual 
group (33%) and the remaining species are about evenly distributed 
among the other categories (22% diploid perennials, 237 polyploid 
annuals, and 237 polyploid perennials). These figures are similar to 
those for the California weeds. 

Although it does not seem desirable to make detailed comparisons 
of the weedy and the non-weedy species, for many of the native species 
may fall into both classes, the following figures are of interest: 797 
of all the diploid annuals and 74% of all the polyploid annuals are weeds, 
whereas only 21 % of the diploid perennials and 19'% of the polyploid 
perennials are weeds; very few woody species behave as weeds and hence 
the woody members have been excluded from the perennial groups for the 
above percentages. The above figures indicate that the diploid annuals 
are the most successful weeds in Indiana and are followed closely by 
the polyploid annuals. 

A comparison of the total number of introduced and native weeds 
in the various categories of growth habits and ploidy is shown in Table 
III. There are approximately equal numbers of native species in the 
four different categories, but among the introduced species by far the 
greatest number is found in the diploid annual category. The great 
preponderance of introduced diploid annuals among the weeds of Indiana 
seems to indicate that as a class they are the most successful weeds. 

Discussion 

It is worth while to list some of the reasons why some of the con- 
clusions reached above, particularly those regarding polyploidy, are of 
a very tentative nature. (1) Not all of the species for which chromosome 
counts are reported can be scored definitely as diploids or polyploids 
since the basic number in many genera has not been established with 
certainty. (2) Two counts are recorded for some "species" and scoring 
these in both diploid and polyploid categories may introduce some error. 
However, probably no greater accuracy would be gained by giving such 
species one-half value in each category or by omitting them entirely. 
At least one species — Claytonia virginica — (Heiser, unpubl.) is known 
to have both diploid and tetraploid forms in Indiana. This may well be 
true of other species. (3) Many of the chromosome counts used in 
preparing this report may be inaccurate for Indiana materials. Only a 
small fraction of the counts have been made or verified from the 
Indiana flora, and, moreover, a large portion have not even been 
made upon North American material. (4) Inaccurate taxonomic determi- 
nations of some of the early workers or various other nomenclatorial 



68 Indiana Academy of Science 

difficulties may have led to mistakes in the present tabulation. (5) As 
may be seen from Table I, less than half of the species represented in 
Indiana are reported with chromosome counts, and the conclusions 
regarding the polyploidy in the flora as a whole may have to be altered 
somewhat when our knowledge becomes more complete. However, over 
80% of the species regarded as weeds (Table II) have known chromo- 
some counts, so that the figures for them are somewhat more reliable. 
Since chromosome numbers of so few of the non-weedy species are 
known, comparisons have been made between the whole flora (including 
the weeds) and the weeds alone. This is also necessary because many of 
the native species may behave both as weeds and non-weeds. (6) Mc- 
Donald's (11) list of growth habits has been found to contain some 
mistakes, and additional ones may have been overlooked. (7) Exactly 
what species to admit among the weeds has offered difficulties. Opinions 
as to what constitutes a weed vary greatly and the likelihood of two 
people compiling exactly the same list of weeds for the Indiana flora 
is remote. 

With the foregoing limitations in mind, however, I would still be 
inclined to conclude that apparently polyploidy has had no greater 
effect in producing successful weeds than it has had in producing 
successful wild species, and, secondly, that as a class the diploid annuals 
seem to be particularly successful as weeds. These studies fail to 
corroborate Gustafsson's (7) conclusion that presumably diploid prede- 
cessors of weeds were not able to create successful "(agro-)ecotypes." 

The annual species, both diploid and polyploid, seem to have pro- 
vided us with a greater number of weeds than the perennials. Bews (1) 
has stated that annuals are characteristic of the most adverse conditions 
and points out that they are particularly suited to habitats brought 
about by man's disturbance, but he advances no reasons to account for 
these characteristics. Salisbury (16, p. 25) has suggested that "in so far 
as the small seed and annual habit go together, they are both features 
which probably alike have survival value in habitats which are subject 
to recurrent adverse conditions." The total seed output of the annuals 
might appear to be an important factor in the success of annuals under 
such conditions, but Salisbury (16, p. 231) in a comparison of annual 
and perennial species of the same genus, finds that the latter have the 
higher seed output. A more rapid reproduction rate (Heiser and Whita- 
ker, 9) and the ability to produce seed under adverse conditions (see 
Muenscher, 12, p. 4) are probably more effective than is total seed 
output. Wulff (22) drawing particularly from the work of Thellung, 
has suggested that there is an involuntary selection for the annual habit 
among weeds through the annual plowing of fields. 

The small seed, a rapid reproduction rate, the ability to seed under 
adverse conditions, and involuntary selection by man have probably 
been responsible for the great proportion of annuals among weeds; and 
polyploidy apparently has not played an important role. As Soo (18) 
has pointed out, gene content is more important than chromosome 
number in the ecological adaptation of plants. The future approach 



Botany 



<;<j 



to the study of the origin and evolution of weeds should probably be 
through combined ecological and genetical studies rather than a mere 
analysis of chromosome numbers. 

Summary 

A compilation of chromosome numbers and growth habits of 
Indiana plants has been undertaken, and the principal results in regard 
to polyploidy and growth habits of the flora as a whole are presented 
in Table 1. An analysis of polyploidy and growth habits in weedy 
species has also been attempted and the results are shown in Tables 
2 and 3. It is pointed out that many of the conclusions drawn must be of 
a tentative nature, but it is apparent that polyploidy has been of no 
greater importance in the formation of weeds than it has in the forma- 
tion of wild species and that the annual species, particularly diploid 
annuals, are the most successful weeds. 



Table III. A Comparison of the Polyploidy and Growth Habits 
of the Native and Introduced Weeds of Indiana 





NATIVE 


INTRODUCED 




Total No. 


% of 


Total No. 


% of 




of species 


total flora 


of species 


total flora 


diploid annuals 


22 


24.18 


59 


37.82 


diploid perennials 


26 


28.57 


28 


17.95 


polyploid annuals 


21 


23.08 


35 


22.44 


polyploid perennials 


22 


24.18 


34 


21.79 




91 




156 





Literature Cited 

1. Bews, J. W. 1927. Studies in the ecological evolution of angiosperms. 

VI. New Phytol. 36: 273-294. 

2. Bowden, W. M. 1945. A list of chromosome numbers in higher plants. 

I & II. Amer. Jour. Bot. 33: 81-92. 191-201. 

3. Brown, W. V. 1948. A cytological study in the Gramineae. Amer. Jour. 

Bot. 35: 382-395. 

4. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Dept. of Conservation. Indian- 

apolis. 

5. Gray, A. 18 7 9. The pertinacity and predominance of weeds. Amer. 

Jour. Sci., 3 ser., 18: 161-167. 

6. Gregory, W. C. 1941. Phylogenetic and cytological studies in the 

Ranunculaceae. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, n. s., 31: 443-521. 

7. Gustafsson, A. 1948. Polyploidy, life-form, and vegetative reproduction. 

Hereditas 34: 1-22. 

8. Heiser, C. B. 1949. Enigma of the weeds. Frontiers 13: 148-150. 



70 Indiana Academy of Science 



and T. W. Whitaker. 1948. Chromosome number, poly 



ploidy, and growth habit in California weeds. Amer. Jour. Bot. 35: 
179-186. 

10. Love,, A. and D. Love. 1948. Chromosome numbers of northern plant 

species. Univ. Inst. Appl. Sci., Dept. Agric, Rept. Ser. B., NO. 3. 

11. McDonald, E. S. 1937. The life forms of the flowering plants of Indiana. 

Amer. Midi. Nat. IS: 687-773, 

12. Muenscher, W. C. 1942. Weeds. The MacMillan Co. New York. 

13. Myers, W. M. 1947. Cytology and genetics of forage grasses. Bot. Rev. 

13: 319-421. 

14. Plrry. B. A. 1943. Chromosome number and phylogenetic relationships 

in the Euphorbiaceae. Amer. Jour. Bot. 30: 527-543. 

1 5. Robbins, W. W., M. K. Bellue, and W. S. Ball. 1941. Weeds of Cali- 

fornia. Calif. State Dept. Agric, Sacramento. 

16. Salisbury, E. J. 1942. The Reproductive Capacity of Plants. Studies in 

Quantitative Biology. G. Bell & Sons. London. 

17. Senn, H. A. 1938. Chromosome number relationships in the Legum- 

inosae. Biblio. Genet. 12: 17-336. 

18. Soo, R. de 1947. Chromosome number analysis of the Carpatho-Pan- 

nonian flora with remarks concerning the ecological significance of 
polyploidy. Acta Geobot. Hung. 6: 104-113. 

19. Stebbins, G. L., Jr. 1938. Cytological characteristics associated with 

the different growth habits in the dicotyledons. Amer. Jour. Bot. 2 5 : 
189-198. 
20. 1947. Types of polyploids: their classification and sig- 
nificance. In M. Demerec, Advances in Genetics 1: 403-429. 

21. Wahl, H. A. 1940. Chromosome number and meiosis in the genus 

Car ex. Amer. Jour. Bot. 27: 458-470. 

22. WulfFj E. V. 1943. An Introduction to Historical Plant Geography. 

(Eng. trans.) Chron. Bot., Waltham, Mass. 



Observations Upon a Strain of Streptomyces alhus 
Antagonistic to Certain Phytopathogenic Fungi 

John A. Jump, University of Notre Dame 



Investigations of the antibiotic activities of the actinomycetes has 
for the most • part been focused upon those organisms which are 
antagonistic to bacteria and fungi pathogenic to man. The inhibition of 
phytopathogenic fungi is at present of little more than academic interest 
since the chemotherapeutic treatment of plant disease is still in rather 
early stages of practical development, and the inoculation of soil 
with specific antagonists of soil inhabiting pathogens has not as yet 
met with conspicuous success. The more significant work in the latter 
field prior to 1945 has been reviewed by Waksman (8). Records of 
actinomycete antagonists of phytopathogenic fungi occur scattered 
through the literature, but very little appears to have been done in the 
way of extensive investigation. Alexopoulos (1) used a considerable 
number of actinomycetes in studies of the inhibition of Colletotrichum 
gloesporioides, and later with Herrick (3) tested a more limited group 
of actinomycetes upon various species of fungi. Meredith (5) reported 
actinomycetes to be antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporium v. cubense, 
causing the Panama disease of bananas, and Tims (7) has noted 
antagonism of a parasitic Pythium by an actinomycete. 

The Streptomyces which is reported herein was discovered growing 
in a petri plate culture of the coffee leaf spot fungus, Omphalia flavida, 
and was presumably an air borne contaminant. It attracted attention 
because of the clear circular zone of inhibition several centimeters in 
diameter in the basidiomycete colony, with the colony of the antagonist 
only a few millimeters wide in the center of the zone. The Streptomyces 
was isolated in pure culture, and stock cultures were made in tubes of 
sterile soil according to the method of Green and Fred (4). 

A selection was made of 28 species of fungi which were chosen to 
include several species from each class of the Eumycetes with particular 
attention to soil dwelling phytopathogenic species. One method of 
testing the antagonistic properties of the Streptomyces was that em- 
ployed by Alexopoulos et al (2) in which the actinomycete is inoculated 
at two points 4 cm. apart on a plate of synthetic agar with maltose as 
the carbohydrate source. The fungus against which the actinomycete 
is to be tested is inoculated midway between the two actinomycete 
colonies after they have been incubated for five days. The inhibitory 
distance is determined as the average minimum distance between the 
fungus and actinomycete colonies at the time of first evidence of definite 
inhibition. Alexopoulos considered "strong inhibitors" to be those which 

71 



72 Indiana Academy of Science 

showed an inhibitory distance of 10 mm. or more. Four plates were 
inoculated with each fungus tested. This number seemed adequate for a 
preliminary run since there was little variation within each group, and 
the purpose of the experiment was primarily exploratory. The observa- 
tions of principal interest may be summarized as follows: 

1. Varying degrees of complete or partial inhibition were demon- 
strated against 27 of the 28 test fungi. The single exception was Glio- 
cladium fimbriatum. Partial inhibition is to be interpreted as marked 
reduction of normal growth of the fungus in the vicinity of the 
antagonist without complete prevention of growth. In the case of com- 
plete inhibition there is no growth whatever within the area of inhibition. 

2. Both resistant and sensitive species were found in each class of 
fungi, supporting the observation of Alexopoulos and Herrick (8) that 
there is no general correlation between amount of inhibition and 
systematic position. 

3. None of the fungi tested produced appreciable retardation of 
growth of the actinomycete. 

4. Two phycomycetes (Pythium debaryanum and Phytopthora cac- 
torum) and two basidiomycetes (Pleurotus ostreatus and Omphalia 
flavida) were unable to make any growth under the conditions of this 
test. These were apparently more marked inhibitions than those observed 
by Alexopoulos and his associates. When the Streptomyces was inoculated 
8 cm. apart instead of the usual 4 cm., Pythium showed an average 
inhibitory distance of 3.4 cm. 

The inhibitory effect of the Streptomyces was next tested against 
five species of fungi by a slightly modified version of the agar dilution 
method used by Reilly, Schatz and Waksman (6). The Streptomyces 
was grown on glucose-tryptone medium for eighteen days at room 
temperature. The culture liquid was then strained through cheesecloth 
and passed through a Seitz filter. The filtrate was added to melted 
potato dextrose agar and plates were poured in a series in which the 
filtrate was diluted from 1:5 to 1:200. The test fungi were then 
inoculated on the petri plates, and the diameter of the colonies was 
measured after 64 hours incubation at room temperature. Six plates 
were inoculated with each fungus at each dilution in addition to a set 
of controls to which no filtrate was added. It was found that Hel- 
minthosporium sativum was able to grow at all concentrations employed, 
although growth was markedly slower than the controls from 1:5 to 1:75. 
Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride failed to 
grow at 1:5 and 1:10 dilutions and showed retarded growth up to 
1:50 in the case of the Aspergillus, up to 1:100 in the case of Tricho- 
derma and at all dilutions in the case of Rhizopus. Pythium debaryanum 
failed to grow in all cases. A second series was then set up with 
dilutions up to 1-1000 using only the Pythium as the test organism. 
Growth failed to occur at dilutions through 1-300 and was markedly 
retarded even at 1-1000, the Pythium colonies averaging 35 mm. in 
diameter after 48 hours incubation at room temperature in contrast to 
the 84 mm. diameter of the controls. It should be pointed out that the 



Botany 



r.\ 



fungus inoculum in each case was taken from the periphery of a 
young colony of the fungus, so that continued mycelial growth rather 
than spore germination was being tested. These results are presented in 
greater detail in Table I. 

Table I. Assay of Streptomyces Filtrate by Agar Dilution Method 

Average diameter of test fungus colonies in millimeters 
after 64 hours incubation 



Dilution of 


Aspergillus 


Triclioderma 


Rhizopus 


Helmintho- 


Py'hium 


Streptomyces 


niger 


viride 


nigricans 


sponum 


debaryanum 


filtrate 








sativum 




1:5 











4 





1.10 











6 





1.20 


6 


9 


5 


15 





1:30 


9 


17 


8 


17 





1:50 


12 


25 


15 


22 





1:75 


11 


32 


20 


22 





1:100 


12 


35 


40 


25 





1:150 


14 


43 


45 


26 





1:200 













1:300 













1:500 










36* 


1:1000 










52* 


Control 


13 


40 


90 


32 


90 



Incubated for 72 hours. 



The antagonistic effect of the Streptomyces against P. debaryanum 
was further demonstrated in a somewhat different manner by inoculating 
the Pythium in the center of petri plates containing maltose-mineral 
salts agar. The plates were incubated for 40 hours, at which time the 
colonies were about 75 mm. in diameter. The Streptomyces was then 
inoculated at the edge of the rapidly growing fungus colony. Within the 
following 24 hours the Pythium covered the entire surface of the agar, 
but after a few days an expanding zone could be detected with its 
center at the site of the Streptomyces inoculum. This zone was charac- 
terized by a collapsed, watersoaked appearance of the fungus mycelium. 
Transfers of mycelium from these zones failed to grow when placed 
on sterile agar slants, indicating that under these experimental condi- 
tions the Streptomyces was able to cause the death of established 
Pythium mycelium in its vicinity. 

The Streptomyces has been tested in a preliminary fashion against a 
number of bacteria commonly used in antibiotic assays, and against 
certain fungi pathogenic to man. Although a degree of inhibition was 
manifest in several instances, there was nothing sufficiently noteworthy 



74 Indiana Academy of Science 

to warrant further tests until such a time as it may be possible to 
concentrate or purify the active principle. 

A culture of the Streptomyces was sent to Dr. S. A. Waksman 
who stated that it was similar to Streptomyces albus (Rossi Doria 
emend. Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici and that for the present it 
could be referred to as S. albus var. ST6. The varietal designation 
refers to the writer's culture number. 

Morphologically the culture agrees fairly well with the description 
in the current 7th edition of Bergey's Manual. However it differs in 
several of its physiological reactions from those described for the species. 
Milk is not coagulated, a soluble brown pigment is produced in the 
liquefaction of gelatine, and starch is hydrolyzed. Gelatine liquefaction 
takes place very slowly. Certain of these properties, however, agree 
with earlier descriptions of S. albus. Abundant drops of exudate varying 
from nearly colorless to golden yellow were produced upon all media 
used which supported moderate to strong growth of the organism. The 
reaction upon litmus milk was quite distinctive. The milk was peptonized 
without coagulation, and the litmus was reduced. Then after a month 
or more of incubation the medium becomes blood red in color by 
transmitted light and increases in alkalinity to about pH 7.8. 

Literature Cited 

1. Alexopoulos, C. A. 1941. Studies in antibiosis between bacteria and 

fungi; species of actinomycetes inhibiting" the growth of ColletotricJnon 
gloesporioides, in culture. Ohio Jour. Sci. 41: 425-430. 

2. , R. Arnett, and A. V. McIntosh. 193 7. Studies in anti- 
biosis between bacteria and fungi. Ohio Jour. Sci. 38: 221-235. 

3. , and J. A. Herrick. 1942. Studies in antibiosis between 



bacteria and fungi: inhibitory action of some actinomycetes on 
various species of fungi in culture. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 69: 
257-261. 

4. Green, H. C. and E. B. Fred. 1934. Maintenance of vigorous mold stock 

cultures. Ind. Eng. Chem. 26: 1297-98. 

5. Meredith, C. H. 1944. The antagonism of actinomycetes to Fusarium 

oxysporium cuhense. Fhytopath 33: 403; 34: 426-429. 

6. Reilly, H. C, A. Schatz and S. A. Waksman. 1945. Antifungal proper- 

ties of antibiotic substances. Jour. Bact. 49: 585-594. 

7. Tims, E. C. 1932. An actinomycete antagonistic to a Pythiuvi root 

parasite of sugar cane. Phytopath 22: 27. 

8. Waksman, S. A. 193 5. Microbial antagonisms and antibiotic substances. 

New York, The Commonwealth Fund. 



An Analysis of Floret Fertility in Agropyron rep ens 
J. H. Lefforge, Purdue University 



In the summer of 1938 quackgrass, Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv., 
spikes were collected for laboratory studies on noxious weeds. When 
ready for use in the fall it was observed that only a few of the florets 
were fertile. Since the amount of grain actually produced by quackgrass 
is a factor in its spread and control, an analysis of floret fertility was 
made. 

Taxonomically, quackgrass belongs to the Hordeae tribe of the 
Gramineae. Phylogenetically the genus Agropyron is rather closely 
related to wheat and certain species of Agropyron have been known to 
hybridize with Triticum. Its vegetative and flowering periods are 
essentially the same as wheat. 

As reported in the literature, quackgrass varies rather widely in 
its seed setting pattern. Such variation has been attributed largely to 
environmental factors but may also be due to genetic variability. In 
general, it appears that more seed has been produced on soils of 
average fertility than on the more fertile soils, and in drier seasons 
than in those of high rainfall. 

Quackgrass is a perennial cool season plant which makes its best 
growth in cool moist climates and on soil of average to high fertility. 
It survives the rigors of winter better than the long, hot, dry summers. 

Review of Literature 

According to Quackenbush and Carter (9), quackgrass is a primary 
noxious weed in Indiana and one of the most serious weeds of that group. 
Deam (3) reports this grass chiefly in the northern two-thirds of the 
state yet it probably could be found in every county. While quackgrass 
was introduced from Europe, Eliot is credited by Kephart (5) with the 
first authentic report of the weed in this country in 1751. By 1850 it 
was well distributed east of the Allegheny mountains. It followed the 
emigrants westward and by 1890 had reached Minnesota. Quackgrass 
is now known to occur in all states north of the 35th parallel (Hitchcock, 
4). 

The geographic distribution of this weed has been further reported 
by Kephart (5) who states that it has been found as far north as the 
limits of cultivation, that it never winterkills and seldom becomes 
troublesome as a weed south of the Ohio River. He further states that 
quackgrass is a relatively poor seeder. Loose cultivated soil promotes 
good vegetative growth but fewer seeds. Oswald and Boss (7) state that 

75 



76 



Indiana Academy of Science 



each spikelet when mature contains from three to seven seeds. Amy (2) 
states that the spikes bear many seeds while Kephart (5) reports an 
average of twenty-five viable seeds per spike. Kephart further states 
that yields of quackgrass seed of eighteen bushels per acre have been 
obtained in Michigan. 

Materials and Methods 

Some eight hundred spikes of quackgrass were collected in the 
summer of 1938. In the fall, as previously stated, they were analyzed 
for floret fertility. In sampling this population for analysis each tenth 
spike was selected. 

From eighty such spikes the following major determinations are 
made: average number of spikelets per spike; average number of 
florets per spikelet; percent of fertile florets; number of fertile florets 
per spike and the number of fertile florets per spiklet. 

To determine seasonal variation, if any, these investigations were 
continued through 1939 and 1940. Larger collections were made the 
second and third years but the same sampling methods were used except 
that each twentieth spike was selected for analysis. Since approximately 
two thousand spikes were selected both the second and third year the 
total number analyzed each year was about the same. 

These selections were made along fence rows and waste ground at 
the extreme south edge of the Purdue University Campus and adjacent 
to a large gravel pit. This soil is droughty but has produced fairly good 
crops of wheat and alfalfa. This land is classified as a Warsaw silt loam. 

The temperature and rainfall records were from the Purdue Uni- 
versity weather station about 60 rods from the quackgrass plots. 

Experimental Results 

Table I records the results obtained for the three year period. 

Table I. Quackgrass Fertility Analysis 



Number of heads selected for 

analysis 

Total number of spikelets 

Ave. Number spikelets per spike 

Total number of florets 

Ave. number of florets per spikelet 

Ave. number fertile florets per 

spikelet 

Ave. number fertile florets per 

spike 

Percent of total florets fertile 





Year 




1938 


1939 


1940 


80 


93 


95 


1531 


1581 


1727 


19.14 


17.0 


18.71 


6736 


7715 


7783 


4.4 


4.88 


4.38 


.49 


.13 


.78 


9.39 


2.21 


14.59 


11.2 


2.7 


17.4 



Average 



89.3 
1613 

18.28 
7513 
4.62 



8.79 
10.27 



Botany 77 

Floret fertility, on a percentage basis, was found to be 11.2, 2.7 and 
17.4 for each of the years, 1938, 1939, and 1940, respectively. The aver- 
age number of grains ranged from 2.21 to 14.59 per spike and from 
0.1.") to 0.78 per spikelet. Even in the most favorable year less than one 
grain per spikelet was produced. 

The floret analysis herein reported includes the total number of 
florets within the spikelet. It is generally known that, in the many- 
flowered spikelets in the grasses the percentage of floret fertility 
decreases from the lower to the upper nodes of the rachilla. Quackgrass 
appears to be in general agreement with this fertility pattern. 

Weather records were obtained to correlate if possible temperature 
and precipitation with fertility. 

Climatological data (1) giving precipitation and temperature re- 
corded as departure from normal are presented in Table II. 

Table II. Precipitation and Temperature Data Obtained from 
Climatological Reports. 

Months reported Figures recorded as departures from normal 
1938 1939 1940 

Precp. Temp. Precp. Temp. Precp. Temp. 



May . . 
June 


+ 1.67 in. 
+ 0.03 in. 


+ 0.6°F. 
— 0.1°F. 


—3.35 in. 
+ 1.36 in. 


+ 5.1°F. 

+ 3.9°F. 


0.0 in. 
+ 0.39 in. 


— 1.6'F. 

+ 2.1°F. 



These figures indicate that the year of highest June rainfall was 
accompanied by the lowest floret fertility, while in years when June 
rainfall was more normal floret fertility was higher. The figures further 
show that 1939 was the year of highest June temperature and was 
associated with the lowest floret fertility. Due to the flowering period 
of quackgrass it appears that May rainfall would have less influence on 
floret fertility than would rainfall in June. In Central Indiana quack- 
grass flowers the first half of June, sometimes starting in late May. 
Generally, however, the flowering period is over and the grains quite 
well matured by early July. 

Discussion of Results 

In general weeds produce seed in very large numbers. One investi- 
gator (6) found that some weeds produce several hundred thousand 
seeds per plant while in a few cases the estimate (Peterson and Tingy, 8) 
has been up to a million seeds per plant. In general the weedy species 
in the grass family produce less seed than do many weedy plants in 
other families. 

All weeds branded as primary noxious by law in Indiana (Quack- 
enbush and Carter, 9) propagate vegetatively as well as by seed. In 
general, where vegetative reproduction is well developed the plant has 
reduced its tendency to reproduce by seed. This reduction in seed may be 



78 Indiana Academy of Science 

caused by a reduced number of flowers or by flower sterility. There is 
ample evidence of floret sterility in many of the grasses. It is well known 
that vegetatively Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and field 
bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis L. spread rapidly by vegetative repro- 
duction yet neither of these two species produces many seeds in this 
area. On the contrary, Johnson grass, Sorghum holepense (L.) Pers. 
is very aggressive vegetatively yet with little apparent reduction in its 
ability to produce seed. 

While rhizomes and creeping roots are effective in the dissemination 
of weedy species they are most effective when carried short distances. 
Seeds, however, often retain their viability for many years, and may be 
carried great distances by means of agricultural seed or other agencies. 

While quackgrass under the conditions of the experiment produced 
few seeds in this area one would not be entirely justified in assuming 
that such seed is a negligible factor in the spread of this weed. According 
to the data presented quackgrass produces some seed every year and an 
appreciable amount of seed in the more favorable years. Such seed is 
no doubt a very definite factor in the dissemination of the species, being 
carried through forage crops, crop residues, manure, and agricultural 
seed. Such seed provides a constant source of infestation of new areas. 

These results indicate that high temperature or heavy precipitation 
or both may reduce floret fertility in quackgrass. Although definite con- 
clusions should not be drawn from three years data these results are in 
general agreement with greater floret fertility found in the western 
and northern states where lower temperatures and rainfall prevails. The 
separate effects of these two factors are not known. 

Summary and Conclusions 

Floret fertility of quackgrass, Agropyron repens, as determined by 
the number of seeds found at maturity was relatively low in central 
Indiana. There was considerable annual variation. 

Higher than normal June rainfall and higher than normal June 
temperature were associated with reduced floret fertility. 

Quackgrass sets some seed every year and an appreciable amount 
during the more favorable years. 

When the usual methods of seed dissemination are considered even 
low yields of quackgrass seed must be an important source of infestation 
for new areas. 

Literature Cited 

1. Arlington, J. H. 1940. Climatological data. Indiana Section. U.S.D.A. 

Weather Bureau. May-June 1938-1940. 

2. Arnt, A, C. 1928. Quackgrass Control. Minn. Agr. Ext. Div. Circular 

25. 

3. Deam, Charles C. 1929. Grasses of Indiana. pp. 101-102, Indiana 

Department of Conservation. Indianapolis, Indiana. 

4. Hitchcock, A. S. 1935. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. 

U.S.D.A. Miscl. Publ. No. 200. pp. 231-233. Washington. 



Botany 79 

Kephart, L. W. 1923. Quackgrass U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers Bulletin 

1307. 
Muenscher, W. C. 1935. Weeds, pp. 4-5, Macmillian Co. New York. 
Oswald, W. L. and Andrew Boss. 1913. Minn. Weeds. Minni. Agri. Exp. Sta. 

Bui. 129. 
Peterson, W. and D. C. Tingy. 1928. Weeds. Losses, Agencies in 

Distribution, Nature and Control. Utah Agri. Exp. Sta. Cir. 71. 
Quackenbush, F. W. and A. S. Carter. 1946. The Indiana seed law 
and how to comply with it. Purdue Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. 313. 



The Algae of the Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve 

M. S. Markle, Earlham College 



The Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve is a private wild-life sanctuary 
near Rensselaerville, N. Y. It was established in 1931 as a memorial 
to Edmund Niles Huyck and is managed by a corporation, which made 
possible this brief study in the summer of 1946. 

The Preserve consists of Lincoln Pond, of about four acres, and 
Myosotis Lake, of about eighty acres, and Tenmile Creek, which drains 
them and which includes a series of cascades called Rensselaerville 
Falls; also the most of the watershed of this drainage-system. 

The two artificial bodies of water, Lincoln Pond and Lake Myosotis, 
have assumed the habitat-characteristics of natural lakes, except that 
the practically constant level, maintained by dams, prevents the catas- 
trophic seasonal changes of natural lakes, levels of which may vary 
greatly. Such uniform habitats often show large populations of algae, 
but a relatively small number of species, which may remain for long 
periods in the vegetative condition, making identification difficult beyond 
the genus. A floating species of Oedogonium was the most conspicuous 
alga of the lakes, collecting in masses above the dams and on the spill- 
ways. At times blue-green algae, in the form of water-blooms, become 
so abundant that copper sulfate is used to destroy them; but they were 
not abundant at the time of this study. 

Tenmile Creek passes by a series of cascades thru a postglacial gorge 
cut thru the Hamilton flags and shales and the Oneonta red beds of the 
Middle Devonian. On the faces of the cascades grew scattered colonies of 
Lemanea (Sacheria), intermingled with various attached green algae, 
especially Cladophora. 

The walls of the gorge are in many places permanently moist from 
seepage. Here occur gelatinous masses composed of mixtures in various 
proportions of Nostoc micros copicum Born. & Flah., Anacystis rupestris 
(Lyngb) Dr. & Daily, Aphanothece, Chroococcus turgidus (Kiitz) Nag., 
Cylindrospermum majus Born. & Flah. and Gloeothece rupestris (Lyngb.) 
Born. Scytonema figuratum Born. & Flah. Anacystis rupestris and 
Glococapsa alpicola (Lyngb) Born formed lichen-like colonies on shaded 
walls, associated with the "fleece lichen". 

In swift water at the falls occurred Plectonema Thomasinianum 
Gom., forming tenacious, dark-green closely-adherent incrustations on 
rocks. Nostoc sphericum Born. & Flah. formed tough spherical colonies 
where spattering from the cascades occurred. 

Because of the frequent showers characteristic of the region, soil 
algae were common. Nostoc muscorum Born. & Flah., Microcoleus 

80 



Botany 81 

vaginatus Gom and Cylindrospermum muscicola Born. & Flah. formed 
dark green patches on moist soil. 

One of the most notable collections was made in a shallow bay of 
Basic Reservoir, where Pediastrum occurred in very great abundance. 
Pediastrum Boryanum (Turp.) Menegh. and P. duplex Meyen were the 
principal species and were accompanied by small quantities of Scene- 
desmns quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. Pediastrum is commonly found as 
isolated colonies among filamentous algae or as plankton; but such an 
occurrence as this is apparently rather unusual. 

The principal lake-bottom inhabitants were the Characeae. Chara 
coronata Ziz. was common in Lake Myosotis and in a beaver-pond north 
of Rensselaerville. Nitella flexilis also occurred in Lake Myosotis. 

The Rhodophyceae were well represented, as follows: Sacheria 
(Lemanea) fucina (Bary) Sirod at Rensselaerville Falls, growing with 
green algae on edges of cascades; Adouinella violacea, forming a con- 
tinuous, extensive, bright-violet area where the trickle of water fell from 
a height of about thirty feet on a flat ledge at Felter's Glen, a deep, 
narrow, shaded rock gorge; Batrachospermum moniliforme Roth in a 
small, cold, spring-fed brook; the apparent Chantransia- form of Batra- 
chospermum at The Vly, a peat bog. 

Further study at other seasons of the year will be necessary in 
order to complete the catalog of algal species occurring in the Preserve 
and its environs. 

Grateful acknowledgments of the writer at due to Dr. Francis 
Drouet, of the Chicago Museum of Natural History, for identifying the 
blue-green and green algae; to Dr. Mervin Palmer and Mrs. William A. 
Daily of Butler University, for work with the Rhodophyceae and the 
Characeae. 



Beech in the Forests about Laughery Creek Valley x 

J. E. Potzger, Butler University 
Leland Chandler, Purdue University 



Laughery Creek today meanders through a wide, magnificent valley, 
deeply entrenched in Ordovician rock strata. The majestic power of 
great masses of water which Laughery Creek carried in early post- 
glacial times is still evidenced in the silent grandeur of the high slopes 
and carved rocks. The master stream imposed his cutting power upon the 
smaller tributary creeks, so that the region presents a wide range of 
habitats with their selective action on plant life. This in turn results in 
segregation of species of trees and of forest types. 

The region in general lies within the old Illinoian tillplain. These 
tillplain habitats are severaly leached. Not only is the topography flat 
but the land offers great problems to the agriculturist. The greyish- 
brown soil is compacted to a degree that one wonders how roots of trees 
can ever penetrate, or how proper aeration can be attained. On the other 
hand, the nearby steep, rocky slopes may lack sufficient soil moisture 
during much of the growing season. Between the two extremes appear 
numerous habitats which are intermediate. This means variation in 
forest cover types in the various habitat sites. 

We became interested in the wide range of Fagus grandifolia 
(beech) in this part of Ripley County. It is present in forests on the 
poorly-drained tillplains as well as in those on well-drained gentle north 
and east-facing slopes. While beech is present consistently in the whole 
range of different habitat sites, the associates vary much. This unique 
characteristic of Fagus suggested the present study in the Laughery 
Creek valley (Fig. 1). The numbers on the map used to show location of 
the various forests are the same as those designating tables ond forest 
descriptions. 

Location and Descriptions of the Forests 

1. Versailles State Park stand is located within the park area, 
beginning at the fire tower road and running eastward. It covers about 
10 acres. While there is little evidence of modifying cultural influence, 
some selective cutting may have taken place. 



1 This is contribution 21 G of the botanical laboratories of Butler University 
and contribution 3 of the faculty of the Purdue-Department of Conservation 
Education Camp. 

82 



Botany 



S3 



TO OSGOOD 




TO OILCSBORO 



DEARBORN CO. 






OHIO CO, 



JEFFER50H CO. 



To •* TO VfcVAY ft* ia» 
flADlSON 

5R42. 

Figure 1. Partial map of the Laughery Creek valley to show location of 
forests studied. 



2. J. H. Schwagmeier woods. It is one mile west of Benham. The 
area is between 20 and 25 acres. A small, shallow creek drains the 
wooded area. No cultural disturbance is evident. 

3. W. S. Lemon woods. Its location is two miles southwest of 
Benham and 3.5 miles northwest of junction between roads 62 and 129. 
The area is about 15 acres. About half of the forested land is typical 
Illinoian tillplain habitat. The other half is influenced by drainage. Some 
intermittent streams penetrate the area and a deep ravine flanks the 
outer part. Pasturing and some cutting have been and are modifying 
influences. 

4. Fred Cutter woods. This woods is located three miles north of 
Friendship, and three miles south of Elrod, on the Elrod-Friendship pike, 
along the Washington-Browntownship line. The area comprises about 10 
acres. Only a few sections have suffered cutting. 

5. Henry Thielking woods. Its location is 2.5 miles west of Friend- 
ship on state road 62; two miles east of junction between highways 62 
and 129. Area is about 25 acres. This is a magnificent stand of timber, 



84 Indiana Academy of Science 

in its prime. A few large Jug Jans nigra (walnut) were taken out about 
10 years ago. No other cultural influences have played a part in the 
development of the stand. A small intermittent stream drains the center. 
The habitat is, thus, of the drained Illinoian tillplain type. 

6. Ervin Thielking woods. The stand is located one mile east of 
Olean, on the Friendship-Olean pike, south side of the road. The forest 
covers about 20 to 25 acres. While the periphery of the forest shows 
evidences of some cutting, no disturbance of natural conditions is evident 
in the section where the tabulations were made. Both shallow and deep 
ravines give evidence that drainage is adequate. 

7. Wm. J. H. Otte woods. Its location is one mile north of Olean on 
state road 129, and a half mile south. There is disturbance by some 
pasturing and cutting. Most of the stand is located on a steep slope to 
a Laughery valley tributary stream. Exposure is north-east. 

8. George Stegemoller woods. This stand is one mile east of Olean 
on the Friendship-Olean pike, north side of the road. It covers approxi- 
mately 15 acres. No modifying cultural influences were evident. 

9. Wm. Gardeman heirs woods. Location of the 60 acres is one mile 
north of Olean on state road 129, and a half mile south. The topography 
is a rather narrow plateau of Illinoian tillplain type soil bordered by 
steep slopes to Laughery valley on the one side and to Raccoon Creek on 
the other. It is a mature stand of timber which has had a limited amount 
of selective cutting as modifying influence. 

10. Frank Fisse woods. It is located one mile west of Friendship 
on the Friendship-Olean pike, north of the road. It covers about 5 acres. 
The topography is a long gentle west-facing slope with several secondary 
noith-facing slopes faceting. The whole area is drained by a small creek. 
There is some evidence of former pasturing. 

Methods 

The junior author lived in Friendship, Indiana and was personally 
acquainted with the owners of the various stands, and he made all 
arrangements with the owners to have the studies carried out on the 
various properties. 

With the exception of the Otte woods, woody species in twenty 
10-meter-square quadrats were tabulated to obtain data on the sociology 
in the forests. In the Otte woods only ten such quadrats were studied. 
Each quadrat was delimited with a stout cord with loops at ten-meter 
intervals. The loops were slipped over wooden stakes driven into the 
ground. Stems 1-inch or over DBH. were measured with wooden calipers. 
Stems of smaller diameter were counted if height was at least 3 feet. 
Tables I to X present for each stand the stems in several diameter 
size-classes, the abundance and the per cent F. I. All stems 9 inches 
DBH. or over are considered of sufficient height to be represented in the 
crown cover. The percentage of the total of such stems which a given 
species had in the stand is shown graphically in figure 2. The aim was 
to find all types of habitats where beech formed a part in the forest 



S* 



UD 



55 



O 






1 1 

I I 

I . 

I. 



■ ■ 

I I 

I. 



4 






<n 



I 

I 

I. 
.1 



i 



^ <d 



UU 

Z3 •■? 40 •«■• 






• mm 

E 






* J* £ ° 

a t_ ft) o 

S = ;c s °! = 5, 
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1 1SJ 

e sot. 

5 lO^Lg 



fcad-dcfr^PS 



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3 
? 

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80 



Indiana Academy of Science 



complex. The habitats were representative of poorly-drained Illinoian 

tillplain (Tables I, II, III, VIII), partly dissected Illinoian tillplain 

(Tables IV, V, VI, IX), and east and north-facing slopes (Tables 
VII, X). 

Results 

While Tables I to X and figure 2 present the sociology in the 
various stands, a few important points will be re-stated. Most of the 
species of trees had low fidelity, only Fagus grandifolia Acer saccharum 
and Fraxinus americana showed 100 per cent fidelity, i.e., they appeared 
in every one of the ten stands. Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar) 
and Fraxinus quadrangulata (blue ash) had a fidelity of 90 per cent. 
Prunus serotina (black cherry) Ulmus americana (American elm) re- 
corded 80 per cent. If we consider importance in crown control (Fig. 2) 
only beech is consistently represented at all stations in the large-stem 
sizes. Acer saccharum (sugar maple) has a high fidelity, exhibits tre- 

Table I. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in Versailles State Park. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



Species 


Below 
lin. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 
20 


Total 

stems 


Per 

cent 
P.I. 


Acer rubrum 


8 


24 


24 


16 


16 


4 


1 


93 


75 


A. saccharum 


4 


3 


2 




1 




1 


11 


3 5 


Amelanchier canadensis 




1 


1 










2 


5 


Carpinus caroliniana 


29 


25 


12 


1 








67 


60 


Carya laciniosa 
C. ovata 


6 

27 


3 

18 


1 

8 


2 


2 






10 
59 


15 
80 


Cornus florida 


11 


4 












15 


30 


Fagus grandifolia 


28 


44 


18 


2 






3 


95 


80 


Fraxinus americana 


19 


13 


5 


4 








41 


70 


Liquidambar styraciflua 


1 


o 


9 


5 


5 


4 




27 


65 


Liriodendron tulipifera 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




5 


20 


Morus rubra 


2 














2 


5 


Nyssa sylvatica 


1 


1 


3 


2 


3 






10 


25 


Ostrya virginiana 
Platanus occidentalis 


16 


2 


2 




1 






20 

1 


20 
5 


Prunus serotina 


1 








1 






2 


10 


Quercus alba 


11 


5 


7 


3 


3 




1 


30 


70 


Q. birolor 








1 


1 






2 


5 


Q. borealis var. maxima 


4 


5 


4 


2 


6 


1 




22 


65 


Q. palustris 
Sassafras albidum 


1 




8 


11 


1 


1 




1 
21 


5 
55 


Ulmus americana 


2 


7 


6 


2 


1 






18 


4 


U. thomasi 




2 












2 


5 


Corylus americana 


7 














7 


10 


Lindera benzoin 


78 














78 


20 


Smilax glauca 


89 














89 


50 


Viburnum dentatum var. 




















deamii 


38 














38 


35 


Vitis sp.? 


1 














1 


5 



Botany 



87 



Table II. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in the Schwagmeier woods. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



Species 


Below 
1 in. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 
20 


Total 

stems 


Per 
cent 
F.I. 


Acer rubrum 


6 


3 


3 


1 


3 


2 


2 


20 


40 


A. saccharum 


4 


1 


1 










6 


20 


Carpinus caroliniana 






1 










1 


5 


Carya glabra 


1 














1 


5 


C. ovata 


87 


13 




2 


1 




1 


104 


90 


Fagus grandifolia 


249 


11 


5 


1 


8 


12 


4 


290 


90 


Fraxinus americana 


4 




i 


i 








6 


25 


Liquidambar styraciflua 


40 


5 


1 


3 


5 




1 


55 


65 


Liriodendron tulipifera 


20 


4 




1 


3 






28 


30 


Morus rubra 


4 














4 


20 


Nyssa sylvatica 






1 




1 






2 


10 


Prunus serotina 


1 














1 


5 


Sassafras albidum 


1 














1 


5 


Ulmus americana 


2 


2 


1 




2 






7 


30 


U. fulva 


1 














1 


5 


Aralia spinosa 


12 


8 


1 










21 


20 


Lindera benzoin 


209 














209 


65 


Rosa sp.? 


10 














10 


5 


Rubus alleg-heniensis 


6 














6 


15 


Sambucus canadensis 


IT 














17 


30 


Smilax glauca 


55 














55 


75 


Viburnum acerifolium 


3 














3 


5 



mendous reproduction in most mesic habitats, but seldom attains great 
abundance in the large size-classes. All shrubs, except Smilax glauca 
(green briar) and Vitis sp.? (grape) have a fidelity of 70 per cent or 
less. While 18 species of shrubs and 6 of small trees are present in the 
ten stands, none have sufficient abundance to produce well-defined strata. 

Trees of Large Diameter 

The farther we become removed from pioneer days and forest 
primeval the more we may feel inclined to believe that a large per- 
centage of the trees constituting the forest primeval were of gigantic 
size, and so it is perhaps justified to add a few records gleaned from the 
study of ten stands in the Laughery Creek valley, which as a whole had 
not been disturbed greatly. Potzger and Friesner (3,4) pointed out that 
trees with extremely large diameters very likely were not so common 
as stories by "old timers" and idealized descriptions by early travelers 
might make one believe. Any description of a forest which is not 
based on some quantitative sampling is very likely to be far from 
accurate. In the ten stands we recorded 17 stems 30 inches or over DBH. 
Figures in parentheses refer to the forest or forests where these trees 
were observed. Acer saccharum, 36, 36 (5) ; Carya cordiformis, 39 (6) ; 
Fagus grandifolia 30 (10) ; 30, 30 (9) ; 30 (4) ; 30, 33, 36, 37 (6) ; 30, 37, 
38 (5) ; Nyssa sylvatica, 34 (4) ; Quercus borealis var. maxima, 35 (5). 



88 Indiana Academy of Science 

Discussion 

The senior author last year studied the range of forest cover types 
in the Versailles Park area (2) and found that the climate-favored 
climax forest occupies the most mesophytic habitats, and with changes 
in soil moisture conditions the two most important dominants in it, 
Fagus grandifolia and Acer saccharum separate as associates and we 
find them as co-dominants in different association complexes. Beech 
extends its range to the moist or wet Illinoian tillplain habitat and sugar 
maple to the drier sites on slopes which are usually characterized by oaks 
and hickories. 

Since the present study had as specific aim the examination of 
beech and its association ranges, the habitats selected were of necessity 
those where soil moisture was favorable to abundant. If the sociological 
factors abundance and F. I. are considered (Tables I to X) one finds 
less segregation into forest cover types than is accentuated if crown 
cover alone is considered (Fig. 2). However, the latter factor is the 
most important one in the forest of the present. While reproduction is 
significant, one should not use it too extensively for predictions with 

Table III. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in the Lemon woods. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



Species 


Below 
lin. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 
20 


Total 

stems 


Per 
cent 
F.I. 


Acer negundo 


1 














1 


5 


A. rubrum 




4 


1 










5 


10 


A. saccharum 


14 


6 


3 


2 


4 






29 


35 


Carpinus caroliniana 


2 


1 


1 










4 


5 


Carya cordiformis 


2 














2 


10 


C. ovata 


8 


8 


1 


1 








.18 


25 


Cornus florida 


8 


3 




5 








16 


50 


Fagus grandifolia 


71 


8 


2 


1 


9 


13 


8 


112 


100 


Fraxinus americana 


5 












1 


6 


15 


F. nigra 


1 














1 


5 


Juniperus virginiana 


5 














5 


10 


Liquidambar styraciflua 


9 


9 


3 


4 


2 






27 


30 


JJriodendron tulipifera 




1 






1 




1 


3 


15 


Ostrya virginiana 


11 


1 












12 


3 5 


Prunus serotina 


1 














1 


5 


Quercus alba 


3 














3 


10 


Q. palustris 


1 














1 


5 


Tilia americana 


1 








:< 


1 




5 


15 


Ulmus americana 


1 


1 












2 


10 


Aralia spinosa 


8 


1 


3 










12 


15 


Asimina triloba 


2 














2 


5 


Lindera benzoin 


97 


1 












98 


30 


Rubus allegheniensis 


7 














7 


25 


Smilax glauca 


396 














396 


25 


Vitis sp.? 


5 














5 


10 



Botany 



89 



Table IV. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in the Cutter woods. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



















" 1 


Per 


Species 


Below 












Above 


Total 


(■•■Hi 




1 in. 


L-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


20 


.stems 
10 


P.I. 


Acer rubrum 


7 


; 


2 










15 


A. saccharum 


12 






1 








13 


30 


Aeseulus glabra 






1 










1 


5 


Carya glabra 


g 


1 


1 










5 


20 


C. ovata 


3 




1 










4 


15 


Cornus florida 


80 


16 


9 










105 


7 


Pagus grandifolia 


64 


53 


42 


17 


3 


4 


10 


193 


95 


Fraxinus americana 


19 


11 


6 


4 


3 


1 




44 


45 


Liquidambar styraciflua 


4 


2 


3 


1 


9 






19 


30 


Liriodendron tulipifera 








1 


1 


1 




3 


15 


Morus rubra 






1 










1 


5 


Nyssa sylvatica 


2 




1 








2 


5 


15 


Ostrya virginiana 


15 


9 


6 










30 


4 5 


Prunus serotina 


1 






1 


1 






3 


15 


Quercus borealis var. maxima 




1 












1 


5 


Q. palustris 










3 






3 


10 


Ulmus americana 


1 


1 




2 








4 


20 


L r . thomasi 




1 


1 










9 


5 


Aralia spinosa 




1 












1 


5 


Linus radicans 


41 














41 


15 


Ribes sp.? 


2 














o 


5 


Sambucus canadensis 


1 














1 


5 


Smilax glauca 


7 














7 


15 


Viburnum acerifolium 


4 














4 


10 


Vitis sp.? 


6 


13 


1 










20 


30 



reference to composition of forests of the future. This has been stressed 
repeatedly by the senior author with reference to sugar maple and ash. 
One can gain some concept of the variation in association complex 
within the ten stands by a brief survey of the ten tables. We find 31 
species of tall trees and 6 species of small trees participating in the 
sociology of the ten stands, but of these 31 the maximum representation 
in any one stand is 19 and the minimum is 11. This makes one wonder 
how much of the association aggregation is an expression of selection by 
habitat factors and how much is chance priority due to early invasion 
when the stand first developed. Potzger and Potzger (5) found different 
forest cover foreshadowed because of chance to invade an open area 
before larger numbers of one or more species occupy the crown cover. 
Since trees are long-lived, the crown cover once closed will very likely 
remain more or less static for centuries. One survey can hardly discover 
all such factors. This characteristic prompted Gleason (1) to sponsor 
the individualistic concept of the plant association, which is determined 
by space and time. 



90 



Indiana Academy of Science 



If one were to apply the classification of foresters, based on forest 
cover types, a remarkable heterogeneity would be noticed in the forests 
about Laughery Creek valley, viz. beech-sweet gum (3); beech-red 
maple-sweet gum (2) ; red maple-sweet gum-beech (1) ; beech-sweet gum- 
ash (4); beech-sugar maple (10); beech-sugar maple-ash-tulip poplar 
(8); beech-ash (7). This can mean only a great potentiality of beech to 
fit into a wide range of microclimatic factors in habitats which are in 
the moist to wet class. 

The Laughery Creek valley environment is no doubt favorable to 
beech, this is shown by crown control (Fig. 2) in various habitat sites 
as well as by abundant to prolific reproduction (Tables I to X). It 
appears that beech reproduces best in habitats where moisture is abun- 
dant. It is usually not reproducing prolifically in the climax mixed 
mesophytic forest type. It is therefore a mystery why beech does not 
invade floodplain areas. 

While beech is a constant participant in all ten stands studied, 
associates may indicate variation in habitat factors. Thus, Liquidambar 
sty rati flua (sweet gum) and Acer rubrum (red maple) designate poor 



Table V. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in Henry Thielking woods. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 





Species 


Below 
lin. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 
20 


Total 
stems 


Per 
cent 
F.I. 


Acer saccharum 


191 


65 


44 


12 


2 






314 


100 


A. rubrum 


8 






1 








9 


5 


Carya cordiformis 


1 














1 


5 


Carya ovata 
Cornus florida 


8 
67 


4 
13 


1 
14 


1 








13 

95 


10 
90 


Fagus grandifolia 


57 


11 


2 


1 





5 


12 


90 


100 


Fraxinus americana 


14 


1 






1 


1 




17 


35 


F. quadrangulata 
Liriodendron tulipifera 


1 
29 


1 


1 


1 


2 




1 


1 
25 


5 
70 


Nyssa sylvatica 
Ostrya virginiana 


(12 
3 5 


5 
1 


2 








1 


70 

38 


30 
55 


Prunus serotina 


15 


1 












16 


30 


Quercus borealis var. maxima 














1 


1 


5 


Sassafras albidum 


7 




1 




1 






9 


25 


Ulmus americana 


1 


3 












4 


10 


U. fulva 


19 


2 












21 


30 


Aralia spinosa 
Celastrus scandens 


8 
4 














8 
4 


20 
5 


Evonymus atropurpureus 
Rhus radicans 


1 

2 














1 
2 


5 

5 


Rubus allegheniensis 


7 














7 


10 


Smilax glauca 


19 














19 


15 


S. hispida 


33 














33 


30 


Viburnum acerifolium 


2 














2 


5 


Vitis sp. 


9 


14 












23 


15 



Botany 



93 



Table VI. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in Ervin Thielking- woods. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



Species 


Below 
1 it) . 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 
20 


Total 
stems 


Per 

cent. 
F.I. 


Acer saccharum 


L60 


108 


43 


24 


5 




1 


341 


100 


Carpinus caroliniana 


1 


2 












3 


5 


Carya cordiformis 














1 


1 


5 


C. glabra 


1 














1 


5 


Cornus florida 


10 


10 


8 










28 


55 


Fag-us grandifolia 


18 


10 


1 


1 


o 


c 


17 


54 


95 


Fraxinus americana 


94 


3 




1 








98 


70 


F. pennsylvanica 


3 


1 












4 


5 


Juglans nigra 


1 




1 




3 






g 


10 


Liriodendron tulipifera 


2 








6 


1 




9 


25 


Morus rubra 


10 














10 


25 


Prunus serotina 


14 








1 






15 


20 


Quercus borealis var. maxima 


2 


1 












3 


10 


Asimina triloba 


5 














5 


10 


Lindera benzoin 


4 














4 


15 


Rubus occidentalis 


1 














1 


5 


Viburnum acerifolium 


17 














17 


25 


Vitis sp.? 


1 












1 


5 



Table VII. Tabulation of woody species in ten 10-meter-square 
quadrats in the Otte woods. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



Species 


Below 
1 in. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 
20 


Total 
stems 


Per 
cent 
F.I. 


Acer saccharum 


14 


18 


G 




1 






39 


80 


Aesculus glabra 




2 












2 


10 


Carpinus caroliniana 








1 








1 


10 


Carya cordiformis 




2 


1 










3 


20 


Cornus florida 






1 










1 


10 


Fagus grandifolia 


4 


2 


1 






5 


5 


17 


80 


Fraxinus americana 


2 








? 


1 


2 


8 


50 


F. quadrangulata 










1 


1 




2 


20 


Gymnocladus dioica 




1 












1 


10 


Juglans nigra 












1 




1 


10 


Morus rubra 


1 














1 


10 


Ostrya virginiana 


22 


4 












26 


50 


Tilia americana 


1 




1 










2 


20 


Ulmus americana 


2 


9 


15 


1 






1 


28 


90 


IT. f ulva 






1 










1 


10 


Asimina triloba 


31 


2 












33 


70 


Evonymus atropurpureus 


12 














12 


20 


Lindera benzoin 


54 


3 












57 


40 


Ribes sp.? 


24 














24 


50 


Rubus allegheniensis 


15 














15 


20 



i)2 



Indiana Academy of Science 



drainage on the Illinoian tillplain, sugar maple indicates the climax 
where optimum mesophytism prevails in the site. Less diagnostic are 
such species as tulip poplar, American ash and Nyssa sylvatica (sour 
gum). Their range is wide, and frequently similar to that of beech. 

Summary and Conclusions 

1. The paper presents data on ten forest stands in the Laughery 
Creek valley (Ripley County, Indiana) in which Fagus grandifolia 
is an important dominant. 

2. The habitats where beech is important include poorly-drained 
Illinoian tillplain, well-drained Illinoian tillplain and well-drained north 
and east-facing slopes. 

3. Fagus has a fidelity of 100 per cent but associates vary much. 
Figure 2 shows graphically the percentage of stems 9 inches or over 
DBH. which any species had of the total number of such stems in a 
given forest. 

4. Beech reproduces very abundantly in wet habitats but not so 
well in the most mesophytic habitats. 

Table VIII. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in the Stegemoller forest. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 









I 










Per 


Species 


Below 










Above 


Total 


cent 




lin. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


20 


stems 


F.I. 


Acer saceharu'm 


! 272 1 


61 


49 


32 


11 






423 


100 


Carya corcliformis 


5 i 






1 








6 


15 


Celtis occidentalis 










1 






1 


5 


Cornus florida 


1 


5 


1 


1 








8 


20 


Fagus grandifolia 


10J 


10 


2 


1 


1 




8 


32 


65 


Fraxinus americana 


19! 






1 


5 


4 


1 


30 


50 


F. pennsylvanica 


7! 














7 


5 


F. quadrangulata 


l! 














1 


5 


Juglans nigra 










2 






2 


10 


Ciriodendron tulipifera 










4 


o 




6 


20 


Morus rubra 


17 


3 












20 


45 


Nyssa sylvatica 










1 






1 


5 


Prunus serotina 


11 














11 


30 


Quercus alba 






1 










1 


5 


Tilia americana 










1 






1 


5 


Ulmus fulva 


7 


2 


1 










11 


25 


Aralia spinosa 


1 














1 


5 


Asimina triloba 


97 


5 












102 


35 


Parthenocissus quinquefolia 


5 














5 


5 


Sambucus canadensis 


1 














1 


3 


Smilax giauca 


5 














5 


10 


Vitis sp.? 


1 


- 


1 










10 


15 



Botany 



93 



Table IX. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-squaro 
quadrats in the Gardeman forest. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



Species 


Below 
1 in. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 
20 


Total 
stems 


Per 
cent 
F.I. 


Acer saccharum 


24 


31 


12 


5 


10 


1 




83 


70 


Aesculus glabra 


1 














1 


5 


Carpinus caroliniana 


2 


1 












3 


15 


Carya cordiformis 


1 














1 


5 


Cornus florida 


15 


3 












18 


35 


Fagus grandifolia 


27 


6 


3 




2 


5 


13 


56 


80 


Fraxinus americana 


9 


1 


1 


2 




5 




18 


45 


F. quadrangulata 




1 












1 


5 


Juglans nigra 










2 






2 


10 


Juniperus virginiana 


1 














1 


5 


Liriodendron tulipifera 


18 








2 


1 




21 


30 


Nyssa sylvatica 


38 














38 


45 


Ostrya virginiana 


17 


1 












19 


35 


Prunus serotina 


2 














2 


5 


Quercus muhlenbergii 


2 














2 


5 


Sassafras albidum 


8 














8 


15 


Tilia americana 


14 




1 




1 






16 


10 


Ulmus americana 


5 


3 




2 


1 






11 


35 


U. fulva 


9 


1 






1 


1 




12 


30 


Aralia spinosa 


7 


2 












9 


15 


Asimina triloba 


106 


10 












116 


30 


Lindera benzoin 


380 


7 












387 


95 


Ribes sp.? 


11 ; 














11 


10 


Rhus radicans 


6 














6 


5 


Rubus allegheniensis 


188 














188 


50 


R. occidentalis 


2 














2 


5 


Smilax glauca 


57 














57 


40 


Vitis sp.? 


1 


1 










2 


10 



5. Forest cover types represented in the ten stands are as follows: 
beech-sweet gum; beech-sweet gum-red maple; red maple-sweet gum- 
beech-oak; beech-sweet gum-ash; beech-sugar maple-ash; beech-tulip 
poplar-sugar maple; beech-sugar maple; beech-sugar maple-ash-tulip 
poplar; beech-ash. 

6. While 31 species of tall trees are recorded in the ten stands, 
only 11 to 19 of these were found in any one forest. 

7. No well-defined small tree and shrub strata were found. 



Acknowledgments 

We express sincere thanks to Mrs. Esther Potzger for assistance in 
the survey work and for lettering on figures 1 and 2; to the various 
owners of the forest stands for permission to make this study on their 
property. 



94 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table X. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in the Frank Fisse woods. Diameter classes in inches. (DBH.) 



Species 


Below 
1 in. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


Above 

20 


Total 
stems 


Per 
cent 
F.I. 


Acer saccharum 


7 




1 




2 


1 


1 


12 


40 


Carpinus caroliniana 


20 


4 


6 










30 


20 


Carya cordif ormis 


4 














4 


5 


C. ovata 




1 


3 










4 


10 


Cercis canadensis 


3 






'I 








5 


10 


Cornus florida 


18 


3 


6 


3 








30 


45 


Fag-us grandifolia 


18 


1 








4 


19 


42 


95 


Fraxinus americana 


3 


1 


5 




9 






11 


20 


Juniperus Virginia 


18 


5 












23 


45 


Liriodendron tulipifera 










1 




1 


2 


5 


Nyssa sylvatica 


7 


2 


1 




1 




1 


12 


30 


Ostrya virginiana 


143 


12 


15 


1 








171 


70 


Quercus alba 






1 










1 


5 


Q. borealis var. maxima 












1 


2 


3 


10 


Ulmus americana 






1 


1 


1 






3 


10 


U. fulva 


2 










1 




3 


15 


Asimina triloba 


31 


6 












37 


15 


Evonymus atropurpureus 


10 














10 


20 


Lindera benzoin 


3 














3 


5 


Ribes sp.? 


5 














5 


5 


Rubus allegheniensis 


26 














26 


15 


Smilax glauca 


16 














16 


20 


Vitis sp.? 


2 


9 












11 


10 



Literature Cited 

1. Gleason, H. A. 1939. The individualistic concept of the plant association. 

Amer. Midland Nat. 21: 92-110. 

2. Potzger, J. E. 1949. Forest types in the Versailles State Park area, 

Indiana. Amer. Midland Nat., (In press). 

3. - and Ray C. Friesner. 1934. Some comparisons between 

virgin forest and adjacent areas of secondary succession. Butler Univ. 



Bot. Stud. 8: 85-98. 

— . 1940. What is climax in central 



Indiana? A five-mile 



quadrat study. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 4: 181-195. 

- and Esther Potzger 1950. Secondary succession in an 
Tllinoian tillplain habitat. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 50:95-101. 



Secondary Succession in an Illinoian Tillplain Habitat 

J. E. Potzger, Butler University 
Esther Potzger, Canterbury College 



The work presented here marks the beginning of an observation on 
the progress of secondary succession on an abandoned farm adjacent to 
a comparatively little disturbed mature stand of the sweet gum-red 
maple-beech type of forest. Observation was based on twenty 10-meter- 
square permanent quadrats. The land has not been under cultivation for 
about fifteen years, and forest is well established as a vigorous young 
Liquidambar-Acer rubrum associes. 

Since appearance of Cowles (1) classical studies on succession in 
dunes habitats ecologists have been conscious of the dynamic aspect of 
vegetation. This characteristic is present both in primary and secondary 
succession. The literature does not lack papers on progress of sec- 
ondary succession based on short-time observations or on inference, but 
it lacks reports on actual changes shown by long-period and repeated 
observations in the same area. Also, the authors do not know of a 
single paper which deals with secondary succession in the unique sweet 
gum-red maple-beech association. Hence, a study of the type forming 
the basis of this paper seems to be justified. 

The area studied has an excellent location. It is bordered by a 
rather mature forest of the type to which succession is progressing, and 
being a part of Versailles State Park, cultural influences will play no 
part in the years to come. It would, of course, have been most desirable 
to have records from the very beginning of the succession tendencies, 
but it is fortunate at least that succession has not advanced far beyond 
the first wave of invaders, who apparently were able to establish them- 
selves under least favorable soil moisture of the abandoned field. Like- 
wise, at this stage the young trees have not produced seeds and so 
played no part in the seedling population. 

Geography and Physiography 

The area is within the limits of Versailles State Park, one mile east 
of Versailles, Ripley County, Indiana. The region as a whole lies within 
the severely leached Illinoian Tillplain. Habitat sites are varied because 
of the proximity to Laughery Creek and its tributaries. In spite of 
cutting action of the streams, there are still some extensive table lands 



1 This is contribution 215 of the botanical laboratory of Butler University 
and contribution 2 of the faculty of the Purdue-Department of Conservation 
Education Camp. 

95 



DC- 



Indiana Academy of Science 



with poor drainage, and these are characterized, as described previously 
by the senior author (3), by the sweet gum-red maple-beech type of 
forest association. The abandoned field under consideration is located a 
half mile east of the fire tower road, within the park proper. Topo- 
graphically it is a fiat, poorly-drained table land bordering on a better 
drained low upland. 

Methods 

The association complex of the adjacent mature forest was studied 
on basis of twenty 10-meter-square quadrats. These were taken with a 
ten-meter skip between each quadrat along two lines west of the aban- 
doned field, at about 100 and 200 feet from the young forest. Results 
are shown in Table I. The twenty permanent quadrats are of the same 
size dimension as those taken in the mature forest. They, too, were 
separated by a skip of ten meters. They are arranged in three lines, 
representing different distances from the mature forest. Quadrats 1 to 7 

Table I. Tabulation of woody species in twenty 10-meter-square 
quadrats in mature stand of Liquidambar-Acer rubrum-Fagus type 
forest, adjacent to area of secondary succession. 





Number of stems in seven diameter-classes in inche 






















Per 


Species 


Below 












Above 


Total 


cent 




1 in. 


1-2 


3-5 


6-8 


9-15 


16-20 


20 


stems 


F.l 


Acer rubrum 


8 


24 


24 


16 


16 


4 


1 


93 


75 


Acer saccharum 


4 


3 


2 




1 




1 


11 


35 


Amelanchier canadensis 




1 


1 










2 


5 


Carpinus caroliniana 


29 


25 


12 


1 








67 


60 


Carya laciniosa 


6 


3 


1 










10 


15 


C. ovata 


27 


18 


8 


2 


2 






59 


80 


Cornus florida 


11 


\ 












15 


30 


Fagus grandifolia 


28 


44 


18 


2 






3 


95 


80 


Praxinus americana 


19 


13 


5 


4 








41 


70 


Liquidambar styraciflua 


1 


3 


9 


5 


5 


4 




27 


65 


Liriodendron tulipifera 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




5 


20 


Morus rubra 


2 














2 


5 


Nyssa sylvatica 


1 


1 


3 


2 


3 






10 


25 


Ostrya virginiana 


16 


2 


2 










20 


20 


Platanus occidentalis 










1 






1 


5 


I'runus serotina 


1 








1 






2 


10 


Quercus alba 


11 


5 


7 


3 


3 




1 


30 


70 


Q. bicolor 








1 


1 






2 


5 


Q. borealis var. maxima 


4 


5 


4 


2 


6 


1 




22 


65 


Q. palustris 












1 




1 


5 


Sassafras albidum 


I 




8 


11 


1 






21 


55 


Ulmus americana 


2 


7 


6 


2 


1 






18 


40 


LJlmus thomasi 




2 












2 


5 


Corylus americana 


7 














7 


10 


Lindera benzoin 


78 














78 


20 


Smilax giauca 


89 














89 


50 


Viburnum dentatum 


38 














38 


35 


Vitis sp? 


1 














1 


5 





Botany 97 

are removed 50 feet from the forest border, quadrats 8 to 15 are removed 
100 feet and quadrats 16 to 20 approximately 500 feet. Wooden stakes 
(24x2x2) were driven into the ground and the area was delimited by 
a stout cord supplied with loops at 10-meter intervals. All stems which 
were at least one inch in diameter were measured by DBH. with wooden 
calipers and grouped into five size-classes (Table II). All stems less than 
1 inch DBH. were tabulated if their height was at least one meter. At 
the southwest corner of each large quadrat a one-meter quadrat was 
studied for seedling abundance of woody species (Table II). The plan is 
to make periodic tabulations of trees in the permanent quadrats to 
determine the progress and characteristics of the succession. 



Results 

For summarized data see Tables I to III. In the mature stand Acer 
rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus borealis var. maxima 
have the greatest number of stems 9 inches DBH. or over, but associated 
with them are many other species, important among these are species 
of Quercus and Carya, Fraxmus americana and Fagus grandifolia 
(Table I). The most abundant reproduction is evidenced by Acer rubrum,, 
Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana and Quercus alba. 
These species also have the highest per cent of F. I. The association is 
composed of 19 species of tall trees, 4 of small trees, and 5 shrubs. An 
unusual feature is that eight species of tall trees have a F. I. of 55 
per cent or higher. 

The young forest in progress of secondary succession is marked 
by group segregation tendencies, where invasion and ecesis is a kind 
of wave-like procedure determined by age of previous invaders. This 
is plainly shown by difference in stem diameters and abundance of 
stems of these groups (table III). The first wave is represented by 
Acer rubrum and Liquidambar styraciflua. It should be pointed out 
that these first invaders are still reproducing very vigorously. Replace- 
ment of old field species, such as Juniperus and Campsis radicans is 
marked. The second wave is represented by Liriodeyidron tidipifera, 
Nyssa sylvatica and Prunus serotina. Representatives of the third 
wave are Fraxinus americana, Robinia pseudo-acacia, and Ulmus 
americana. Four species of Quercus participate in the fourth wave. If 
the mature forest represents the type for the ultimate forest composition 
of the one developing, then a fifth wave can be expected in which Fagus, 
the various Caryas as well as the second layer trees Cornus florida, 
Carpinus caroliniana and Ostrya virginiana will play the leading role. 
Also, there is still to be expected invasion and ecesis of the characteristic 
shrubs cf the mature forest (table I). While the association is at present 
dominated by Acer rubrum and Liquidambar, indicated increase of 
competition for crown cover is foreshadowed by a number of other tall 
tree species (table II). At present the shrub representation is distinctly 
old field type, such as Rhus glabra, Vitis labrusca, and Campsis radicans. 
These will no doubt be eliminated graduallly as succession by trees 
continues, and as light factors become modified. 



!)S 



Indiana Academy of Science 





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Botany 



f»'.» 



TABLE III. Number of stems per 10-meter-square quadrat with 
reference to distance from the parent forest, a. quadrats 1 to 8, about 
50 feet distant; b. quadrats 9 to 15, about 100 feet distant; c. quadrats 
16 to 20, about 300 feet distant. Stems grouped into three size-classes. 





Below 


1-2 


3-5 


Total 


Species 


1 inch. 


inches 


inches 


stems 




a 11.4 


24.7 


1.0 


37 


Acer rubrum 


b 13.0 


11.3 




24.1 




c 7.4 


2.6 


.2 


10.2 




a 10.1 


22.0 


4.2 


36.4 


Liquidambar styraciflua 


b 8.1 


17.0 


1.4 


26.5 




c 2.4 


9.6 


5.6 


17.6 




a 4.5 


2.0 


.25 


6.7 


Liriodendron tulipifera 


b 1.25 


.37 


.1 


1.75 




c 


1.0 




1.0 




a 1.5 


.37 




2.0 


Nyssa sylvatica 


b .7 






.7 




c 


.2 




.2 




a .1 






.1 


Prunus serotina 


b .25 






.25 




c 




.2 


.2 




a .87 


.12 




1.0 


Fraxinus americana 


b 1.1 

c 

a .5 






1.1 
.5 


Ulmus americana 


b .1 

c 

a .25 


.1 




.2 

.25 


Quercus alba 


b 

c 

a .25 






.25 


Q. bicolor 


b .12 

c 

a 






.12 










Q. borealis var. maxima 


b .12 
c 






.12 


Quercus sp. ? 


a 

b 1.0 
c 






1.0 



Distance from the parent forest influences both abundance of 
stems of migrants (table III) as well as the progress of succession. The 
set of quadrats (c) which are removed 300 feet from the germule- 
producing forest have few of the species which constitute the second 
and third waves of invaders. Also, in the area removed 300 feet from 
the border of the parent forest 9 species of trees playing a part in 
the association complex in the mature forest are present while in the 
lines closer to the forest 14 species are present. 



Discussion 

Secondary succession is no doubt most involved in areas where the 
final forest association is most complex (climax or sub-climax). The 



100 Indiana Academy of Science 

larger the number of species participating in the crown cover, the more 
gradual the development in succession will be. In such an association 
complex there are evidently species exhibiting wide ranges of potentiality 
to fit into all facets of a habitat, especially also with reference to edaphic 
factors. In the present case Fagus demands better soil moisture condi- 
tions than Liquidambar and Acer rabrum. These latter two species are 
perhaps better adapted to cope with extremes in old field habitats. The 
delayed invasion by Carya and Quercus species may be due to absence of 
the proper animal relationships, for squirrels would hardly find great 
attractions to the area now occupied by the young sweet gum-red maple 
forest. One wonders how the seeds of sweet gum (Liquidambar) are 
carried so far, for lack of any carrying appendages it must be the 
lightness of the seed which adapts it to wind transportation. 

In a simple association, like the one in northern forests, the senior 
author (4) has pointed out that secondary succession is almost non- 
existent, species of the climax, or sub-climax, occupy the vacated 
habitats almost from the beginning. That early invaders of the climax 
species must have the potentiality to endure environmental conditions 
much more severe than those of the climax forest as such was plainly 
shown by Gates (2) for Acer saccharum. This certainly must also be 
true for the first invaders of the area under study in Versailles Park. 

Since succession is to a large extent a habitat control, it is of 
necessity a complex phenomenon where the elusive microclimate enters 
in as* important factor. It functions as a selective system, which in the 
area under study permitted successful invasion and ecesis for some 
species within a period of fifteen years and prevented others, which 
theoretically should be there, from establishing themselves definitely 
in the association. The various stages in a succession require many 
years to reach completion. For a section in Indiana Potzger and Friesner 
(6) found that after 75 years of progress the final stage had not yet 
been reached. 

The progress of succession in the fallow field at Versailles Park 
suggests the thought that differences in crown cover in mature forests 
on similar habitats may frequently be due to differences in migration, 
and not a habitat selection, when the area was being occupied. It is 
quite evident that when a crown cover closes it becomes a barrier even 
to tolerant species. Only death of a dominant tree will create an 
opening in the crown cover which might be occupied. In a developing 
even aged stand this may not occur for a century or more. If the oaks 
and beech are prevented for another 10 to 15 years from invading the 
area removed 300 feet from the mature forest it appears likely that 
sweet gum, red maple and tulip poplar will have formed a closed crown 
cover under which invasion may be impossible. Here would then develop 
a different forest cover type than in the area which is a few hundred 
feet closer to the source of seed dissemination, even though habitat 
conditions otherwise would be alike. 



Botany 101 

Summary and Conclusions 

1. The paper presents a preliminary report on a permanent quadrat 
study of secondary succession in an Illinoian Tillplain habitat in 
Versailles State Park, Ripley County, Indiana. 

2. The permanent quadrats are twenty 10-meter-square sampling 
units. 

3. On basis of twenty 10-meter-square quadrats an analysis was 
made of an adjacent mature forest of the Illinoian Tillplain type. In 
this forest 19 species of tall trees participate in the crown cover. The 
most important dominants are Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, 
and Que reus borealis var. maxima. 

4. Secondary succession on the abandoned field has been in progress 
for about 15 years. Tree species with great abundance and largest 
stem diameters are Acer rubrum and Liquidambar styraciflua. 

5. Succession seems to operate as waves of invasion in which always 
several species are involved. In order of their appearance they are 
Acer rubrum and Liquidambar; Liriodendron tulipfera, Nyssa syl- 
vatica and Primus serotina; Fraxinus americana, Robinia pseudo- 
acacia and Ulmus americana; four species of Quercus. The fifth wave 
is not yet denned, but it should involve Fagus and Carya species as 
well as the second layer trees and several shrubs. 

6. While at present the young forest is controlled by Acer rubrum 
and Liquidambar there is convincing evidence that many species will 
eventually participate in the crown control at the close of succession. 
There is further evidence that the association complex will be like or 
similar to that existing now in the adjacent mature forest. 

Literature Cited 

Cowles, H. C. 1899. Ecological relation of vegetation on sand dunes of 

Lake Michigan. Bot. Gaz. 27:95-117; 167-202; 281-308; 361-388. 
Gates, F. C. 1917. The relation between evaporation and plant succe.- sion in 

a given area. Amer. Jour. Bot. 4:161-168. 
Potzger, J. E. Forest types in the Versailles State Park area, Indiana. Amer. 

Midland Nat. (In press). 
Potzger, J. E. 1941. The vegetation of Mackinac Island, Michigan ; An 

ecological survey. Amer. Midland Nat. 25:293-323. 
and Esther Whitney Potzger. 1948. Progress in succession in the 

Pennington grove of Pinus vtrginiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 8:153-160. 

— and Ray C. Friesner. 1934. Some comparisons between virgin forest 

and adjacent areas of secondary succession. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 3:85-98. 



A Study of Variation in Leaf Anatomy with Reference to 
Habitat in two Species of Polypodium 

Richard A. Scott, DePauw University 



Introduction 

Although ecological anatomy has been extensively investigated in 
higher plants, comparatively few investigations have been made of 
anatomical variation as related to habitat in ferns. Two species of 
Polypodium, both occurring in Indiana, exhibit a rather conspicuous 
habitat diversity which suggested a study of such variation. P. virgini- 
anum L. normally occurs terrestrially or growing upon rocks, but is 
rarely an epiphyte. P. polypodioides (L.) Watt. var. Michauxianum, 
on the contrary, is usually an epiphyte, being commonly non-epiphytic 
only near the northern limit of its range, which extends into southern 
Indiana. 

The typically non-epiphytic occurrence of P. virginianum is normal 
for temperate zone vascular plants. The species is, according to Fernald 
(9), chiefly a northern form, extending from Newfoundland and Mani- 
toba as far south as the mountains of northeastern Georgia. P. poly- 
podioides, however, is a tropical form whose close relatives extend 
throughout South America. Weatherby (15) lists the variety as ranging 
from Maryland, Illinois, and Missouri southward to Florida, Texas, and 
Guatemala. 

In Indiana, Deam (8, pp. 57-58) reported P. virginianum as occurring 
in fifteen counties exclusively in the western portion of the state and 
extending its complete length in the north-south direction. Its distribu- 
tion appears to be correlated with the occurrence of outcrops of sand- 
stone, where it is commonly found near rock ledges. No report of its 
epiphytic occurrence was given. P. polypodioides has been found locally 
in nine Indiana counties, chiefly in the southern portion of the state in 
counties bordering the Ohio River. It is roughly limited to the un- 
glaciated area, and has been found only as far north as Monroe County. 
This fern occurs most frequently on cliff faces and rock surfaces, with 
only one epiphytic occurrence having been reported. 

Studies of variation in leaf anatomy in response to environmental 
factors have been made by many investigators, including Clements (7), 
Hanson (10), Pool (14), and Cain and Potzger (5), (6). Although 
the details of procedure and the plants investigated differ widely in 
these studies, they are in general accord in finding that leaves from 
increasingly xeric conditions show a reduction in total leaf size, an 
increase in thickness, increased development of palisade mesophyll, 

102 



Botany 103 

denser vein network, and usually an increase in stomatal number per unit 
area. In addition, Cain and Potzger (6) have emphasized the variability 
encountered between different leaves on the same plant, and even at 
different locations on the same leaves, with the consequent necessity for 
the application of statistical techniques to this type of data. 

Notations of the rare occurrence of P. virginianum as an epiphyte 
have been made by Fernald (9), Brown (3), and Johnson (11). When 
epiphytic, it commonly occurs at rather low levels, and usually in rela- 
tively protected situations, such as wooded gorges. P. polypodioides, on 
the contrary, has been studied as a typical vascular epiphyte by 
Andrews (1) and Pessin (13). It occurs on a wide variety of trees and 
often in relatively unshaded locations. The most favorable substratum 
is a rough, soft bark with high capacity for water absorption and a low 
rate of water loss. 

In an investigation of microclimatic variation, Baum (2) found the 
vertical temperature gradient between the 0.5 and 6 foot levels in the 
summer in the northeastern United States to be the equivalent of a 
horizontal north-south difference of about 380 miles at the 6 foot level. 
He suggests that this difference should have an important ecological 
effect upon vegetation. Terrestrial and epiphytic occurrences of the same 
species would presumably be influenced by this microclimatic difference. 

Material and Methods 

Specimens of P. virginianum examined in this study were collected 
at Fern Cliff, Putnam County, 9 miles southwest of Greencastle, Indiana, 
except for one set obtained along the south bank of the White River 
in Martin County, approximately 3 miles west of Shoals, Indiana. All 
specimens of P. polypodioides were also obtained from the locality near 
Shoals with the exception of a single set which was collected at St. 
George, Dorchester County, South Carolina. 

The physical features of the two Indiana localities are remarkably 
alike. At Fern Cliff, the plants were growing on the cliff face, bordering 
the south bank of a west fork of Little Walnut Creek. This steep and 
irregular bluff was cut through the Mansfield sandstone, which outcrops 
prominently on its face. Since it faces north and is densely wooded, it 
is relatively moist and heavily shaded. P. virginianum is common both on 
the ground and on the surfaces of the sandstone outcrops. It was, 
however, found growing epiphytically on only a single tree. 

West of Shoals, erosion through the Mansfield sandstone has pro- 
duced a similar line of north-facing bluffs, near the base of which flows 
the White River. These are also wooded, and show a comparable 
luxuriant development of ferns. P. polypodioides as well as P. virgini- 
anum occurs abundantly as dense mats on the surfaces of sandstone 
outcrops. Only a single tree, however, bore P. polypodioides epiphytically. 

Growths of foliose lichens were associated with the epiphytic occur- 
rences of both species. The ferns were, however, growing upon the 
rocks without close associates. 



104 



Indiana Academy of Science 



At Fern Cliff, P. virginianum was collected from the following 
three habitats: (1) growing terrestrially in the humus, (2) growing 
as dense mats on the vertical faces of sandstone outcrops, (3) growing 
epiphytically at the base and extending upward to a height of three 
feet upon the north and northeast sides of the trunk of a single beech 
tree, Fagus grandifolia. For purposes of comparison with material from 
a different area, this species was also obtained from dense mats of 
plants (4) growing upon the vertical surfaces of north-facing outcrops 
of sandstone at the Shoals locality. In the table following, these 
habitats are named as follows: (1) ground, (2) rock-fern Cliff, 
(3) tree base, (4) rock-Shoals. 

Table I. Significant Differences 1 Between Means of Measurements 
of P. virginiamim Leaves from Different Habitats. 







Hab 


itats 




Item 


Rock -Fern 


Tree base — 




Rock -Shoals — 


Measured 


Cliff — 


Rock-Fern 


Tree base — 


Rock-Fern 




Ground 


Cliff 


Ground 


Cliff 


Length 









4- 


Width 


— 




— 


— 


Stomatal 


— 




— 


+ 


Number 










Upper 


— 


— 


- 


-f 


Cuticle 










Lower 






- 




Cuticle 










Upper 










Epidermis 










Lower 










Epidermis 








-*- 


Mesophyll 










Total 








- 


Thickness 











1 + indicates that a significant difference exists, and that the first listed 
habitat of the compared pair is larger than the second. — indicates that a 
significant difference exists, the second habitat being larger than the first. 



P. polypodioides was collected from the following habitats at the 
previously described locality near Shoals: (1) growing in dense mats 
occurring on the vertical surface of sandstone outcrops, (2) growing 
epiphytically upon the east and south-east sides of the base of the trunk 
of a single Fagus grandifolia, (3) growing epiphytically at a level of 
approximately fifteen feet upon the east and southeast sides of the 
same beech tree referred to in (2). P. polypodioides was also obtained 
from a location geographically more typical for the species, at St. 
George, Dorchester County, South Carolina. The occurrence was, (4), 
on the southeast side of the trunk of a large live oak, Quercas virginiana, 
in a relatively unshaded location. Material was collected from the trunk 



Botany 



105 



at a height of approximately six feet. A dense growth of moss was 
present about the roots of the plants. These habitats are named in the 
following table as (1) rock, (2) tree base, (3) tree-15', (4) tree-S. C. 

Measurement of gross dimensions was made on sets of 25 leaves 
from each habitat selected at random insofar as possible. All material 
was collected in the late fall or winter, so that fully developed leaves 
were obtained. Length was measured from rhizome to leaf tip, width 
at the basal lobes of the deeply incised leaf where this dimension was at 
a maximum. 

Stomatal frequency was determined by examination of 25 leaves of 
each species, selected at random from each habitat. The pair of lobes 
second from the base of each leaf was arbitrarily selected for study; 
the number of stomata was counted in each of 4 microscopic fields dis- 
tributed from the base to the tip of left and right lobes, alternately, of 
this pair, giving a total of 100 fields examined per habitat. The 
lower epidermis was removed from leaves of P. virginianum for study, 
while examination was made of strongly illuminated whole mounts of 
lobes of P. polypodioides. 

For the study of leaf tissues, samples of 25 leaves were chosen 
at random from each habitat for each species. In order to obtain 
comparable samples from each leaf, the pair of lobes second from the 
base of the leaf was again arbitrarily selected. Samples were obtained 
by cutting small sections alternately from the left and right lobes of this 
pair, and perpendicular to the midvein at a distance of approximately 
1 cm. from the rachis. 

Table II. Significant Differences 1 Between Means of Measurements 
of P. polypodioides Leaves from Different Habitats. 







Habi 


tats 




Item 


Tree base 


Tree-15'— 


Tree-15' — 


Tree S.C. — 


Measured 


Rock 


Tree base 


Rock 


Tree-15' 


Length 


. 


— - 





+ 


Width 




— 


— 


-*■ 


Stomatal 


— 


-t- 


— 




Number 










Upper 


■+■ 


— 






Epidermis 










Lower 


■y 


— 






Epidermis 










Palisade 








a 


Tissue 










Spongy 






— 


*■ 


Mesophyll 










Total 








~ 


Thickness 











1 + indicates that a sig-nificant difference exists, and that the first listed 
habitat of the compared pair is larger than the second. — indicates that a 
significant difference exists, the second habitat being larger than the first. 



106 Indiana Academy of Science 

The samples so obtained were killed and fixed in formalin-acetic- 
alcohol, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 10 microns, and stained with 
safranin and fast green. Tissue thicknesses were measured at right 
angles to the upper leaf surface at a distance of approximately 250 
microns from the midvein. Measurements were made by means of an 
ocular micrometer. 

The data thus obtained were treated by standard statistical pro- 
cedures. For each set of measurements, the mean, standard deviation, 
standard error, and coefficient of variation were calculated. In comparing 
sets of measurements, the difference, standard error of the difference, 
and significance ratio were determined. Differences were considered sig- 
nificant at the 2% level of confidence, corresponding to a significance 
ratio of 2.49. 

Measurements at regular intervals of the physical factors of the 
environment such as light, temperature, rainfall, and humidity for 
each habitat over an extended period are desirable for a study of this 
nature. Because of the distances to and between the localities involved, 
and the necessity for such measurements to be made during the spring 
and summer months, this data could not be secured. This limitation must 
be considered in examining the results of this study. 

Description 

The leaves of P. virginianum are simple but deeply pinnatifid. being 
divided into opposite to sub-opposite, linear-oblong lobes which have 
entire or slightly toothed margins. The lobes vary in number from 
approximately 5 to 50, depending on the length of the leaf. 

The leaves are somewhat coriaceous and are evergreen. Under 
conditions of moisture deficiency they undergo curling which leaves the 
lower, stomata-bearing surface exposed. 

Both upper and lower leaf surfaces appear glabrous to the naked 
eye, but microscopic examination shows that a limited number of hairs 
are present on the lower epidermis. These hairs are typically multi- 
cellular, being composed of a narrow, elongate basal cell and a bulbous 
terminal cell. The hairs are about 250 microns long. Stomata are present 
only on the lower epidermis, which is loosely attached to the mesophyll. 
A continuous cuticle is present on both upper and lower leaf surfaces. No 
palisade is differentiated. 

The leaves of P. polypodioides are also simple and deeply pinnatifid, 
with linear-oblong lobes extending nearly to the petiole. The leaves are 
coriaceous and evergreen. The lobes have entire margins, and are 
typically both thicker and smaller than those of P. virginianum. A range 
in total number of lobes per leaf of from 3 to 33 was observed from 
leaves of varying lengths. Stomata are borne only on the . lower 
epidermis. The mesophyll is differentiated into both spongy and palisade 
tissue. 

While the upper leaf surface is glabrous, the lower surface and 
the petiole are in large part covered with brownish, orbicular to deltoid- 



Botany 107 

ovate, peltately attached scales. These scales are multicellular, and 
consist of a basal portion sunk into the lower leaf surface, an outwardly 
tapering stalk, and a terminal plate-like portion. The scales are variable 
in size, but combine to cover a major portion of the lower surface, 
imparting to it a grayish-brown color. 

The cuticle displays a seeming lack of regularity, no cuticle being 
apparent on some portions of the epidermis, while on others it is well- 
developed. It is not possible to report this as a typically occurring 
situation on the basis alone of the examination made in connection 
with this study. However, the cuticle could not be reliably measured 
for this species in the material examined, and therefore has not been 
included. 

Under dry conditions, the leaves of P. polypodioides undergo a 
characteristic curling, unrolling when moisture again becomes available. 
The margins of each lobe are folded inward, and at the same time the 
lobe rolls inward toward the petiole from the end. The entire leaf also 
curls over toward its base. All curling is in a manner which leaves the 
lower, scale- and stomata-bearing surface outwardly exposed. 

Results and Discussion 

Although it is not possible to present here complete tables of the 
data for each leaf dimension measured 1 the occurrence of significant 
differences between means of the various measurements from the 
habitats compared are compiled in Table I for P. virginianam, and in 
Table II for P. polypodioides. 

Of the P. virginianum habitats at Fern Cliff, decreases in both 
length and width occur in the same order of habitats, ground, rock, and 
tree-base. Significant differences occur in widths in two habitat pairs, 
while differences in length are significant only between the tree-base 
and ground habitats. There seems to be a tendency toward reduction in 
leaf size between the ground and tree habitats, with the rock location 
intermediate in this respect. 

Comparison of the similar rock habitats at the separate localities 
for this species, however, reveals a significant difference in length, 6.24 
cm., which is nearly three times as great as the difference of 2.38 cm. 
existing between the most highly contrasting habitat pair, tree base — 
ground, at Fern Cliff. The opposite is true of the width, since the 
mean measurement from the rock-Shoals location, 3.97, is smaller than 
that from any of the Fern Cliff habitats, and significantly so in com- 
parison with the rock habitat there. This apparent anomaly is difficult 
to explain in terms of ecological variation though real enough, for the 
leaf presents a long, slender appearance which is distinctive even to 
casual observation. The species tends to be polytopic in Indiana, since the 
outcrops of sandstone on or near which it is found are discontinuous. 
The possibility of slightly differing characters occurring in separate 
locations quite apart from ecological variation would thus seem to 



1 For complete data, see unpublished thesis, DePauw University, Greeneastle, 
Indiana. 



108 Indiana Academy of Science 

exist. At any rate, the total leaf area, the important factor to which 
both length and width relate, is increased by the large increase in 
length to a degree which renders the width decrease comparatively 
unimportant, whatever its cause. 

The leaf of P. virginianum is thus seen to show significant 
variation in both length and width, and consequently in total leaf 
area. These size variations are conspicuously smaller between contrast- 
ing habitats at the same location than they are from two similar habitats 
at different locations. 

Leaves of P. polypodioides from contrasting habitats at Shoals 
also show a regular order of decrease, rock, tree-base, and tree-15', in 
both length and width. The differences are significant between all pairs 
for length, and for all but tree base — rock for width, and indicate a 
decrease in total leaf size with the listed order of habitat change. The 
epiphytic P. polypodioides from South Carolina is significantly both 
longer and wider than either of the Shoals epiphytes. 

As was the case with P. virginianum at Fern Cliff, P. polypodioides 
at Shoals shows variability in size of leaf between contrasting habitats. 
Size differences between occurrences similarly in being epiphytic, but 
geographically separate, are, however, greater for width and as great for 
length than those from the same geographic location. 

Incidence of stomata, while at times showing variation to a signifi- 
cant degree in both species, as shown in Tables I and II, does not form 
an indicative pattern. It increases in number, for example, with increase 
in leaf size in P. polypodioides between the tree-15' and the rock habitats, 
and increases in number with the decrease in leaf size in the same 
species between the tree-15' and the tree-base habitats. Consequently, 
as has been noted by Miller for other plants (12, p. 418), the number of 
stomata does not appear to be a clear-cut variable of increasingly xeric 
conditions. 

The cuticle, which, as noted earlier, was measured only in P. virgini- 
anum, regularly shows significant changes between habitats. Because of 
its high degree of variability within a given habitat (coefficients of 
variation are about 20%), it seems worthwhile only to note that in 
general the upper cuticle seems to be influenced more by habitat 
contrasts than is the lower. 

No individual tissues from leaves of P. virginianum from contrasting 
habitats showed differences in thickness great enough to be significant. 
Although the significance ratio for the sum of the individual leaf tissues, 
total leaf thickness, was rather high, it did not reach the 2% level of 
confidence. Consequently the gross leaf measurements, for which signifi- 
cant differences do exist, have been, apparently, more responsive to the 
environmental contrasts between the habitats at Fern Cliff than were 
the internal tissues, particularly the mesophyll, which is normally the 
most variable of the leaf tissues. 

That variation can exist in mesophyll thickness in P. virginianum, 
however, is shown by the significant difference in means between the 



Botany 109 

rock occurrences at the separate Fern Cliff and Shoals localities (Table 
I). This increase in mesophyll at Shoals is also reflected in a significant 
difference in total leaf thickness between the two habitats. As was 
the case for gross measurements, greater variability of both mesophyll 
and total leaf thickness is found between similar habitats which are 
geographically separate than between contrasting habitats at the same 
locality. 

Leaf tissues of P. polypodioides from the habitats at the Shoals 
locality, while showing some slight variation, reached the level of 
significance only for the relatively thin epidermis from two habitat pairs, 
and for the spongy mesophyll, which was thicker in the rock than in 
the tree-15' location (Table II). 

Internal structure of leaves from the epiphytic occurrence in South 
Carolina, on the other hand, contrasts greatly with that of leaves from 
the Shoals locality. There is a greatly increased development of both 
palisade and spongy mesophyll, resulting in significant increases of 
thickness, both of these tissues and of total leaf thickness. 

As was also found for gross measurements, thicknesses of leaf 
tissues are more constant for the differing habitats at a single locality 
than between epiphytic habitats at different localities. 

In both species, more variation occurred in gross measurements 
between differing habitats at the same locality than did in the thicknesses 
of component leaf tissues. Leaf size, particularly length, probably due 
to continued apical growth, seems to be more responsive to differences in 
environmental factors than is the development of leaf tissues. 

The relatively smaller amount of variation in leaf anatomy previ- 
ously noted in each species from contrasting habitats at the same geo- 
graphic locations, compared to the contrast between plants from similar 
habitats at separated locations suggests that contrasts in environmental 
factors are greater due to geographic separation than to vertical distri- 
bution in the occurrences studied for each plant. The existence of this 
situation seems plausible in the present instance, since, it will be recalled, 
both the Fern Cliff and Shoals localities are rather specially situated 
and similar north-facing bluffs, moist, shaded, and highly protected. 
It seems possible that the rare epiphytic occurrence of these ferns so 
far north is dependent upon the existence of special conditions under 
which the environmental factors, other than the actual nature of the 
substratum, are not sufficiently different from those of the normal 
ground or rock habitats to bring about the ecological variation in 
anatomy of which the leaves of these plants are capable. 

In the absence of measurements of environmental factors, no specific 
conclusions can be drawn as to the type of conditions producing these 
variations. However, there is no apparent reason to believe them differ- 
ent from those producing similar responses in other plants. From the 
data presented, it is apparent that a considerable degree of plasticity 
exists in the response to environmental conditions exhibited by the 
two species of Polypodium considered. In general, this response is 



110 Indiana Academy of Science 

similar to that typical of higher plants, with decrease in total leaf 
size accompanied by a relative increase in thickness, principally of the 
palisade and spongy mesophyll. 

Summary 

1. In this paper, the variation in leaf anatomy of two fern species, 
P. virginianum and P. polypodioides, has been examined. For each 
species, samples of 25 leaves from each of three different habitats, in- 
cluding both terrestrial and epiphytic occurrences, were obtained from 
the same location. A comparison was also made for each species to one 
similar habitat at a geographically separate location. 

2. Gross leaf dimensions, stomatal number, and thickness of the 
various leaf layers were measured for each species. Standard statistical 
procedures were applied to the data thus obtained. 

3. Results indicate that these ferns exhibit variation in leaf 
anatomy similar in both degree and direction to that previously reported 
for higher plants. Leaf size, as shown principally by length of leaf, 
apparently is modified by environmental differences which are not 
sufficient to affect significantly the thickness of the leaf layers. 

4. Variation in leaf anatomy is found to be more pronounced 
between the ecologically similar but geographically separate habitats, 
than it is between the contrasting but adjacent habitats which were 
compared. It is therefore suggested that the normally rare (in Indiana) 
epiphytic occurrence of these two species may be in this instance related 
to the location of host trees in special habitats where the normal vertical 
gradient of increasing xeric conditions is decreased. 

Acknowledgments: — The writer wishes to express his appreciation 
to Drs. T. G. Yuncker and W. H. Welch, DePauw University, for valuable 
assistance with this problem. The aid of Dr. Paul Weatherwax, Indiana 
University, in collecting material is also acknowledged. 

Literature Cited 

1. Andrews, E. F. 1920. Habits and habitats of the North American resurrec- 

tion fern. Torreya 20:91-96. 

2. BauMj Werner A. 1949. On the relation between mean temperature and 

height in the layer of air near the ground. Ecology 30:104-07. 

3. Brown, Babette I. 1948. A study of the distribution of epiphytic plants in 

New York. Am. Midi. Nat. 39: (2) 457-97. 

4. Cain, Stanley A., and J. D. Oliver Miller. 1933. Leaf structure of 

Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. Amer. Midi. Nat. 14:69-82. 

5. Cain, Stanley A., and John B. Potzger. 1933. A comparison of leaf tissues 

of Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) C. Koch, and Vaccinium vacillans Kalm. 
grown under different conditions. Am. Midi. Nat. 14:97-112. 

6. . 19 40. A comparison of leaf tissues of Gaylussacia baccata 

grown under different conditions. Am. Midi. Nat. 24:444-62. 

7. Clements, Edith S. 1905. The relation of leaf structure to physical factors. 

Trans. Am. Micr. Soc. 26:19-102. 

8. Deam, Charles C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Department of Conservation, 

Division of Forestry, Indianapolis. 1236 pp. 



Botany 111 

9. Fernald, M. L. l ! » 12 1' . I'oli/pudin m rirf/hiianum and /'. vulgare. Fthodora 
24:125-12. 

10. Hanson, Herbert C. 1917. Leaf structure as related to environment. Am. 

Jour. Bot. 4:533-60. 

11. Johnson, Duncan S. 1921. Polypodium vulgare as an epiphyte. Bot. Gaz. 

72:237-44. 

12. Miller, Edwin C. 193S. Plant physiology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 

New York. 1201 pp. 

13. Pessin, Louis J. 1925. An ecological study of the polypody fern, Poly- 

podium polypodioides, an epiphyte in Mississippi. Ecology 0:17-38. 

14. Pool, Raymond J. 1923. Xerophytism and comparative leaf anatomy in 

relation to transpiring power. Bot. Gaz. 7G:221-40. 

15. Weatherby, C. A. 193 9. The group of Polypodium polypodioides. Contr. 

Gray Herb. 124:22-35. 



Notes on Indiana Liverworts — III. Some New 
County and State Records 

Kenneth A. Wagner, Florida State University 



During the summer of 1947 and again in 1949 the writer visited 
several Indiana counties in which little or no liverwort collecting had 
been done. These counties are in the eastern central and in the south- 
eastern part of the state. The new county records found on these trips 
together with some collections by Dr. Friesner in Clay county and a 
few miscellaneous collections are reported here. 

Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) Dum. Ripley Co.: on rotten wood, 
creek along route 129, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2461, 2462. This species 
has been reported previously in Indiana only from Parke county. 

C. pleniceps (Austin) Lindb. Parke Co.: on sandy soil, along Sugar 
Creek, Turkey Run State Park, Sept. 4, 1946, Wagner 1327; on sandstone, 
along Sugar Creek, Turkey Run State Park, Sept. 4, 1946, Wagner 1318. 
This is a new state record. 

Cephaloziella hampeana (Nees) Schiffn. Ripley Co.: on rotten wood, 
stream along route 129, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2463. A minute species 
formerly reported in Indiana from three counties. 

Chiloscyphus pallescens (Ehrh.) Dum. Dearborn Co.: on soil, mixed 
with Hypnum, 1 mile southwest of Dillsboro, July 18, 1949, Wagner 
2403. Ripley Co. : on rotten log, stream along route 129, July 18, 1949, 
Wagner 2407. 

Cololejeunea biddlecomiae (Austin) Evans. Union Co.: on bark, 
woods 4 miles north of Liberty, June 8, 1947, Wagner 1409. This species 
has not been found in Indiana north of Madison county. 

Conocephalum conicnm (L.) Dum. Brown Co.: on soil along stream, 
Brown County State Park, June 8, 1947, Wagner 1429. Clay Co.: on 
sandstone cliff along route 40 near Harmony, Sept. 19, 1946, Friesner 
21246. Huntington Co.: Oct., 1946, Fred Loew. A very common species 
in damp habitats, especially around water falls. It grows on both 
limestone and sandstone, and is known from 33 counties in Indiana. 

Frullania eboracensis Gott. Blackford Co.: on tree trunk, woods 6 
miles northwest of Pennville, June 4, 1947, Wagner 1403. Dearborn Co.: 
on black locust, 3 miles east of Dillsboro, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2404. 
Jay Co.: on tree, 2 miles north of Red Key, June 4, 1947, Wagner 1422. 
Ohio Co.: on tree trunk, along route 262 northwest of Rising Sun, July 
18, 1949, Wagner 2448. Ripley Co.: on rotten log along route 129, 
July 18, 1949, Wagner 2432, 2434. Known from 39 counties in Indiana, 

112 



Botany 113 

it is one of the most common liverworts growing on tree trunks. It may 
be found in relatively dry localities, and probably could be collected in 
every county in Indiana. 

F. riparia Hampe. Brown Co.: on tree bark, Brown County State 
Park, June 9, 1947, Wagner 1433. Randolph Co.: with moss, 8 miles 
south of Union City, June 8, 1947, Wagner 1404. Switzerland Co.: on 
sycamore bark, 3 miles east of Florence, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2447, 
2458. Wells Co.: on bark, woods 3 miles west of Poneto, June 4, 1947, 
Wagner 1418. In this species, nearly all of the lobules are explanate. 

F. squarrosa (R. Bl. & Nees) Dum. Ripley Co.: on rotten bark, 
stream along route 129, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2433, 2437, 2439. Rather 
infrequent in Indiana, it has been reported from 9 counties. It is easily 
recognized by its large size and the way the leaves roll tightly around 
the stem when dry. When moist, the leaves are squarrose-spreading. 

Lophocolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dum. Blackford Co.: on decayed 
wood, 6 miles northwest of Pennville, June 4, 1947, Wagner 1401. Brown 
Co.: on humus, Brown County State Park, June 8, 1947, Wagner 1423. 
Dearborn Co. : on soil with mosses, 1 mile southwest of Dillsboro, July 
18, 1949, Wagner 2402, 2405, 2445. Jay Co.: on decayed wood, 2 miles 
north of Red Key, June 4, 1947, Wagner 1420. Ripley Co.: on rotten 
log, along route 129, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2446, 2450. Common 
throughout Indiana on rotten wood and ciay banks; known from 39 
counties. 

Nowellia curvifolia (Dicks.) Mitt. Ripley Co.: on rotten log over 
stream, along route 129, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2400. 

Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda. Clay Co.: on sandstone cliff, one half 
mile northeast of Harmony, Sept. 19, 1946, Friesner 21245. This species 
has not been reported in Indiana from any county north of Delaware 
and Warren. It would seem that it might be collected frequently in the 
lake country of northern Indiana. 

Plectocolea hyalina (Lyell) Mitten. Ripley Co.: on rotten wood, 
stream along route 129, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2401. 

Porella pinnata L. Switzerland Co. : in mud at tree base, 3 miles 
east of Florence, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2458. Reported from 8 counties 
in Indiana, none north of Randolph. It is found most frequently in 
areas which are inundated more or less regularly; occasionally it is 
found growing continuously submerged. 

P. platyphylla (L.) Lindb. Blackford Co.: in woods, 6 miles north- 
west of Pennville, June 4, 1947, Wagner 1402. Brown Co. : on tree base, 
Brown County State Park, June 8, 1947, Wagner 1431. Dearborn Co.: 
on limestone, 1 mile southwest of Dillsboro, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2444, 
2449. Jay Co.: in woods 2 miles north of Red Key, June 4, 1947, Wagner 
1420. Ohio Co.: on hickory, along route 262, northwest of Rising Sun, 
July 18, 1949, Wagner 2406. Posey Co.: May 13, 1934, W. H. Welch 
7820. Ripley Co.: on bark, along route 129, July 18, 1949, Wagner 2418; 
on limestone, Wagner 2459. Union Co.: on tree base, woods 4 miles 



114 Indiana Academy of Science 

north of Liberty, June 8, 1947, Wagner 1408. Known in Indiana from 
46 counties. 

Preissia quadrata (Scop.) Nees. Brown Co.: on damp hillside, 
Brown County State Park, June 9, 1947, Wagner 1431. 

Reboidia hemisphaerica (L.) Raddi. Brown Co.: on soil with moss, 
Brown County State Park, June 8, 1947, Wagner 1425. 

Riccardia palmata (Hedw.) Carruth. Parke Co.: on rotten log at 
Wedge Rock, Turkey Run State Park, Sept. 4, 1946, Wagner 1332. This 
is a new state record. 

Scapania nemoros'a (L.) Dum. Brown Co.: on soil along stream, 
Brown County State Park, June 9, 1947, Wagner 1432. 

This report removes seven Indiana counties from the list of those 
in which no liverworts have been collected, leaving twenty yet untouched. 
The total number of species now known to occur in Indiana is seventy- 
three. The specimens mentioned in this paper are deposited in the 
DePauw University Herbarium. 



Studies in Indiana Bryophytes VII 

Winona H. Welch, DePauw University 



The mosses used in this study are Indiana collections in herbaria in 
the following institutions: Butler University, Chicago Natural History 
Museum, Carnegie Museum, DePauw University, University of Michigan, 
University of Minnesota, New York Botanical Garden, Laboratoire de 
Cryptogamie, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, and University 
of California, Berkeley. 

The asterisk following the name of the plant indicates that this 
is the first known published record of this species or variety in Indiana. 

Research grants from the Penrose Fund of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, the Indiana Academy of Science through the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Graduate Council 
of DePauw University have made possible the study of the plants herein 
described. 

FONTINALACEAE (WATER MOSSES) 
Plants normally submerged but frequently exposed by recession of 
the water, attached at base of stems by rhizoids; stems flaccid to rigid, 
short to much elongated, up to 150 cm. in length, 0.2-0.75 mm. in 
diameter, often denuded at or near the base with age, regularly or 
irregularly branched; branches erect-ascending to spreading, ends of 
foliated stems and branches acuminate to obtuse, in some species con- 
spicuously three-angled, frequently curved to uncinate in Dichelyyna; 
leaves tristichous, flaccid to firm, erect to spreading, often secund, 
subfalcate to falcate, or uncinate in Dichelyma, plane, subconcave to 
concave, subcanaliculate to canaliculate, irregularly longitudinally folded, 
faintly keeled, subcarinate, or carinate-conduplicate, keel straight to 
strongly curved, ecostate in Fontinalis, costate in Dichelyma and Bra- 
ehelyma with the single midrib supercurrent to long excurrent, plane 
or unfolded blades subulate, lanceolate-subulate, sublanceolate, lanceo- 
late, oblong-, ovate-, oval-, or subelliptic-lanceolate, subovate to ovate, 
suboval to oval, suborbicular, or subrhomboidal to rhomboidal, apices 
subulate, short to long acuminate, subacute to acute, subobtuse to obtuse, 
sometimes subcucullate to cucullate, occasionally subcymbiform, entire 
to serrulate, margins of apices sometimes narrowly to broadly involute, 
blades 2-10 mm. long, 0.35-8.5 mm. wide; median cells of leaves 
subrhombic, subrhomboidal, subhexagonal, linear-rhomboidal, linear- 
rhombic, or linear, ends obtuse or attenuate, frequently cells subflexuous 
to flexuous; marginal cells occasionally forming a border; alar cells 
not enlarged to much enlarged, subquadrate to subhexagonal; auricles 

115 



116 Indiana Academy of Science 

distinct to none; leaf bases not decurrent to long decurrent; dioecious 
usually; sporophytes on upper portion of stem in Brachelyma and 
Dichelyma and on the lower part in Fontinalis; perichaetium suboval to 
cylindrical ; calyptra long conical or mitriform, dimidiate in Dichelyma 
and Brachelyma ; capsule sesile, subsessile, or on short to moderately 
long seta; operculum obtuse conical in Fontinalis, rostrate in Dichelyma 
and Brachelyma; seta 0.1-1.5 mm. long in Fontinalis and Brachelyma, 
3-21.5 mm. in length in Dichelyma ; urn suboval to cylindrical, 0.65-3 mm. 
long, 0.35-2 mm. in diameter; peristome double, teeth 16, free or united 
in pairs at apices, cilia 16, free or incompletely to completely united 
by transverse strands into a conical trellis; spores 10-35/x in diameter, 
ripe in summer. 

Since Dichelyma and Fontinalis are known to occur in Wisconsin, 
Michigan, and Ohio, and Brachelyma and Fontinalis in Illinois, the 
key includes the three genera of Fontinalaceae although at present only 
Fontinalis has been recorded from Indiana. It seems probable that 
many of the species in the states bordering Indiana may be found, 
sometime, in Indiana. These species have been included in the keys in 
addition to those known to occur in the state. 

Key to the Genera of Fontinalaceae 

1. Leaves ecostate, from plane to concave, tubular, or carinate-con- 
duplicate; perichaetium oval, oblong, or cylindrical; perichaetial 
leaves oblong, ovate, oval, oval-lanceolate, or orbicular; calyptra 

conical; capsule immersed in perichaetial leaves or emergent 

Fontinalis. 

1. Leaves costate, always carinate-conduplicate; perichaetium always 
cylindrical; perichaetial leaves ovate-lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or 
linear-lanceolate; calyptra dimidiate. 

2. Ends of foliated stems and branches conspicuously three-angled, 
not curved or uncinate; leaves not secund; keel straight to 
moderately curved, frequently abruptly curved near apex; calyp- 
tra covering operculum only; capsule completely immersed; seta 

0.75-1.5 mm. long Brachelyma.* 

2. Ends of foliated stems and branches not conspicuously three- 
angled, commonly slightly to distinctly curved, frequently uncinate; 
leaves often secund and falcate; calyptra enveloping capsule; 
capsule emergent to surpassing perichaetium; seta 3-21.5 mm. 
long Dichelyma. 

Key to Species of Fontinalis^ 

1. Leaves usually carinate or carinate-conduplicate. 

2. Leaves with keels or median lines predominantly curved above 
basal curve. 



1 Brachelyma subulatum has been collected in Illinois. 

2 All references concerning leaves are applicable to the majority of median 
cauline blades unless otherwise stated. The leaf shapes are those of unfolded 
blades. The ratios recorded are to be interpreted as length to width. 



Botany 117 

3. Leaves broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, oval, or suborbicular, 
4-8 mm. long-, 3-6.5 mm. wide, 1-1.6:1; keels moderately curved 

to almost semicircular; plants robust 

F. antipyretica var. gigantea. 

3. Leaves ovate- to oval-lanceolate, 3-8.5 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
1.5-3.5:1; keels slightly to moderately curved; plants medium 

in size F. antipyretica. 

2. Leaves with keels or median lines predominantly straight above 
basal curve, frequently abruptly curved at apex; apices briefly 
and broadly acuminate, often subconcave to plane; blades ovate- 
to broadly ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 mm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. wide, 
1.5-3:1; plants medium to robust F. patida. 

1. Leaves usually concave. 

2. Leaves erect to slightly erect-spreading, appearing to be ap- 

pressed; apices of perichaetial leaves acute or apiculate 

F. dalecarlica. 

2. Leaves erect-spreading to spreading, not appearing to be ap- 
pressed; apices of perichaetial leaves usually broadly obtuse or 
rounded. 

3. Margins frequently involute. 

4. Margins in apical portions commonly narrowly involute. 

5. Blades usually firm, ovate-lanceolate, and 2.5-4 mm. long, 
1-2 mm. wide F. novae-angliae 

5. Blades usually flaccid, broadly ovate-lanceolate, and 

4-7.5 mm. long, 1.5-3.5 mm. wide 

F. novae-angliae var. latifolia. 

4. Margins in apical portions frequently broadly involute, the 
broad involution sometimes extending to base of blade, oc- 
casionally margins convolute and blades subtubular to 
tubular. 

5. Apices long acuminate; apical cells rhombic, rhomboidal, 
quadrat, rectangular, or hexagonal; blades narrowly 
ovate-lanceolate (aestival leaves) F. biformis. 

5. Apices generally obtuse to truncate, margins gradually 
narrowing to tips; apical cells linear or linear-rhom- 
boidal; blades ovate- or oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate 
F. novae-angliae var. cymbifolia. 

3. Margins not involute. 

4. Apical cells rhomboidal, rhombic, quadrate, rectangular, or 
hexagonal; apices narrowly to broadly obtuse; blades 

broadly ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate 

(vernal leaves) F. biformis. 

4. Apical cells linear or linear-rhomboidal; apices acuminate, 
frequently serrulate. 



118 Indiana Academy of Science 

5. Stems flaccid; leaves usually subflaccid, lanceolate to 

ovate-lanceolate F. missourica. 

5. Stems rigid; leaves firm, narrowly lanceolate. 

6. Blades concave throughout or subconcave at base 
and plane above, occasionally canaliculate to sub- 
tubular; apices narrowly acuminate; leaves 0.75-1.5 

mm. wide F. disticha. 

6. Blades concave or deeply concave to convolute tubu- 
lose; apices long acuminate or subulate; leaves 
0.35-0.5 mm. wide F. filiformis. 

1. Leaves usually plane. 

2. Leaves generally broadly ovate-lanceolate or oval-lanceolate, 1-2.5 
mm. wide; margins tapering from approximate middle into apex; 

apices short and broadly acuminate; auricles frequent 

F. Duriaei. 

2. Leaves generally narrowly ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 0.5-1.75 
mm. wide; margins tapering from basal fourth or half into apex; 
apices long acuminate. 

3. Apices gradually narrowed; tips commonly acute and entire; 

auricles usually none, occasionally very slight . . F. hypnoides. 

3. Apices frequently abruptly narrowed; tips commonly obtuse to 

truncate and serrulate; auricles very conspicuous . F. flaccida. 

Key to Species of Dichelyma 

1. Costa subpercurrent to briefly excurrent. 

2. Costa frequently briefly excurrent; leaf apices subulate or acumi- 
nate D. falcatum. 

2. Costa not excurrent; leaf apices often subobtuse or obtuse 

D. pallescens. 

1. Costa long excurrent D. capillaceum. 

Indiana Species of Fontinalis 

F. biformis SulL* (Figs. 1-3.) Plants medium in size in spring and 
approaching slender in summer and autumn, up to 67.5 cm. in length, 
with two distinct kinds of leaves during one growing period, vernal stage 
yellowish green, green or brownish green, aestival phase brownish 
green or blackish; vernal median cauline leaves with bases up to 1.5 mm. 
apart, blades flaccid, erect-spreading, concave to plane, usually broadly 
ovate-lanceolate, sometimes lanceolate; apices broadly acuminate, leaf 
tips usually narrowly to broadly obtuse, sometimes subobtuse to acute, 
commonly subserrulate to serrulate, sometimes entire; median cauline 
leaves 4-7.5 mm. long, 1.25-3.5 mm. wide, 2.5-4:1; median cells of leaves 
linear; apical cells rhomboidal, rhombic, subquadrate, subrectangular, or 
subhexagonal, somewhat sphagniform; auricles distinct; aestival median 
cauline leaves very different in appearance from the former, occurring 



Botany 



119 



with the vernal and eventually composing- the dominant foliage of the 
plants for a period, occasional young or vernal leaves sometimes present, 
bases of blades up to 1.5 mm. apart, leaves firm, erect-spreading, usually 
concave, canaliculate or subtubular, sometimes subconcave to plane, 




120 Indiana Academy of Science 

margins involute to convolute, blades narrowly ovate-lanceolate; apices 
long acuminate, leaf tips acute, generally serrulate, sometimes entire; 
median cauline leaves 2-3.5 mm. long, 0.4-0.8 mm. wide, 3-7.5:1; median 
cells of leaves linear; apical cells rhombic, rhomboidal, subquadrate, sub- 
rectangular, or subhexagonal, somewhat sphagniform; auricles distinct. 
Specimens studied from Owen and Putnam counties. 

F. dalecarlica Br. and Schimp.* (Fig. 4.) Plants slender, up to 
90 cm. in length; branches numerous, frequently appearing fasciculate, 
ends of foliated stems and branches attenuate; median cauline leaves 
subimbricate to imbricate, bases up to 1 mm. apart, blades firm, erect to 
slightly erect-spreading, concave, ovate-lanceolate, narrowly ovate-lance- 
olate, or narrowly lanceolate, margins occasionally slightly involute in 
apical portions; apices usually acute or acuminate, leaf tips entire or 
serrulate; blades 2-4.75 mm. long, 0.5-1.5 mm. wide, 3-4.5:1; median cells 
of leaves linear with ends attenuate; auricles usually distinct. Specimens 
studied from Lawrence and White counties. 

F. disticha Hook, and Wils.* (Fig. 5.) Plants slender in size; stems 
subrigid to rigid, up to 25 cm. in length; branches generally somewhat 
rigid, spreading or erect-spreading, usually close, appearing to be 
distichous in herbarium specimens although tristichous, short, up to 
5 cm. long, ends of foliated stems and branches attenuate; leaves distant, 
bases up to 2 mm. apart, blades generally firm, erect to spreading, com- 
monly concave, occasionally canaliculate to subtubular, narrowly lance- 
olate; apices long and narrowly acuminate, leaf tips usually acute to 
subacute, generally serrulate or subserrulate, occasionally entire; median 
cauline leaves commonly 4-6.5 mm. long, sometimes up to 9 mm. in 
length, 0.75-1.5 mm. wide, 3.7-8:1; median cells of leaves linear with 
ends attenuate; auricles usually distinct. Specimens studied from Knox 
county. 

F. Duriaei Schimp.* (Fig. 6.) Plants slender to medium in size, 
sometimes rather delicate; stems flaccid, up to 30 cm. in length; branches 
few to numerous, up to 12 cm. in length, ends of foliated stems and 
branches attenuate; median cauline leaves usually distant, bases 2-2.5 
mm. apart, blades flaccid to somewhat firm, erect-spreading to spreading, 
usually plane, sometimes with one to two slight longitudinal folds, gen- 
erally broadly ovate-lanceolate or oval-lanceolate, sometimes oblong- 
lanceolate, width decreasing either gradually or somewhat abruptly from 
the approximate middle into the apex; majority of apices short and 
broadly acuminate, leaf tips usually acute, occasionally subobtuse, com- 
monly serrulate, often entire; median cauline blades 3-7 mm. long, 
1-2.5 mm. wide, 2-5.5:1; median cells of leaves usually linear with ends 
attenuate, sometimes narrowly rhomboidal; auricles distinct to none. 
Specimens examined from Elkhart, Fulton, Lake, and Pulaski counties. 

F. novae-angliae Sull.* (Figs. 7-8.) Plants commonly medium in 
size; stems up to 40 cm. in length; branches numerous, up to 11 cm. in 
length, ends of foliated stems and branches usually attenuate; median 
cauline leaves with bases 0.5-2 mm. apart, blades usually firm, erect to 
erect-spreading, concave, commonly ovate-lanceolate, sometimes oblong- 



Botany 121 

lanceolate or narrowly ovate-lanceolate, margins in apical portions of 
blade generally narrowly involute, occasionally plane; apices commonly 
subtruncate, truncate, subobtuse, or obtuse, sometimes subacute to 
acute, at times almost cucullate, leaf tips usually distinctly serrulate, 
occasionally entire; median cauline blades 2.5-6 mm. long, 0.75-2.5 mm. 
wide, 1.75-5:1; median cells of leaves linear with ends attenuate or nar- 
rowly rhomboidal, cells above basal area commonly subflexuous or 
fiexuous; auricles distinct, leaf bases occasionally subclasping. Speci- 
mens studied from Crawford and Perry counties. 

F. novae-angliae Sull. var. latifolia Card.* (Figs. 9-10.) Median 
cauline leaves with bases 1-2 mm. apart, blades subflaccid to flaccid, 
broadly ovate-lanceolate, 4-7.5 mm. long, 1.5-3.5 mm. wide, 2-3:1; other- 
wise plants similar to those of F. novae-angliae. Specimens studied from 
Putnam county. 

The drawings, made by William D. Gray, are those used by the author 
in the treatise on the Fontinalaceae in Grout, Moss Flora of North 
America North of Mexico 3: pis. 73-79. 1934. 

Fontinalis biformis. Fig. 1. Median cauline leaf (vernal stage), 
enlarged, (Sullivant, Icon. Muse. pi. 60). Fig. 2. Apical cells of same, 
X 255. Fig. 3. Median cauline leaf (aestival stage), enlarged, (Sulli- 
vant, Icon. Muse. pi. 60). Fontinalis dalecarlica. Fig. 4. Portion of 
stem with median cauline leaves, enlarged, (Bruch and Schimper, Bry. 
Eur. pi. 431). Fontinalis disticha. Fig. 5. Median cauline leaf, enlarged, 
(Sullivant, Icon. Muse. pi. 63). Fontinalis Duriaei. Fig. 6. Median 
cauline leaf, X 8.5. Fontinalis novae-angliae. Fig. 7. Median cauline 
leaves, X 8.5. Fig. 8. Leaf apex, enlarged. Fontinalis novae-angliae var. 
latifolia. Fig. 9. Median cauline leaf, X 8.5. Fig. 10. Leaf apex, X 59. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: W. G. Kessel, Indiana State College 



Keith Seymour, Butler University, was 
elected chairman for 1950 

ABSTRACTS 

Iodine Trichloride as a Chlorinating Agent. E. Campaigne and 
Wayne E. Thompson, Indiana University. — This is a preliminary report, 
describing some remarkable results obtained when iodine trichloride is 
allowed to react with certain aliphatic and aromatic organic compounds, 
and tentatively suggesting a possible explanation of these results. Crys- 
talline iodine trichloride reacts violently with an equimolar portion of 
benzene in carbon tetrachloride to produce 61% of the theoretical amount 
of o-dichlorobenzene, and only 9% of the expected monochlorobenzene. 
No p-dichlorobenzene was obtained. Even when a ten-fold excess of 
benzene was used, the principle product was o-dichlorobenzene. In addi- 
tion, some pure 1, 2, 4, 5-tetrachlorobenzene, uncontaminated by other 
tetrachloro-derivatives, was found, and also a small amount of hexa- 
chlorobenzene. Anisole reacted with iodine trichloride to give as the 
principle product 3, 4-dichloroanisole. Butanoyl chloride yielded 2, 3- 
dichlorobutanoyl chloride as the only chlorination product. 

The stoichiometry of this reaction seems to be: 

C 6 H C + 2IC1 3 -» GJLCl, + 2HC1 + 2IC1 

The abnormal products obtained in these studies can be explained 
by assuming that the attacking reagent holds two chlorine atoms rigidly 
at such a distance that each attacks an adjacent carbon atom simul- 
taneously. This is probably brought about by the existence of a transi- 
tory unstable cyclic intermediate. We have tentatively termed this 
phenomenon "Simultaneous ortho-dichlorination", and propose that the 
attacking reagent is probably LC1«. Experimental details and arguments 
for the mechanistic interpretation will be given. 



122 



Utilization of Limit Dextrins by the Animal Body 

Anne De Boer Deckard and R. C. Corley, Purdue University 



Starch in nature appears to contain two types of polymers of glucose, 
the amyloses, with a linear type of molecule showing a blue color with 
iodine, and the amylopectins, with highly branched structures, which 
give a red color with iodine. Beta amylase, capable of splitting maltose 
from the non-aldehydic end of a chain, can complete the hydrolysis of 
amyloses, but can carry the splitting of the amylopectins apparently 
only to the points of branching, producing limit dextrins, residual sub- 
stances of high molecular weight which give colors with iodine. Alpha 
amylase causes quick fragmentation of amyloses, amylopectins, or limit 
dextrins into reducing dextrins which yield no color with iodine. 

Since alpha amylase is labile to acid whereas beta amylase is stable 
to acid at low temperatures, it is possible selectively to inactivate alpha 
amylase by treating a diastase preparation at 0°C. for 20 minutes in an 
acetate buffer solution at pH 3. Insoluble materials, including inactivated 
alpha amylase, were removed in a Sharpies supercentrifuge after adjust- 
ing with NaOH to pH 4.6 and adding an equal quantity of ethyl alcohol. 
Increasing the alcohol content to 80% precipitated beta amylase which 
was filtered off and suspended in acetate buffer at pH 4.6-4.8. Overlaid 
with toluene, such a preparation was kept in the refrigerator until used. 
Several preparations of beta amylase were made in the laboratory, and 
one of high purity was obtained from a commercial source. 

In connection with some studies of enzymatic splitting of starches, 
it has seemed of interest to investigate the utilization in the white rat 
of limit dextrins administered orally or parenterally. Limit dextrins in 
the alimentary tract would be expected to be readily digested, but those 
administered by another route might escape utilization. 

Rice starch was selected as the source of limit dextrins because of 
its small granules and its relatively high yield of limit dextrins of higher 
molecular weight. The starch was defatted by stirring and refluxing it 
with 85% alkaline methyl alcohol for about 15 hours. Although washed 
with 95% methyl alcohol, the air dried defatted starch gave a distinct 
alkaline reaction when dissolved. From this there were prepared several 
ten liter batches of 2% sol with pH adjusted to 4.6 by addition of glacial 
acetic acid. The sols were incubated several days at 37°C. with beta 
amylase preparations. When little additional maltose was being pro- 
duced, as shown by the Shaffer-Hartmann determination (3), additional 
portions of enzyme were added to insure that the hydrolysis by the beta 
amylase had gone to essential completion. For the Shaffer-Hartmann 
determination, 30 ml. of ethyl alcohol were added to 10 ml. of the digest 

123 



124 Indiana Academy of Science 

to precipitate starch and dextrins. Twenty ml. of the nitrate was evap- 
orated to about 5 ml., transferred to a 10 ml. volumetric flask and made 
up to volume with ethyl alcohol. Aliquots of this solution were treated 
according to the Shaffer-Hartmann procedure. The amount of reduction 
increased rapidly in a linear manner and suddenly leveled off. After 
digestion was discontinued, retrograded amylose and any flocculent 
precipitate present were filtered off and part of the dextrins was pre- 
cipitated by adding an equal volume of 95% ethyl alcohol to the filtrate. 
After several reprecipitations and after grinding the product in a mortar 
with absolute alcohol and then with anhydrous ether, a light tan powder 
was obtained which was dried. This powder gave violet-red colors with 
iodine, was soluble in hot water, only slightly soluble in cold water, and 
was thought to have relatively high molecular weight. The filtrate was 
concentrated under vacuum and after further addition of alcohol a 
fraction of medium molecular weight was obtained. It was soluble in 
cold water and gave a red complex with iodine. Digests containing small 
amounts of alpha amylase yielded in addition small amounts of limit 
dextrins very soluble in water and which gave only a light red color 
with iodine. These were thought to have low molecular weight. 

Young male white rats weighing 280-380 g. were deprived of food 
for 24 hours. Limit dextrins were administered in 5 ml. of water via 
stomach tube or subcutaneous injection. If the preparation of the limit 
dextrins was not sufficiently soluble, the dose was administered at hourly 
intervals in several more dilute portions. After 8 hours the livers were 
removed from the anesthetized animals and the glycogen determined 
(Table I) by the method of Good, Kramer, and Somogyi (1), as modified 
in this laboratory (2). Control experiments with rats fed starch, glucose, 
or maltose (Table II) and with rats sacrificed after a 36 hour fast were 
obtained. 



Table I. Glycogen in the Liver of the White Rat After Administration 

of Limit Dextrins 

Mode of 
Mol. Wt. Administration 

Low Stomach tube 

Medium Stomach tube 

Medium Stomach tube 

Medium Subcutaneous 

High Stomach tube 

High Stomach tube 

It appeared that glycogen was deposited in the liver of rats after 
the oral or subcutaneous administration of the limit dextrin preparations 
employed. Intestinal alpha amylase in the rat presumably continued the 
hydrolysis of limit dextrins. Van Genderen and Engel reported that a 
large quantity of alpha amylase was always found in the rat duo- 
denum (5). The mode of introduction into the organism of the limit 
dextrins employed seemed to cause but little variation in the amount of 



Dosage g/100 g. 


No. of 


', 


Body Wt. 


Rats Used 


Glycogen 


0.48 


1 


1.75 


0.57 


2 


1.15 


0.55 


2 


1.61 


0.53 


1 


1.37 


0.47 


1 


2.05 


0.28 


1 


0.24 



Chemistry 125 

Table II. Glycogen in the Liver of the White Rat After Administration 

of Carbohydrates 





Mode of 


Dosage g/100 g. 


No. of 


Glycoge 


Carbohydrate 


Administration 


Ho.ly Wl. 


Kats Used 


Av. '/, 


None 






7 


0.26 


Glucose 


Stomach tube 


0.62 


1 


2.77 


Maltose 


Subcutaneous 


0.60 


1 


1.94 


Starch 


Subcutaneous 


0.59 


3 


1.33 


Starch 


Stomach tube 


0.86 


1 


1.37 


Limit Dextrin 


Both methods 


0.54 


8 


1.21 



apparent liver glycogen deposited. The possible role of tissue, particu- 
larly liver, enzymes in promoting the utilization of injected polysac- 
charides is not clear. Formation of glycogen without any hydrolysis of 
the limit dextrins, or deposition of limit dextrins as such is conceivable. 
The fate of injected starch is analogously obscure. 

Conclusion 

After the oral or subcutaneous administration of several preparations 
of limit dextrins, glycogen or a similar polysaccharide was deposited in 
the livers of white rats. 

Bibliography 

1. Good, C. A., H. Kramer, and M. Somogyi. 1933. J. Biol. Chem., 100:485. 
■1. Smulevitz, I., and R. C. Corley. 1946. Master's Thesis, Purdue University. 

3. Shaffer, P. A., and A. F Hartman. 1921. J. Biol. Chem., 45:349. 

4. Myrbach, K., Svensk Kern. Tid. 1946. 58:119. 

5. Van Genderen, H., and C. Engel, 1938. Enzymologia, 5:7. 



Acetylation with Isopropenyl Acetate 1 

Ed F. Degering* and H. H. Chen, Purdue University 



In 1936, Hardy (3) suggested the conversion of esters directly into 
the corresponding anilides by treatment with anilino magnesium bro- 
mide, which was readily obtained from any simple Grignard reagent 
and aniline. By replacement of the latter with other aromatic amines, 
substituted anilides also may be obtained. Koelsch and Tenenbaum, (6) 
in a similar manner, obtained p-toluides. Conversely, a solid derivative 
of the alcohol portion of a simple ester may be obtained by effecting an 
interchange reaction between 3, 5-dinitrobenzoic acid and the ester in 
the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. (7) This method is applicable 
to a large number of simple esters but may not be used if either the 
alkyl group of the ester reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid. High- 
molecular-weight esters (-> 250) also fail to react. 

For the identification of the acyl group in esters, Dernier and 
King (2) prepared the N-benzylamides according to a modified method by 
Buehler and Mackenzie. (1) The ester was refluxed with benzylamine in 
the presence of a small amount of ammonium chloride. The cooled 
mixture was washed with water, if necessary acidified with hydro- 
chloric acid, and the solid amide filtered, dried, washed with ligroin, and 
recrystallized from aqueous acetone or ethyl alcohol. In 1940, Sah (8) 
obtained acid hydrazides by treating hydrazines with methyl and ethyl 
esters. Jacobs and Heidelberger (5) obtained a yield of seventy-eight 
to eighty-four percent of the theoretical amount of the chloroacetamide 
by treating a mixture of ethyl chloroacetate and chilled aqueous am- 
monia at a temperature maintained at 0-5°C. At higher temperatures 
there was more replacement of the chlorine and the yields were con- 
siderably lower. Henry, (4) in a similar way, prepared chloroacetamide 
by the treatment of methyl chloroacetate with cold aqueous ammonia. 

All these processes, however, proceed well only when the esters 
used are of methyl and ethyl alcohols. Esters of higher alcohols should 
be subjected to a preliminary methanolysis. The purpose of the present 
investigation is to acetylate a number of amines with a special ester, 
isopropenyl acetate. By the use of this compound, results the formation 
of a by-product, acetone, which may be easily distilled from the reaction 
mixture. The isopropenyl acetate is also a low-boiling ester, which, if 



1 An abstract of a thesis submitted to the faculty of Purdue University 
by H. H. Chen in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master 
of Science. 

126 



Chemistry 127 

unused in the course of reaction, may be distilled simultaneously with 
the acetone. The reaction proceeds as follows: 

O CH 3 OH CH 3 

II I II I I II 

CH3-C-0-C = CH 2 + R-NH^CH 3 -C-N-R+HO-C = CH2^CH 3 C-CH 8 

In the course of the present investigation, several acetylations were 
conducted. The physical constants of the major acetylated products and 
those of the derivatives prepared from the by-product, acetone, agree 
very well with the data from the literature. The general procedures 
adopted are as follows: 

An equi-mole mixture of the amine and the isopropenyl acetate is 
refluxed from one to four hours, depending on the different amines used. 
The acetone formed from the reaction and the isopropenyl acetate 
unused are distilled. The residue is a mixture of the acetyl derivative 
of the present amine and the unreacted amine. The acetyl derivative 
is isolated by one of the following processes: 

(a) The residue from the distillation is poured into a large quantity 
of distilled water, then dilute hydrochloric acid is added with stirring. 
The precipitate is filtered, washed and dried. 

(b) The residue from distillation is dissolved in acetone. This 
solution is added to a large quantity of dilute hydrochloric acid solution. 
The precipitate formed is washed with more dilute hydrochloric acid 
solution, then with water, filtered and dried. 

(c) The residue from the distillation is dissolved in ether. This 
solution is extracted with several portions of dilute hydrochloric acid 
solution. The ether layer is separated, evaporated, and the residue is 
recrystallized from suitable solvents. 

(d) The residue from the distillation is treated with a suitable 
solvent which will dissolve one of the two compounds, followed by 
either evaporation of the solvent or washing the residue with the same 
solvent. The residue obtained by either way is recrystallized from the 
same or another suitable solvent. 

In the identification of the by-product, acetone, the following pro- 
cedure is used: 

A solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine is prepared by adding to 
0.4 g. of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, in a 25 ml. Erlenmeyer flask, 2 ml. 
of concentrated sulfuric acid. Water (3 ml.) is then added dropwise. To 
this warm solution is added 10 ml. of 95% ethanol. 

A solution of the distillate in ethanol is prepared by dissolving 
0.5 g. of the distillate in 20 ml. of 95% ethanol. The freshly prepared 
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution is then added, and the resulting 
mixture is allowed to stand at room temperature. Crystallization of the 
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone occurs within five to ten minutes. The 2,4- 
dinitrophenylhydrazone is filtered, dried, and its melting point de- 
termined. 



128 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Buehler, C. A. and Mackenzie, C. A. 1937. The action of benzylamine on 

aliphatic esters. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 50:421. 

2. Dermer, O. C. and King, J. 1943. N-benzylamides as derivatives for 

identifying the acyl group in esters. J. Org. Chem., 8:168-73. 

3. Hardy, V. N. 1936. Identification of acids and esters. J. Chem. Soc, 1936, 

398. 

4. Henry, M. L. 1905. Sur quelques derives du nitrile glycolique NC-CH 2 (OH). 

Rec. Trav. Chim., 24:165. 

5. Jacobs, W. A. and Heidelberger, M. 1941. Chloroacetamide. Org. Syn. Col. 

Vol. I, pp. 153-4. 

6. Koelsch, C. F. and Tenenbaum, D. 1933. A method for the identification of 

the acyl group in certain esters. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 55:3049. 

7. Renfrow, W. B. and Chaney, A. 1946. Identification of the Alcohol com- 

ponents of simple esters. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 68:150. 

8. Sah, P. T. 1940. Hydrazides as characteristic derivatives for the identifica- 

tion of esters, acids, salts, acid halides, and anhydrides, acid amides, 
ureas and nitriles. Rev. trav. chim., 59:1036. 



Centering of Rotating Microscope Stages 

Philip J. Elving 1 and Melvin L. Moss-,. Purdue University 



A difficulty in using polarizing chemical and petrographic micro- 
scopes frequently encountered by students and by chemists inexperienced 
in microscopy is centering the circular rotating stage so that the 
center of rotation of the stage coincides with the optical axis of the 
microscope body tube and optical system. Accurate alignment of the 
center of rotation of the stage with the center of the observed field is 
necessary for measuring extinction angles, observing the behavior of 
interference figures, and many other purposes. 

The scheme shown in figure 1 has been helpful in enabling students 
in chemical microscopy readily to align their microscopes. It was 
originally intended for those instruments having two adjusting screws 
below the stage facing the observer. The diagram may be conveniently 
displayed in the laboratory by reproduction on a sheet of white card- 
board. 



/ 

[ 


\ 
i 










I 


i 


^ — -' 




1 


\ 


1 


\ 




> _^_^> 




/ 


I 




\ 


I 


\ 










^\ 


/ 




/ 

\ 


\ 
J 


1 


\ 

; 




V / 


\ 








VH 


v / 


\ 


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Figure 1. Procedure for Centering- Rotating Microscope Stages. 

In using the chart, the image of a small crystal or other object 
on a slide held on the stage is brought into coincidence with the 
junction of the cross-hairs of the ocular. The stage is then rotated and 
the circle described by the object relative to the junction of the cross- 
hairs is noted. This circle is represented on the chart by one of the 
dashed line circles if the stage is not correctly centered. The necessary 
adjustment is made by turning one or both thumbscrews according to 



1 Present address : The Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

2 Present address: Aluminum Co. of America, New Kensington, Pa. 



129 



130 Indiana Academy of Science 

the direction of the arrows. If the center of the circle described does 
not lie upon one of the cross-hairs, only one of the two conventional 
stage-centering screws is rotated as indicated in the upper half of 
figure 1. The position of the screw, left or right, corresponds to the 
observer being located below the illustration, i.e., facing the figure in 
the normal reader's position. If the center of the imaginary circle rests 
on one of the cross-hairs, both centering screws are adjusted as shown in 
the lower half of figure 1. The adjusting screws should be turned 
sufficiently to bring the center of the circle described by the object to 
the cross-hair junction. Usually, after each adjustment of the centering 
screws, the object is again brought into coincidence with the cross-hairs 
junction and the process outlined is repeated until the object remains at 
the cross-hairs junction on 360° rotation of the microscope stage. 
Objectives attached to the microscope body tube by an objective 
centering ring can be centered in an analogous manner. In the usual 
case where the adjusting screws on the objective centering ring are 
located in the two quadrants away from the observer, the chart required 
is similar to that in figure 1 except that the arrows are located in 
diagonally opposite quadrants; however, the arrows still point in the 
same direction. For example, in the upper extreme left situation of 
figure 1, the arrow now in the southeast quadrant would be transferred 
to the northwest quadrant; it would still point northeast. 



Academic Training in Analytical Chemistry 

Robert B. Fischer, Indiana University 



The extreme complexity of modern chemistry forces every chemist 
to become to some degree a narrow specialist, yet the dangers of over- 
specialization must be acknowledged by all. The academic training of 
every chemist should provide a firm basis of a thorough familiarity 
with all of the major divisions of chemistry, and to a lesser degree of 
related sciences, as a foundation for subsequent specialization. The 
need for a broad working familiarity with all phases of chemistry is 
particularly acute for the analytical chemist. Modern industry is demand- 
ing more analyses, it is demanding analyses more rapidly and often 
more precisely, and it is frequently demanding that the analytical 
results be adapted to automatic process control. To be able to respond 
to these demands, the analytical chemist should ideally be an expert in 
the diverse fields of organic chemistry and electronics, of inorganic 
chemistry and biochemistry, of instrumentation and others. 

College and university offerings in analytical chemistry have been 
the subject of frequent critical reexamination within the past few 
years. Many possible changes have been suggested, some very sweeping 
and others minor, some of a long range nature and others of immediate 
possibility. The purpose of the present report is to record some view- 
points which have been expressed in extensive discussions at Indiana 
University between Professor L. L. Merritt and the present author. 

The following features should be included, along with others, in a 
complete academic program for the professional analytical chemist: 

1. a thorough grounding in the "classical" principles of analytical 
chemistry; 

2. a comprehensive familiarity with chemical methods of analysis of 
important natural and manufactured materials; 

3. a thorough survey of all of the major divisions of chemistry, includ- 
ing advanced course work in each; 

4. a working familiarity with the type methods of instrumental analysis; 

5. some class work and laboratory work in applied electronics; 

6. some class work and laboratory work in the principles and methods 
of instrumentation, including automatic control devices; 

7. specialization within some phase of analytical chemistry. 

These seven considerations are commented upon in the following para- 
graphs, in which the numbers refer to the above listing. 

1. It is felt that the first course in quantitative analysis should 
continue to emphasize the "classical" principles of the subject. The 

131 



132 Indiana Academy of Science 

basic principles of stoichiometric relationships, formation of precipitates 
and chemical equilibria are still the foundation stones of quantitative 
analysis. Any minor changes which can be made to make the subject 
more alive and more exciting to the student, however, are always of 
possible value. Many teachers now include some colorimetry in the 
first course. The use of a direct reading pH meter to obtain titration 
curve data is experimentally simple yet of value in making the theory 
of titrations seem more real. The author has found that the use of 
electron micrographs to illustrate precipitation phenomena adds much 
to student interest. Laboratory demonstration periods may be utilized 
from time to time to introduce, and even to exhibit in operation, some 
of the instruments and other modern developments within analytical 
chemistry. Students in the author's beginning quantitative analysis 
course have each semester exhibited keen interest in regularly scheduled 
guided tours through the laboratories which are used for advanced 
courses and for research in analytical chemistry. This latter is possible 
only in a school possessing a well-equipped graduate division, although 
modern instruments can be "shown" to any class by means of pictures 
in the wealth of literature made available by the manufacturers. 

2. An advanced course in analytical chemistry, not including instru- 
mental methods, is necessary to fulfill this requirement. Such a course 
is required of all graduate students at Indiana University. The analytical 
chemistry of each element is considered in turn. In addition this course 
provides opportunity for presentation of special topics, such as micro- 
analytical methods, statistics in analytical chemistry, atomic weight 
determinations, new analytical reagents, and others. 

3. There is much difference of opinion as to what portion of the 
graduate training of a chemist should be devoted to formal course work. 
Nevertheless, there can be little doubt that the analytical chemist in 
particular can benefit from extensive course work in all of the major 
branches of chemistry. All doctorate candidates at Indiana University 
are required to take at least two courses in each of four divisions. 

4. This requirement can be met efficiently after the student has 
had at least some course work in the major fields of chemistry including 
physical chemistry. Both class work and laboratory work should be 
included. Although a senior level course in a large school can be 
satisfactory to fulfill this requirement, it generally necessitates a course 
for which graduate credit can be awarded. Emphasis should be placed 
upon the instruments available commercially, as well as upon the general 
applicability of each type method, the usual range of precision and 
accuracy, and other salient features. 

5 and 6. It is felt that in many instances the electronics requirement 
can be met most efficiently by a course in electronics for chemists within 
the chemistry department. Such a course is currently available for 
graduate credit at Indiana University. This course at present includes 
brief introductions to instrumentation and to control devices. It is 
planned that this phase of the curriculum be expanded. 



Chemistry 133 

7. Specialization may be aided by special topics courses on an ad- 
vanced level, by seminars and by research work. 

In summary, some of the significant requirements which must be 
fulfilled by an adequate academic training for professional analytical 
chemistry have been enumerated, and comments have been made upon 
each with particular reference to the way in which these requirements 
are being fulfilled at Indiana University. 



Beckmann Rearrangement of Oximes of Certain 
Quinolyl Ketones 1 

C. E. Kaslow, Jerome D. Genzer and James C. Goodspeed, 
Indiana University 



Some early work has been done on the Beckmann rearrangement of 
oximes of quinolyl ketones. Matsumara (7) reported the rearrangement of 
5-acetyl-8-hydroxyquinoline oxime to 5-acetamido-8-hydroxyquinoline and 
likewise 5-benzoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline was rearranged to the correspond- 
ing 5-benzamido compound. These rearrangements were carried out at 
100° in a sealed tube containing a solution of the oxime in glacial acetic 
acid and acetic anhydride which had been saturated with hydrogen 
chloride. In a later publication (8), it was reported that thionyl chloride 
in ether caused the rearrangement of 5-benzoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline 
oxime to the anilide of 8-hydroxy-5-quinolinecarboxylic acid. Rear- 
rangement in concentrated sulfuric acid was reported to also give the 
anilide. However, it was reported that the oxime of 5-acetyl-8-hydroxy- 
quinoline was rearranged with thionyl chloride and sulfuric acid to give 
the same product as with acetic anhydride. 

Howitz and Kopke (2) reported the isolation of two oximes of 
8-benzoylquinoline, one melted at 121° and the other at 165°. The lower 
melting oxime was rearranged in ether by phosphorus pentachloride to 
give 8-benzamidoquinoline while the higher melting oxime gave 8-quino- 
linecarboxanilide. Matsumara (7, 8) did not mention the isolation of 
more than one form of the oxime of 5-benzoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline. 

Recently, Huntress and Walter (3) have studied the rearrangement 
of the oximes of 2-benzoylpyridine. Two oximes were isolated; the 
lower melting one was rearranged in chloroform using thionyl chloride 
to give 2-benzamidopyridine while the higher melting form rearranged 
under the same conditions to 2-pyridinecarboxanilide. The authors found 
that both oximes gave the same product, a-picolinic acid and sulfanilic 
acid, when rearranged in concentrated sulfuric acid and the product 
subjected then to hydrolysis. They reported that the use of phosphorus 
pentachloride in ether did not give as good results as the thionyl chloride 
method. Huntress and Walter also reported that rearrangement of the 
benzenesulfonyl and p-toluenesulfonyl esters of the oximes occurred 
smoothly by merely refluxing solutions of the ester in solvents such 



1 Abstracted from portions of theses submitted to the Faculty of the Grad- 
uate School in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of 
Arts, in the Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, by J. D. G. (July, 
1948) and J. C. G. (November, 1947). 

134 



Chemistry 135 

as chloroform or benzene. In some cases, rearrangement occurred 
without heating. 

The configuration of the oximes may be deduced from the knowledge 
that the group trans to the hydroxy group of the oxime moves to the 
nitrogen atom during rearrangement. 

In the work reported in this paper, both the syn and anti-phenyl 
oximes of 6-benzoylquinoline were obtained since both benzoic acid and 
6-quinolinecarboxylic acid were obtained by hydrolysis of the rearranged 
substances. The individual oximes were not isolated. The oxime of 
6-acetyl-4-chloroquinaldine was of one configuration. Rearrangement 
of the oxime gave 6-acetamido-4-chloroquinaldine, therefore the oxime 
must have been the syn-methyl. The yield of 6-amino-4-chloroquinaldine 
though was rather low since there was extensive replacement of the 
chlorine atom by the hydroxy group during hydrolysis of the 6-acetamido 
compound. The melting point recorded for 6-acetamido-4-chloroquino- 
line ranges from 206° to 212° (4,5,1) which is in rather close agreement 
with the melting point of the substance isolated from the Beckman 
rearrangement. The melting point of the substance obtained by hydroly- 
sis of the 6-acetamido-4-chloroquinaldine agrees with that of 6-amino-4- 
chloroquinaldine reported by Jacini (4) but not with the value, 145°, 
reported by Kermack (5). Phosphorus pentachloride in ether or in 
benzene gave better results than did the use of either thionyl chloride 
or sulfuric acid. The Beckmann rearrangement of the oxime of 6-acetyl- 
4-hydroxyquinaldine gave unworkable tarry materials. 

The 6-acetyl-4-hydroxyquinaldine was prepared from methyl aceto- 
acetate and p-aminoacetophenone by the well-known Conrad-Limpach 
method but boiling diphenyl ether was used as the medium for ring 
closure of the crotonate. 

Experimental 

p-Ami?ioacetopheno?ie. — To a 2-liter three-necked flask fitted with a 
mechanical stirrer and a reflux condenser fitted with a trap to absorb 
hydrogen chloride, was added 270 g. (2 moles) of acetanilide, 530 ml. of 
carbon disulfide and 420 g. (5.35 moles) of acetyl chloride. The stirrer 
was started and about 5 g. portions of anhydrous aluminum chloride 
added through the third neck of the flask, stoppering it after each addi- 
tion and waiting until the reaction subsided before more aluminum 
chloride was added; the total amount used was 934 g. (7 moles). The 
reaction mixture was refluxed for about thirty minutes, then the upper 
layer removed and the lower brown-colored layer was poured onto 
chipped ice. The cold mixture was stirred well, then the crude p-aceta- 
midoacetophenone removed by filtration. The crude wet substance was 
refluxed for thirty minutes with a solution of 550 ml. of concentrated 
hydrochloric acid in 750 ml. of water, then the acid was just neutralized 
with sodium hydroxide, the aniline removed by steam distillation. After 
cooling in an ice bath, the p-aminoacetophenone was removed by filtration 
and purified by recrystallization from about three liters of boiling water 
after treatment with 5-10 g. of decolorizing charcoal. The yield of yellow 



136 Indiana Academy of Science 

crystalline material was 155.4. g. (58.2%), m.p. 103-105°. The melting 
point (2) recorded for p-aminoacetophenone is 104-106°. 

Methyl (3-(p-acetylanilino) -crotonate. — A 500 ml. round bottomed 
flask was fitted with a reflux condenser and a watertrap for use with a 
heavier than water liquid. A solution of 200 ml. of methylene dichloride, 
65.7 g. (0.5 mole) of pure p-aminoacetophenone, 61.5 g. (0.53 mole) of 
methyl acetoacetate and three drops of 10% hydrochloric acid were 
refluxed until no more water was collected in the trap. The methylene 
dichloride was removed by distillation on a steam bath. After the 
residue cooled, the solid was triturated with 200 ml. of ligroin, filtered 
and washed twice with 100 ml. portions of ligroin. The yield of the 
crotonate, after drying in an air bath was 110 g. (95.3%), m. p. 80-83°. 
A portion of the crotonate was recrystallized twice from boiling ligroin 
(90-60° range), giving yellow-colored needles, but the melting point 
did not change. 

Anal Calc'd. for C 13 Hi S NO,: N,6.06%. Found: N,6.49%.. 

6-Acetyl-4-hydroxyqui?ialdi'ne. — A 1-liter three-necked flask was 
fitted with a mechanical stirrer, a separatory funnel and an exit tube 
10 mm. in diameter with about a 6 in. vertical section connected to a 
water cooled condenser set downward for distillation. About 450 ml. of 
diphenyl ether was added to the flask then heated to boiling and a hot 
solution of 76 g. (0.34 mole) of crude methyl 0-(p-acetylanilino) -cro- 
tonate in 125 ml. of diphenyl ether was added to the stirred boiling 
diphenyl ether at a rate so as not to allow the temperature to fall below 
240°. After no more methyl alcohol distilled, the reaction mixture was 
allowed to cool, the solid was collected on a Buechner funnel, then 
washed with 150 ml. of a diphenyl ether-ligroin mixture (2:1) and 
finally with two 125 ml. portions of ligroin. The yield of crude 6-acetyl- 
4-hydroxyquinaldine was 56 g. (82%), m. p. 315-320 (dec). The 
substance was obtained as light tan-colored crystals after recrystalliza- 
tion from 95% ethyl alcohol; m. p. 327-329°. The recovery of recrystal- 
lized material was 80%. 

Ayial. Calc'd. for C 12 H u NO,: N,6.96%. Found: N,6.85'%. 

6-Acetyl-U-chloroquinaldine. — Crude, dry 6-acetyl-4-hydroxyquinal- 
dine (35.3 g., 0.175 mole) was added portion-wise to 56.7 g. (0.37 mole) 
of phosphoryl trichloride and the reaction mixture was warmed a few 
minutes after all of the solid was in solution. The liquid mass was 
poured onto about 400 g. of ice, then the solution nearly neutralized 
with sodium hydroxide, the tarry material removed by filtration and the 
chlorocompound precipitated by neutralization of the clear filtrate. The 
solid was collected on a Buechner funnel, washed thoroughly with both 
water and a very dilute sodium bicarbonate solution, then dried at 70°. 
The yield of the crude substance was 36.7 g. (95.5%), m. p. 133-136°. 
The 6-acetyl-4-chloroquinaldine was purified by recrystallization from 
dilute ethyl alcohol (35%) and also from ligroin (b. p. 70-110°); the 
yield of light tan-colored crystals was 29.4 g. (77%); m. p. 137-137.5°. 



Chemistry 137 

Anal. Calc'd. for Ci 2 H 10 ClNO: CI, 16.18%. Found: CI, 16.33%. 

6-Benzoylquinoline. — A 1-liter three-necked flask was fitted with a 
mechanical stirrer, thermometer, separatory funnel and a reflux con- 
denser. The flask was supported in an oil bath. Added to the flask were 
90 g. (0.45 mole) of p-aminobenzophenone, 130 ml. of glycerol, 42 g. of 
boric acid and 78 g. of arsenic pentoxide. The mixture was warmed 
to 115 and stirred until it became homogenous then 54 ml. of con- 
centrated sulfuric acid was added at a rate so as to allow a gradual 
rise in temperature but not go above 130°. After all of the sulfuric 
acid had been added, the temperature was allowed to rise slowly to 138- 
140° where it was maintained for about seven hours. After cooling, the 
reaction mixture was poured onto ice, then the solution neutralized with 
concentrated ammonia water and the solid removed. The gummy mass 
was shaken with excess 10% sodium hydroxide and benzenesulfonyl 
chloride, the aqueous layer separated and the water-insoluble portion 
treated with excess dilute hydrochloric acid. The acid solution was 
filtered, then ice added to the filtrate and the solution made slightly 
alkaline to litmus by the addition of sodium hydroxide. The brown-colored 
solid was collected by filtration and after drying in the air, it weighed 
62 g.; m. p. 33-39°. The crude 6-benzoylquinoline was purified by three 
recrystallizations from dilute (30%) ethyl alcohol. The substance was 
obtained as a white, flocculent type solid melting at 42-43°. 

Anal. Calc'd for C 1( ,H»NO: N,6.01%. Found: N,6.07%. 

6-Benzoylquinolinium Picrate. — The picrate was prepared by the 
addition of a saturated alcohol solution of picric acid to 0.5 g. of 6-benz- 
oylquinoline in 10 ml. of 95% ethyl alcohol. The picrate was removed 
by filtration and recrystallized three times from absolute ethyl alcohol. 
It was a finely crystalline bright yellow solid melting at 212-214°. 

Anal. Calc'd forC,,H 1 ,N 4 Os: N, 12.12%. Found: N, 10.87, 11.00%. 

6-Benzoylqiiinoline Oxime. — Five grams (0.02 mole) of 6-benzoyl- 
quinoline and 2.1 g. (0.03 mole) of hydroxylamine hydrochloride was 
added to a solution of 2 g. (0.05 mole) of sodium hydroxide in 125 ml. 
of absolute ethyl alcohol and the mixture refluxed for about fifteen 
minutes. Most of the alcohol was removed by distillation, then the mass 
poured into about 500 ml. of water containing 0.5-1.0 ml. of concentrated 
sulfuric acid. After standing for some time, the solid was collected on a 
Buechner funnel, washed and then dried at 70°. The yield of the crude 
oxime was 3.2 g. (61%), m. p. 174-190°. Recrystallization of one gram 
of crude 6-benzoylquinoline oxime from ethyl alcohol gave 0.7 g. of light 
yellow crystals, m. p. 204-206°. 

Anal. Calc'd for CioEUNaO: N,11.29%. Found: N,11.25%. 

6-Acetyl-U-chloroquinaldine Oxime. — This oxime was prepared in a 
similar manner from 19.5 g. (0.49 mole) of 6-acetyl-4-chloroquinaldine. 
The yield of the crude oxime was 35.2 g. and possessed a very wide 
indefinite melting noint range. To purifv the oxime, 25.2 g. of the crude 
substance was refluxed with 800 ml. of absolute alcohol, the solution 



138 Indiana Academy of Science 

filtered and the oxime allowed to crystallize. After two recrystalliza- 
tions, the yield was 14 g., m. p. 191-193°. 

Anal. Calc'd. for C 12 HuClN,0 : CI, 15.12%. Found: CI, 15.28%. 

6-Acetyl-b-hydroxyquinaldine Oxime. — The substance was prepared 
from 12.2 g. (0.066 mole) of 6-acetyl-4-hydroxyquinaldine using the same 
ratio of reagents and conditions as in the preparation of 6-benzoylquino- 
line oxime. The yield of oxime was 12.6 g. (96%). The crude substance 
was dissolved in boiling ethylene glycol, the oxime allowed to separate, 
the solid washed with ethylene glycol, then boiled with two 50 ml. por- 
tions of ethyl alcohol. The recovery of the recrystallized oxime was 92%. 
The oxime was a light gray color and melted at 304-305°. 

Anal. Calc'd for C 12 H 12 N 2 0,: N, 12.96. Found: N, 12.98%. 

Beckmann Rearrangement of 6-Benzoylquinoline Oxime. — A 1-liter 
three-necked flask was equipped with a sealed stirrer and a reflux con- 
denser with a calcium chloride attached. Eight grams (0.034 mole) of 
powdered 6-benzoylquinoline oxime and 500 ml. of anhydrous ether was 
added to the flask and the mixture stirred vigorously. Phosphorus penta- 
chloride (14 g., 0.07 mole) was added in 12 portions over a period of about 
three hours while the temperature was maintained no higher than —10°. 
The temperature was allowed to rise to that of the room after an addi- 
tional hour and the stirring was continued while the reaction mixture was 
refluxed for thirty minutes. Most of the ether was removed by distilla- 
tion and the residue hydrolysed by the addition of ice. A portion of the 
acid was neutralized by sodium hydroxide, the solution filtered and the 
filtrate made slightly alkaline. The brown sticky solid which precipitated 
became hard and glossy after standing some time. The yield was 4 g. 
A small portion was recrystallized from absolute ethyl alcohol which 
yielded a white solid melting at 140-145°. 

Anal. Calc'd. for C 1(J H 12 N0 2 : N, 11.29%. Found: N, 11.33%. 

Three grams of the crude rearranged substance was refluxed for 
three hours with 30 ml. of 20% hydrochloric acid, then the solution made 
alkaline and the oil extracted with ether. The aqueous layer was 
warmed, then filtered and the cold filtrate acidified. The solid which 
separated was recrystallized from hot water giving a white crystalline 
acid which melted at 119-120°. A mixed melting point with benzoic acid 
showed no depression. The acid filtrate was made alkaline with concen- 
trated ammonia water, then neutralized with acetic acid. After standing 
for a day, the solid was collected on a Buechner funnel and recrystallized 
from dilute ethyl alcohol. The substance melted at 285-288° (dec). 
The melting point (9) recorded for 6-quinoline-carboxylic acid is 290- 
291°. 

Beckmann Rearrangement of 6-Acetyl-U-chloroqiiinaldine Oxime. — 
Benzene (500 ml.) was added to a 1-liter three-necked flask containing 
12.4 g. (0.052 mole) of powdered crude 6-acetyl-4-chloroquinaldine oxime. 
The flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer and condenser, then 
immersed in a cooling bath and 22 g. (0.106 mole) of phosphorus 



Chemistry 139 

pentachloride added in eight portions over a period of three hours while 
the mixture was stirred vigorously and the temperature was maintained 
at about 0°. After the reaction mixture warmed to room temperature, it 
was stirred for one hour then most of the benzene removed on a steam 
bath. Ice was added to the residue and the solution was boiled gently 
for a short time to remove the remainder of the benzene. The acidic 
solution was partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide, treated with 
5 g. of norite and filtered through a Buechner funnel. After making 
the cold filtrate slightly alkaline with sodium hydroxide, a yield of 
9.8 g. (79%) of a tan-colored solid was obtained, m. p. 176-180°. A 
small amount of the amide was purified by several recrystallizations 
from benzene; m. p. 205-206.5°. 

Anal. Calc'd. for C^HuClN.O; N,11.94%. Found: N,12.34%. 

A mixture of 3.5 g. of 6-acetamido-4-chloroquinaldine was refluxed 
for fifteen minutes with 10 ml. of 20% hydrochloric acid, then the solu- 
tion filtered and made slightly alkaline. A yield of 2.6 g. of brown solid 
melting at 129-137° was obtained. The substance was extracted with 
hot benzene yielding a solid, which after recrystallization from benzene, 
melted at 169-169.5°. 

Anal. Calc'd. for G0H9CIN,: Cl,18.44%. Found: Cl,18.25%. 

Summary 

The Beckmann rearrangement on the oxime of 6-acetyl-4-chloro- 
quinaldine resulted in the formation of 6-acetamido-4-chloroquinaldine. 
The oxime of 6-benzoylquinoline was a mixture of syn and anti forms 
and on rearrangement and hydrolysis of the mixed amides from the 
rearrangement, gave both benzoic acid and 6-quinoline-carboxylic acid. 
Several new quinoline compounds have been reported, namely, 6-acetyl- 
4-hydroxyquinaldine, 6-acetyl-4-chloroquinaldine, 6-benzoylquinoline and 
the oximes of these substances. 

Literature Cited 

1. Beilstein, "Handuch der organische Chemie," 4th ed., Vol. XXII, p. 79. 

2. Howitz, J., and O. Kopke. 1913. Uber o-Chinolylketone und ihre Derivate. 

396:38. 

3. Huntress,, E. H., and H. C. Walter. 1948. Beckman Rearrangement of 

Oximes of Phenyl 2-Pyridyl Ketone (2-Benzoylpyridine). J. Am. Chem. 
Soc., 70:3702. 

4. Jacini, G. 1941. The Reaction of Ethyl Acetoacetate with p-Aminoacetanilide. 

Gazz. Chim. ital., 71:53. 

5. Kermack., W. O., and A. R Weatherhead. 1939. Nitration of Derivatives of 

4-Hydroxyquinoline. J. Chem. Soc., 1939:563. 

6. Kunckell, F. 1900. Neue Darstellungsweise aromatischer Amidoketone. 

Ber. 33:2641. 

7. Matsumara, K. 1930. The Friedel and Crafts Reaction with 8-Hydroxy- 

quinoline. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 52:4433. 

8. Matsumara, K., and C. Sone. 1931. The Beckmann Rearrangement with 

Quinoline Compounds. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 53:1493. 

9. Rubtsov, M. V., and V. I. Bunina. 1946. Styrylquinolines. Chem. Abstr. 40: 

7194. 



Look It Up, Freshman 

W. G. Kessel, Indiana State Teachers College 



We as chemistry instructors are faced with numerous problems when 
teaching the beginning chemistry student. Most of us realize the need 
for learning facts, laws, theories, symbols, equations, properties, etc. 
Also, we hope to get our students to think, to use these facts and others 
in their experience in solving their problems, whether they are chemical 
in nature or not. Often it is necessary to utilize other sources of infor- 
mation so, we attempt to familiarize our beginner with texts other than 
his own and some of the pertinent journals. 

Last fall I decided to put more emphasis on the use of these other 
sources of chemical information. So, I suggested they examine some of 
the available general chemistry books when problems arose. The results 
were like ideas that we all have, sound good, but backfire. This was no 
exception. 

Then as questions went unanswered I kept note of them and decided 
to check the texts myself. The results of examining thirty general chem- 
istry texts, printed since 1939, are most surprising in terms of our 
problems. The first problem was a result of the laboratory manual, 
directions which read ". . . . use dilute alkaline permanganate solution." 
Of course, some students used ammonium hydroxide and a reaction took 
place before the other reagent was added. Why ? Only one text of the 
thirty gave much information. Most of the rest stated that perman- 
ganate in acidic or basic solution was an oxidizing agent. Fourteen of 
these books did not have even potassium permanganate in the index. If 
one had wanted some information about this compound, it would have 
necessitated considerable searching. 

Last year Dr. Brown of Purdue called attention to the inability of 
entering chemistry graduate students to give a method of hydrogen 
bromide production. We ran into this problem during a consideration 
of the halogens. Eight texts bypassed this completely, but some were 
very good. However, one might have picked the wrong ones. 

The third unanswered problem was how one could precipitate lead 
chromate by adding lead ion to a dichromate solution. Most of the texts 

Base 
suggested this relationship Cr 2 7 = ?=* CrCX However, this is of little 

Acid 
help to the freshman if he adds lead nitrate, which is acid, to the already 
acidic dichromate solution and still gets PbCr0 4 . None of the texts were 
of much help on this one. 

The fourth problem was an indicator problem, for in using phenolph- 
thalein the students tried concentrated acids and bases and got some 

140 



Chemistry 



141 



peculiar colors. Textbook survey reveals that phenolphthalein should 
become pink to red in the range 8.2±0.2 — 10.0±0.2. Fourteen of the 
examined books did not include this compound in their index. 

The fifth question had to do with the methods of preparation and 
the properties of the phosphorus halides where phosphorus is tri or 
penta valent. Eleven texts did not mention them. 

As a result of an attempt to answer these questions that might face 
any freshman it would seem that too many of our present general texts 
are not very satisfactory as reference books. I know the beginning book 
is not normally a reference, but for the beginner it should be, if he is 
to find help. Many of us like the shorter versions that are rather popular 
now, but he must have some other supplemental information if he is to 
succeed. 

It was most interesting to note the variety of topics in some of the 
beginning books. For example, these: mayonnaise, van der Waals forces, 
horsepower, cyprian brass, American Chemical Society, getters, Mojave 
Desert, RDX, visual aids, etc., etc. 

Perhaps we should examine more thoroughly the available references 
we have for our beginners. We should do our utmost to help them. Just 
turning them loose with chemistry texts is not sufficient. 



1. Bogert 6th 

2. Brinkley 3rd 

3. Briscoe 3rd 

4. Chapin & 5th 
Steiner 

5. Currier & 1st 
Rose 

6. Deming 2nd 

7. Deming 5th 

S. Dodge 1st 

9. Elder, 1st 
Seott, Kanda 

10. Holmyard 2nd 

11. Holmes 4th 

12. Irvin & 1st 
Sherwood 

13. Lewis 5th 



14. McPherson 1st 
Henderson 
Fernelius & 
Mock 

15. Parkes & 1st 
Mellor 



Chemistry Texts as References 

FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY 

W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1946. 
INTRODUCTORY GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

The MacMillan Company, New York, 1945 
GENERAL CHEMISTRY FOR COLLEGES 

Houghton Mifflin Company, Chicago, 19 43. 
SECOND YEAR COLLEGE CHEMISTRY 

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1943. 
GENERAL AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY 

McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1948. 
FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY 

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1947. 
GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1944. 
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY" 

C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1948. 
(Revised) TEXTBOOK OF CHEMISTRY 

Harper & Brothers, New York, 1941. 
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

Edward Arnold & Company, London, 19 42. 
INTRODUCTORY COLLEGE CHEMISTRY 

The MacMillan Company, New York, 1947. 
GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 193 9. 
AN OUTLINE OF FIRST YEAR COLLEGE 
CHEMISTRY 

Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1941. 
CHEMISTRY 

Ginn & Company, Chicago, 1949. 



(revised) MELLOR' S MODERN INORGANIC 
CHEMISTRY 



142 



Indiana Academy of Science 



16. 


Pauling 


1st 


17. 


Price & 
Bruce 


1st 


18. 


Ray 


1st 


L9. 


Richardson 
& Scarlett 


4th 


2 0. 


Sherwood 
Taylor 


6 th 


21. 


Schock 
Felsing & 
Watt 


2nd 


22. 


Timm 


1st 


2 3. 


Young & 
Porter 


1st 


24. 


Glocker 




25. 


Babor 


1st 


2 6. 


Roe 


6 th 


27. 


Ehert 


6 th 


28. 


Briscoe 


1st 


29. 


Sisler 

VanWerf 

Davidson 


1st 


3 0, 


Hildebrand 


6 th 



Longmans Green & Company, 1939. 
GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco, 1947. 
CHEMISTRY AND HUMAN AFFAIRS 

World Book Company, Chicago, 1946. 
GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1947. 
GENERAL COLLEGE CHEMISTRY 

Henry Holt & Company, New York, 1947. 
INORGANIC AND THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY 

William Heinemann Ltd., London, 1943. 
GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1946. 

GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1947. 
(revised) GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1947. 
CHEMISTRY OF OUR TIMES 

F. S. Crafts & Company, Inc., New York, 1947. 
BASIC COLLEGE CHEMISTRY 

Thomas Y. Crowell & Company, New York, 1947. 
PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY 

C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1945. 
SMITH'S COLLEGE CHEMISTRY 

D. Appleton & Century Company, 1946. 
GENERAL CHEMISTRY FOR COLLEGE 

Houghton Mifflin Company, Chicago, 1949. 
GENERAL CHEMISTRY 

The MacMillan Company, 1949. 

PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY 

The MacMillian Company, New York, 1947. 



Table I. Textbook Summary 









Behavior 










of Phenol- 




Dilute 


Preparation 


Why 


phthalein 


Preparation 


Permanganate 


of 


Cr 2 7 = Cr04 = 


in strong 


and nature 


sol'n. + NH 4 OH 


HBr 




acids and 
bases 


of PX 3 or 5 


1. O 


No 


NoCr 


Red in base 


Nothing 


2. O b 


2 methods 


Alkali 


8.3-10 red 


Both 


3. NH 3 R 


1 method 


Alkali 


Red 


Both 


4. O b 


No 


None 


Red 


Nothing 


5. O 


No 


Alkali 


Pink 


List only 


6. O a 


1 


Alkali 


Pink 


None 


7 


2 
No 

2 

2 


Alkali 
No Cr 
Alkali 
Alkali 




Both 
None 
Both 


o 


Red 
Red 
Pink 


8. 
9 


10. O 


Both 


11. NH 3 R 


1 ? 


Alkali 


Pink 


PCl 3 & 5 only 


1° 


2 
1 


Alkali 
Nothing 




Nothing 
Preparation 


13. O. 


Red 


14. O.b.n. 


2 


Always get 
PbCrO* 




Preparation 



Chemistry 



14; 



Table I. Textbook Summary — Continued 









Behavior 










of Phenol- 




Dilute 


Preparation 


Why 


phthalein 


Preparation 


Permanganate 


of 


Cr 2 7 = Cr04 = 


in strong 


and nature 


sol'n. + NH 4 OH 


HBr 




acids and 
bases 


of PX 3 or 5 


15. O.b. 


4 


Alkali 


Pink 


Both 


16. O.b.n. 


No 


Alkali 


Red 


Nothing 


17. O. 


No 


Nothing- 


Red 


Nothing- 


18. NH 3 R 


1 


In equilibrium 


Red 


Both 


19. O 


1 


Alkali 


Red 


Both 


20. O 


2 


Nothing- 


Red 


Nothing 


21. Complete 










Reaction 

22. 0. 

23. O. 


3 

2 
2 


Alkali 
Alkali 
Alkali 




Both 
Both 
Nothing 








24. O 


No 


Nothing- 


Red 


Nothing 


25. NH 3 R 

9fi 


4 

No 

1 


No Cr 
NoCr 
Pb+ + get 




Both 

Nothing 

Both 




27. O.b. 


Pink 






PbCrOi 


Show- 




28. O.b. 


2 


Nothing- 


Structure 


Both 


29. O.b. 


3 


Alkali 


Pink 


Both 


30. O.b. 


No 


Alkali 




PC1 8 only 





O. — oxidizing agent 
R. — reducing agent 
a. — in acid 
b. — in base 
n. — in neutral 



Preparation of Fluoboric Acid from Fluosilicic Acid and Boric 

Acid, and a Comparison of the Protective Value of 

Eiectrodeposited Lead from Fluosilicate and 

From Fluoborate Baths 

F. C. Mathers and Guy W. Leonard, Jr.,i Indiana University 



Abstract 

Lead fluoborate electroplating baths give smoother and more imper- 
vious deposits than do lead fluosilicate baths. Unfortunately, fluoboric 
acid costs about 40 cents per pound compared to about 11 cents for 
fluosilicic. The high cost results from the present method of manufac- 
ture using boric acid and expensive hydrofluoric acid. The fluoborate 
baths are only used where the value of a superior quality of the deposit 
more than counterbalances the extra cost. 

Boric acid will react with fluosilicic acid forming fluoboric acid and 
gelatinous silicic acid which is very difficult to filter. The loss of acid 
in the residue after filtration is the great objection to this method. 

Method of Analysis 

Knowing the quantity of fluosilicic acid in an experiment, the con- 
version to fluoboric acid was calculated by difference from the weight of 
sodium fluosilicate that was precipitated in 50 per cent alcohol. 

Materials Used 

A 27.4 per cent water solution of fluosilicic acid was available from 
a tank car of commercial acid as used by a lead refinery. This acid was 
made by the Davisson Chemical Company, Baltimore from the silicon 
tetrafluoride evolved by the reaction of sulfuric acid on phosphate rock 
in the manufacture of superphosphate fertilizer. The boric acid was the 
ordinary crystalline material supplied for laboratory use. 

Experiments 

The use of a solution of boric acid on the fluosilicic acid always gave 
such a bulky gelatinous mass of silicic acid that satisfactory filtration 
could not be accomplished. No greater recovery of the total acids in 
the filtrate than 55 per cent could be obtained by gravity filtration. 

It is a well known fact that a solid reagent in a solution of the 
other material that is to be precipitated gives a more granular and 



1 Present address: Chemistry Department, Kansas State University, 
Manhattan. 

144 



Chemistry 145 

therefore a more easily filtered precipitate. Therefore, all of the follow- 
ing experiments were with solid boric acid. In each case, the residue was 
allowed to drain by gravity. Then the residue was washed with one 
fourth as much water as the original volume of fluosilicic acid. Varia- 
tions in temperature, time of reaction, stirring, etc., were all tried. 

An equivalent quantity of solid crystalline boric acid was allowed to 
stand quietly on the fluosilicic acid for varying periods of time. About 
48 hours was needed for equilibrium at which time all but 16 per cent of 
the fluosilicic acid had been converted and 75 to 80 per cent of the total 
acids were recovered in the filtrate These results show that the rate of 
reaction on mere standing at room temperature is too slow and the 
recovery is not satisfactory. Of course, the recovery is dependent on 
the physical condition of the silicic acid residue which determines the 
efficiency of gravity filtration. The use of ten per cent excess of boric 
acid under these same conditions did not materially change either the 
time required or the per cent of conversion. 

Apparently the solid pieces of boric acid must become coated with 
a rather impervious layer of silicic acid whereby the rate of reaction is 
reduced. If this is true, stirring of the reaction mass should speed up 
the reaction. With an equivalent quantity of solid boric acid and mechan- 
ical stirring at room temperature, an equilibrium was reached in two 
to three hours with the unconverted fluosilicic about 17 per cent and the 
total recovered acids about 88 per cent. With 10 per cent excess of solid 
boric acid, in stirred mixtures at room temperature, the equilibrium 
time, yield and recovery were not essentially changed. Even 100 per 
cent excess of boric acid raised the yield to only 10 per cent of unreacted 
fluosilicic acid in two hours but the total recovery was not changed. These 
results show that complete reaction is not a matter of quantity of boric 
acid used. 

Equivalent weights of the boric acid and fluosilicic were used in the 
rest of the experiments. The unreacted fluosilicic acid was 40 per cent 
after 27 hours at 37°. The results were little better than 65°, although 
the speed of reaction was greater. Unreacted fluosilicic acid was 20 per 
cent and recovery was 81 per cent in 1.5 hours. 

At 95 °C, the equilibrium was reached in one hour with stirring, 
and the per cent of unchanged fluosilicic acid was 10 per cent, and the 
total recovery was about 80 per cent. This seems to be about the best 
results that could be obtained. However, the extra trouble of operating 
at 95°C more than counter-balances the time saved in reaching the 
equilibrium. 

The use of boric acid, powdered to 40 mesh gave greater speed of 
reaction and as little as 10 per cent of unchanged fluosilicic acid, but the 
total recovery of acids was down to 70-75 per cent due to more bulky 
silicic acid. 

A more dense form of the solid boric acid was prepared by pre- 
viously heating the boric acid until it melted. Lumps of this dense form 
gave a rate of reaction that was very slow even at 95 °C with stirring. 
After three hours the recovery reached 84 per cent but the unreacted 



146 Indiana Academy of Science 

fluosilicic acid was 30 per cent. This indicates that long continued reac- 
tion time might be satisfactory as recovery is improved by the change 
to dense boric oxide. 

The fused boric acid, ground to 40 mesh, was also slow in reacting, 
and the conclusion is that previous fusing of the boric acid is not 
desirable. 

Protective Value of Lead Electrodeposited from Fluosilicate 
and Fluoborate Baths. 

The relative protective values of electrodeposited lead from the 
fluosilicate and the fluoborate baths showed the fluoborate much superior. 
Each bath contained five per cent of lead and seven per cent of free 
acid. All the acid ions in one were fluosilicate, and in the other fluoborate 
of the purity made by the method described here. The addition agent 
was 0.05 gm. glue and 0.1 gm. of goulac 2 per 100 ml. The lead deposits, 
0.001 inch thick on iron, were tested with feroxal reagent for porosity. 
The deposit from fluosilicate showed 17 spots while only 6 spots showed 
on the fluoborate deposit in the same time 

Summary 

It is recommended that an equivalent weight of crystals of boric 
acid be stirred with the fluosilicic acid at 95° C. A 90 per cent change to 
fluoboric acid and an 80 per cent recovery of total acids is reached in 
one hour. At room temperature, about the same equilibrium is reached 
in three hours. Lead plated from a bath made with fluoboric acid showed 
only about a third as many pinholes as did a deposit from a fluosilicate 
bath. 



2 This is the residue from sulfite paper manufacture. 



Achievement in Chemistry under the Single Subject System 

S. M. McClure, Eureka College 



Any innovation that promises more effective teaching of chemistry 
is of general interest to those seeking to improve the work of their 
classes and the single subject system, or concentration plan, has many 
teaching advantages claimed for it. 

The opportunity for obtaining data to test these alleged advantages 
came with the appointment of the writer to Eureka College, where the 
single subject system had been adopted in 1939, after several years of 
preliminary testing. Previous to coming to Eureka College, the writer 
had offered instruction in general chemistry under the conventional plan 
at Ball State Teachers College and at Indiana Central College at Indian- 
apolis. Records in general chemistry from these schools are available 
and this paper presents a comparison of the achievements of the groups 
of students under the two plans. 

The single subject system operates on the basis of four terms of 
eight and one half weeks instead of two semesters or three quarters of 
the usual school year. Under the concentration plan, a student registers 
for but one subject each term. Classes meet for three hours daily or a 
total of about 130 times during the term as compared with usual four 
hour course continuing through two semesters or three terms and meet- 
ing about 144 times during the entire course. In general chemistry, this 
means, under the concentration plan, two lectures or class hours each 
morning of the school week with one double-length laboratory period in 
the afternoon. 

The records of students in general chemistry under the single subject 
plan are available from four classes at Eureka College; these are com- 
pared with the accomplishments of four similar classes under the con- 
ventional system. Measurement of achievement is taken from three 
sources, final grades in the course, from the number of superior ratings 
as well as from the number of unsatisfactory marks. This data has been 
criticised, perhaps rightly, as defective in that it represents the judg- 
ment of one individual, and hence is subjective, and being taken over a 
period of years, makes no allowance for changes of opinion with the 
passing of time. 

It should be noted that the contents of the various courses were 
essentially identical under each system. The text used was McPherson, 
Henderson, Fernelius, and Mack, 1940 edition, and the manual designed 
to accompany it. 

In analyzing the data, a special effort has been made to avoid the 
terminology and treatment of educational statistics and to present the 

147 



148 Indiana Academy of Science 

material in a less technical manner. Where letter grades were given, 
these have been converted to grade-points with the usual values of four 
points for an "A", three points for a "B" and so on with the unsatis- 
factory rating (F) carrying a negative value of one. 

Of the total number of students considered in this study, eighty- 
seven have received instruction under the single subject plan and an 
approximately like number under the conventional system. The work 
of four classes under each system are included. 

The average passing grade of the concentration plan students was 
a 2.0 grade-point rating, a percentage equivalent of perhaps 72%. As 
might have been expected, the average final grade of the students 
receiving instruction under the conventional system, also fell within the 
C — range but a fraction of grade point below that of the concentration 
students, a numerical equivalent of perhaps 70%. 

In the conventional classes 9.3% of the grades were unsatisfactory 
(F or WD) as compared with 12.5% for the concentration students. 
The number of "B" or better ratings among the concentration students 
was 35.3% with one small but exceptional class rising to almost 40% of 
the marks in the above-average group. The conventionally-taught stu- 
dents consistently received ratings of which 34.2% were above average. 

Examination grades on the various types of questions — problems, 
factual, and explanatory — are less readily analyzed but the apparent 
tendency from a comparative series of examinations is toward a small 
but significant higher ratings for the concentration students. 

Within the limits of this study, is concluded that: (A) Students in 
general chemistry are rated slightly higher on final grades in the course 
than the conventionally taught students. 

(B) The number of students rated as better-than-average is greater 
under the concentration plan than under the conventional system. 

(C) The number of unsatisfactory grades is smaller under the 
conventional plan than under the concentration system. 

(D) The concentration plan appears to be more effective for the 
average to superior student and possibly less desirable for, the below- 
average student. • 

(E) Additional data and study are needed to establish the relative 
values of the two systems of instruction. 



Rapid Analysis of Dolomitic Limestones 

T. J. Phillips, Evansville College, Evansville, Indiana 



By use of the following procedure suggested by V. N. Tananaev 1 it 
is possible to analyze limestone for C0 2 , CaO, and MgO in one laboratory 
period. 

A .2 g sample is moistened with water and heated in a reflux 
condenser with 25 ml of .2 N HC1 until gas evolution ceases. The sample 
is cooled and titrated with .2 N NaOH. After adding two or three drops 
of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution to the neutral mixture and making 
slightly alkaline with 6 N ammonia, the solution is treated with 25 ml 
of .2 N ammonium oxalate solution. The calcium oxalate is filtered, 
dissolved and titrated with potassium permanganate. The per cent MgO 
is computed from the difference between the C0 2 and CaO equivalents. 

As shown in Table I our results averaged .3% high for C0 2 while the 
calcium compared favorably with standard procedures. 2 

Sample CO, (det) 

1 42.50 

2 43.57 

3 4183 

4 40.31 

5 41.44 



CO- (given) 


CaO (det) 


CaO (given) 


42.33 


33.46 




33.55 


43.22 


34.90 




34.92 


41.35 


47.76 




47.80 


39.87 


44.50 




44.57 


41.27 


44.75 




45.91 



1 V. N. Tananaev. 1948. Zavodskaya Lab, 14, 1131-2. 

8 1 wish to thank Mr. W. R. Graves who checked the accuracy of thi; 
method. 



1 4y 



The Addition of Nitrogen Tetroxide to Ketene 

F. J. Riel, Ed. F. Degering, and H. B. Hass, Purdue University, Armour 
Research Foundation, and General Aniline and Film Corporation 



Introduction 

Nitrogen tetroxide will react with a carbon-carbon double bond to 
produce various addition products, mostly dinitro and nitro-nitrite deriv- 
atives. (3) Nitryl chloride will react with ketene to produce small amounts 
of nitro-acetyl chloride. (4) Nitrosyl chloride and ketene produce chloro- 
acetyl chloride. (2) Bolstad (1) reports that ketene and nitrogen dioxide 
react in the gaseous phase to give a liquid product which has not been 
identified. He found, moreover, that diketene and liquid nitrogen tetrox- 
ide react with explosive violence. 

In view of these facts, this investigation undertook to determine if 
an addition type of reaction would take place between ketene and nitrogen 
tetroxide. Such an addition product, upon hydrolysis or alcoholysis, 
should produce nitroacetic acid or an ester of nitroacetic acid. 

In an attempt to prepare methyl nitroacetate directly and without 
the isolation of any intermediate product, methyl alcohol was added 
directly to the reaction product, the solvent was removed by evaporation, 
and the product distilled. Such procedures gave products which were 
unstable to distillation, exploding or fuming off at bath temperatures of 
45 to 50°C. 

The use of potassium hydroxide in place of methyl alcohol in the 
above procedure was investigated. If the nitrogen tetroxide-ketene 
reaction goes as expected, this should produce the dipotassium salt of 
nitroacetic acid. No evidence of the presence of this salt could be 
detected. 

Since the properties of the nitrogen tetroxide-ketene product sug- 
gested those of nitroform, attempts were made to isolate this substance, 
but no positive results were obtained In like manner, no nitromethane 
could be isolated. 

The use of ether at — 60°C. as a reaction solvent was tried, but gave 
a product which was unstable at room temperature. 

Isolation of the product produced by the reaction of ketene and 
nitrogen tetroxide was accomplished. It proved to be spontaneously 
inflammable when dried. 

The use of a less active ketene, diphenylketene, was investigated 
briefly. It was found that the product of this reaction was a yellow 
brown oil stable at room temperature, but which decomposed on heating 
to liberate oxides of nitrogen. An unidentified organic residue remained. 

150 



Chemistry 151 

Experimental 

Attempted Preparation of Methyl Nitroacetate. Twenty-seven g. of 
nitrogen tetroxide was dissolved in 300 ml. of carbon tetrachloride and 
cooled to 0°C. Eight ml. of liquid ketene was passed into the reaction 
chamber by the use of nitrogen as a carrier gas. During the reaction 
a slow stream of oxygen was passed through the reaction mixture to 
prevent the reduction of nitrogen tetroxide to nitrogen sesquioxide. After 
the reaction was complete, 25 ml. of methyl alcohol was added, the 
solution was allowed to come to room temperature, transferred to a 
distillation flask, and the solvent removed under reduced pressure. The 
residue, about 5 ml. of a yellow brown oil, exploded when the bath 
temperature reached 45°C. 

Ether as a Solvent. The procedure used here was similar to that 
used in the previous experiment except that the solvent used was ether 
and the reaction was carried out at — 60° C. When the reaction was com- 
plete no methyl alcohol was added, but the reaction mixture was allowed 
to warm to room temperature. The solvent was then removed by dis- 
tillation and the residue amounted to about 10 ml. of a yellow oil. Upon 
warming to room temperature, the product decomposed rapidly with the 
evolution of oxides of nitrogen and considerable heat. 

Attempted Preparation of the Dipotassium Salt of Nitroacetic Acid. 
A sample of the reaction product prepared in the manner described in 
the preceding experiment was dissolved in 100 ml. of water and made 
basic with 50 per cent potassium hydroxide solution. The resulting red 
solution was then concentrated by boiling until a solid began to separate 
out. After cooling, the solid was collected but proved to be an inorganic 
derivative. 

Attempted Identification of Nit7*oform as the Reaction Product. 
Another sample of the reaction product obtained in ether solvent was 
dissolved in ether and a few drops of pyridine was added. No crystalline 
solid corresponding to the pyridine salt of nitroform was obtained. 

Diphenylketene and Nitrogen Tetroxide. A solution of 8 g. of 
diphenylketene in 50 ml. of ether was added dropwise to a solution of 
4 ml. of liquid nitrogen tetroxide in 100 ml. of ether cooled to 0°C. 
During the addition a slow stream of oxygen was passed through the 
reaction mixture. No visible reaction took place but removal of the 
solvent left about 4 ml. of a yellow brown oil. This product appeared 
to be stable at room temperature but decomposed on heating to give 
oxides of nitrogen. Analysis of the residue gave no conclusive results. 

Summary 

The reaction between nitrogen tetroxide and ketene produces a 
solid which is spontaneously inflammable when freed from the reaction 
solvent. Its structure has not been determined. 

No solid separates out when diphenylketene is added to a solution of 
Nitrogen tetroxide, but a liquid residue apparently stable at room tern- 



152 Indiana Academy of Science 

perature is left upon removal of the solvent. The structure of this 
product has not been determined. 

Literature Cited 

1. Holstad, Luther. 1948. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue University. 

li. Deakin, Stella and N. T. M. Wilsmore. 1910. Some reactions of ketene. J. 
Chem. Soc. 97:1977. 

3. Levy,, Norman and C. W. Scaife. 1946. Addition of dinitrogen tetroxide 

to olefins. J. Chem. Soc. p. 1093. 

4. Steinkopf. Wilhelm and Manfred Kuhnel. 1942. Nitration with nitryl 

chloride. Ber. 75B:1323-30. 



Dehydrogenations by means of Sulfur: Adaptation as an 
Experiment for General Organic Chemistry Course 

H. F. Schaeffer, Valparaiso University 



The literature contains numerous references to reactions between 
sulfur and pure individual organic compounds. While the action of sulfur 
on organic compounds is frequently thought of merely as a means for 
preparing hydrogen sulfide, the reaction may serve for dehydrogenation, 
ring closure, addition of sulfur and other purposes. 

Although the element sulfur has for many decades been used for 
removing hydrogen from compounds, this property has not received much 
attention in the general organic chemistry course. Most introductory 
text books ignore sulfur dehydrogenation, or, at most, make only brief 
reference to the subject; probably none of the laboratory manuals include 
any experiments on this procedure. Over the years a fairly large variety 
of dehydrogenations has been reported. By heating a mixture of sulfur 
and diphenyl methane, Ziegler obtained the olefin tetraphenyl ethylene. 
Using a sealed tube, Aronstein obtained stilbene (or 1, 2-diphenylethyl- 
ene) from sulfur and toluene. Hydroaromatic compounds such as tetra- 
hydronaphthalene can be made to liberate their surplus hydrogen by 
heating with sulfur at 180°-250°. Various alkylated tetrahydronaph- 
thalenes yield similar results. In the study of terpenes, sulfur dehydro- 
genations have played an important part. Other types of compounds 
which have been dehydrogenated by this process include certain acids, 
as abietic acid; aromatic ethers, and even certain sulfur compounds, such 
as diphenyl sulfide and cyclohexanthiol. 

Some of these dehydrogenations could be adapted to form interesting 
experiments in a general organic chemistry course. A single example 
will be considered. — A rather intriguing reaction is one investigated by 
von Mantz and Graebe about 50 years ago. By heating a mixture of 
sulfur and fluorene at 350° these astonished researchers obtained hydro- 
gen sulfide and a red solid. Repeated attempts to purify their product 
failed to remove the color from the reddish needle-like crystals, whose 
formula indicated the unsaturated compound, bis diphenylene-ethylene. 

This procedure can readily be carried out by a student by heating a 
mixture of 5 g. fluorene and l 1 /^ g. sulfur to gentle boiling for % hour, 
during which time hydrogen sulfide is evolved. The red compound may 
then be isolated by extracting the black residue with several portions of 
hot benzene. After treating the solution with charcoal the product can 
be separated as a reddish orange powder When this powder is recrystal- 
lized from chloroform, microscopic crystals are obtained. 

153 



154 Indiana Academy of Science 

Although this dehydrogenation involves only simple procedures the 
experiment is of interest since a colorless hydrocarbon is transformed 
into a colored compound merely by removing hydrogen. Other dehydro- 
genations could be selected to provide any desired degree of difficulty. 



Modification of the Orthotolidine Method for 
Determining Small Amounts of Iodine 

W. E. Thrun, Valparaiso University 



The Lange-Ward (2) method has been modified to increase reliability 
and sensitivity. A buffer is used which insures the optimum pH of 4.0 
for the color reaction. The method is not suitable for use with a color- 
imeter because of constant color change. Its sensitivity is about one 

tenth that of the starch Ipdine-iodide reagent of Gross et al. (1). 

Reagents 

A .6% alcoholic (95%) solution of orthotolidine or an aqueous 
solution prepared by dissolving one gram of ortholidine in 100 ml. water 
and adding 6.5 ml. of glacial acetic acid. 

A buffer solution. Dissolve 3.0 grams sodium acetate Trihydrate, 
7.7 mis. of glacial acetic acid in 10 mis. of water. 

A 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide. 

Standard solutions of potassium iodide containing 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 
and 1 to 10 p. p.m. iodine. In the upper range intervals of 0.5 or less 
p. p.m. iodine may be desirable. 

15 x 25 mm matched specimen or test tubes. 

Procedure 

Five ml. of the sample and of standard solutions are pipetted into 
the tubes. Four drops of the buffer solution and 0.2 ml. orthotolidine 
solution are added and mixed. Then 3 ml. of hydrogen peroxide solution 
are added and mixed again. Colors are compared 10 to 15 minutes later. 

Discussion 

The 0.2 p.p m. iodine solution does not give a distinct color until it 
is 10 minutes old. 

The aqueous solutions of orthotolidine do not become brownish and 
gelatinous as soon as the alcohol with the test solutions. Both reagent 
solutions turn somewhat brownish upon standing, but this does not 
affect the comparative results. In a range of 0.2 to 1.0 p. p.m. it is 
possible to differentiate between solutions of .2 p. p.m. differences and in 
the range of 1 to 5 p. p. m. between differences of 0.5 p. p. m. 

Literature Cited 

1. Gross, W. G., L. K. Wood, and J. S. McHargue, 1948 Analytical Chemistry 

20:900-1. 

2. Lange and Ward. 1925. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47:1000-3. 

155 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman: E. Kintner, Manchester College 



G. Gould, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1950. 

ABSTRACTS 

Biology of Gibbium psylloides (Czemp.) Frank E. Bohman, West 
Hartford, Connecticut. — Gibbium psylloides was reared both under room 
and constant temperature conditions on the following foods: paprika, 
wheat kernels, raisins, corn kernels, cocoa, dried white bread, epsom salts. 
wheat flour, dried milk, chili powder, balsa wood, corn meal, and cloves. 
The insect was unable to complete its development on cloves, balsa wood 
and epsom salts. 

Eggs hatched on an average of 5.8 days at room temperature and 
in 7.6 at constant temperatures (80.9°F.). There are three larval instars. 
On the average 40.5 days were required for larval development at room 
temperatures and 37.7 at constant temperature The pupal period aver- 
aged 37 days at room temperatures and 21.6 at constant temperatures. 
The adults lived on an average of 140 days under room conditions and 
84.9 in the constant temperature cabinent. On an average each female 
produced 12.98 eggs under room conditions and 7.07 under cabinent 
conditions. The average life span under room conditions was 223.4 and 
151.8 days at constant temperature. 

The possibilities of ultrasonics in insect control, Howard O. Deay, 
Purdue University. — Ultrasonics has been used experimentally to kill 
various species of insects. Indications are that it may have some prac- 
tical applications in the control of stored grain and structural pests. 

Some problems encountered in nematocide screening. Howard W. 
Smith, Purdue University. — The availability of test organisms and their 
suitability for certain screening procedures are often limiting factors in 
nematocide testing — test procedures are often designed to make use 
of specific nematodes. There is a need for laboratory scale test methods. 



156 



Laboratory Tests on the Toxicity of Technical DDT, 
DDT Isomers and Analogues, and DDD' 

Philip W. Berg, Purdue University 



Object of Investigation 

Technical DDT and some of its more common isomers and analogues 
were to be compared by laboratory tests as to toxicity to four common 
species of insects, the pomace fly, Drosophila melanog aster Meig., the 
acrobat ant, Crematogaster lineolata Say, the spotted ladybird beetle, 
Megilla fuscilabris Muls., and the striped blister beetle, Epicauta vittata 
Fab. 

Chemicals 

The chemicals used, together with information as to purity, were 
generously supplied by the Geigy Company, Inc. of New York and E. I. 
Du Pont de Nemours Company, Inc. of Wilmington, Delaware. Most of 
the chemicals were supplied from laboratory stocks and were not com- 
mercially available. The ten chemicals used were: 

1. DTolT Geigy. Ditolyltrichloroethane, about 90 per cent p,p' 
isomer of the methyl analogue of DDT. 

2. DBrDT Geigy. Dibromodiphenyltrichloroethane, 90 to 95 per cent 
bromine analogue of DDT. 

3. DFDT Du Pont. Technical grade fluorine analogue of DDT. 
Bradlow and VanderWerf (1) found a similar material to be composed 
of practically all p,p' isomer. 

4. DMDT Geigy. Dimethoxydiphenyltrichloroethane, 99 to 100 per 
cent methoxy analogue of DDT. 

5. DMDT Du Pont. Dimethoxydiphenyltrichloroethane, about 99 per 
cent p,p' isomer of methoxy analogue of DDT. 

6. DDT. Geigy's technical grade dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, 
90 degrees centigrade set point. Analyses by Gunther (7) and Haller 
et al (8) showed about 70 per cent of p,p' isomer, about 18 per cent of 
o,p' isomer, and about six per cent o,o' isomer DDT to be the major 
constituents, with a variety of minor constituents also present. 

7. o,p'-DDT Geigy. l-trichloro-2- (o.chlorophenyl) -2- (p.'chloro- 
phenyl) ethane, 90 to 95 per cent pure. 

8. p,p'-DDT Geigy. l-trichloro-2-bis(p.chlorophenyl) ethane, 99 to 
100 per cent pure. 



1 This paper is based on a Master's thesis submitted at Purdue Uni 
versity in August, 1948. 

157 



158 Indiana Academy of Science 

9. p,p'-DDT Du Pont. l-trichloro-2-bis(p.chlorophenyl)ethane, about 
97 per cent pure. 

10. DDD Geigy. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, 99 to 100 per cent 
pure. 

The DFDT was a viscous, amber fluid at room temperature; all the 
other chemicals were white, crystalline powders. 

Preparation of Deposits of the Chemicals 

It was desired that a thin, uniform deposit be obtained for exposing 
the insects. 

In preliminary experiments when acetone solutions of the chemicals 
were allowed to dry on glass surfaces, even high concentrations of ma- 
terial did not give uniform deposits. More satisfactory deposits were 
obtained when acetone solutions were used to impregnate small rectangles 
of paper. 

Acetone solutions were prepared to contain 2.5 grams of chemical 
per 100 milliliters of solution; and one milliliter portions were pipetted 
out onto 1V2 x 4 inch rectangles of an absorbent, heavy, white paper. The 
paper slips were supported on solvent-washed glass plates and air dried 
for 12 to 16 hours before use. 

A series of weighings was carried out and it was found that 21 to 
24 milligrams of material was retained in each slip of paper for an 
average of 3.5 to 4.0 milligrams per square inch. 

Because of an anticipated higher sensitivity of the acrobat ant to 
the chemicals used, half milliliter portions of the solutions were used 
in preparing papers for those tests. 

The Test Insects 

The pomace flies used were bred from a culture of Swedish B strain 
maintained in the Department of Biological Sciences of Purdue Univer- 
sity. They were cultured at room temperature in wide-mouth, four 
ounce, glass bottles containing a medium prepared from cornmeal, agar, 
molasses, and water, with a small amount of mold-inhibiting chemical 
added. A few drops of yeast suspension were added to each bottle 12 to 
24 hours before flies were to be introduced. 

The acrobat ants were secured by field collection from colonies in 
a wooded area near Lafayette. An inspirator bottle was used. 

The spotted ladybird beetles were collected with the aid of an 
inspirator bottle from sweet corn in the vicinity of Lafayette. 

The striped blister beetles were collected from an infestation on 
potatoes at a Purdue experimental farm. 

Manner of Testing- 
Four ounce, wide-mouth bottles served as test chambers for each of 
the four species. The dried, impregnated papers were bent and inserted 
into these bottles; they were stiff enough to maintain their positions near 
the tops of the bottles. 



Entomology 159 

For all four species five replications of tests were made with each 
replication including the ten chemically impregnated papers, one control 
with acetone treated paper, and one control with untreated paper. 

In preparing the pomace fly tests, flies were used one week after 
emergence began. Carbon dioxide was used to immobilize the flies in 
the culture bottles. Then flies from four or five bottles were shaken 
out into a shallow pan loosely covered with a glass plate and the flies 
were mixed by shaking them about. Carbon dioxide anaesthesia was 
maintained in the pan as the flies were counted out into lots of 50 each. 
A small camel's hair brush was convenient for counting the flies and 
sweeping them onto small paper slips by means of which they were 
easily transferred into the test bottles. The test bottles were actually 
culture bottles complete with medium, seeded with yeast, and fitted with 
cellucotton plugs. The bottles were placed on their sides so that the 
flies rested on the clean glass wall above the medium while they re- 
covered from the anaesthesia. This prevented them from resting on the 
impregnated paper and from becoming mired in the medium (which 
liquefied somewhat) while recovering from the anaesthetic. 

The acrobat ants used in any one replication were all from the same 
nest. They were counted out in lots of 20 each for the tests and were 
handled under carbon dioxide anaesthesia in about the same way as 
the pomace flies. A weak solution of sugar was supplied in each test 
bottle in a small vial loosely stoppered with cotton. The tests were 
closed with several layers of cheesecloth and stored on their sides. 

The spotted ladybird beetles were also handled and counted with the 
aid of carbon dioxide anaesthesia. Ten beetles were used per test; plain 
water was supplied in each test bottle in a loosely stoppered vial; and 
the tests were closed with cheesecloth and stored on their sides. 

The striped blister beetles were handled, counted into lots of ten, and 
introduced into the test bottles without the use of anaesthesia. In 
each test chamber a water vial was supplied and, in deference to the 
voracious appetite of the beetles, two small, fresh cucumber leaves were 
supplied. The tests were stored on their sides. 

Records 

Throughout these experiments no less than a complete replication 
(ten chemical tests and two controls) was set up at any one time. In 
order that records could be taken conveniently every 12 hours it was 
convenient to start the tests either in the morning or evening. 

Records taken were of the numbers of insects "down", "dead", or 
"alive". "Dead" was taken as meaning completely devoid of reaction to 
stimuli or of any signs of life. "Down" was taken to mean incapable of 
locomotion or of the righting reaction. "Alive" was taken to mean 
capable of locomotion and the righting reaction even though, perhaps, 
displaying toxic symptoms such as incoordination. 

In no case in any of the tests was there any indication of recovery 
by insects recorded as "down". 



160 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Observations of the surplus insects remaining after tests were set 
up showed no mortality due to the anaesthetic. 

Results 

For evaluating the results of these experiments the records for the 
last readings before the control insects started to die off rapidly were 
used. For the pomace fly that is the 60 hour reading; for the acrobat ant, 
the 36 hour reading; for the spotted ladybird beetle, the 84 hour reading; 
and for the striped blister beetle, the 36 hour reading. 

An analysis of variance was worked out on these records. 

Table I summarises the data and presents the required differences 
for significance at odds of 19 to one. 



Table I. Mean Survival of Pomace Fly, Acrobat Ant, Spotted Lady 
Bird Beetle, and Striped Blister Beetle; and Differences Required for 
Significance at Odds of 19 to 1. 







Pomace 


Acrobat 


Lady 


Striped 


Chemical 


Purity 


fly 


Ant 


Bird 
Beetle 


Blister 
Beetle 


DTolT Geigy 


90% p,p' 


45.0 


16.0 


1.0 


9.4 


DBrDT Geigy 


90-95% 


36.2 


17.2 


5.6 


5.8 


DFDT Du Pont 


Tech. 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


2.4 


DMDT Geigy 


99-100% 


39.8 


17.6 


4.6 


7.6 


DMDT Du Pont 


97% p,p' 


45.0 


17.3 


4.6 


4.8 


DDT 


Tech. 


2.2 


3.2 


2.0 


3.2 


o,p'-DDT Geigy 


90-95% 


45.6 


' 15.8 


6.4 


8.4 


p,p'-DDT Geigy 


99-100% 


4.6 


2.3 


4.2 


2.4 


p,p'-DDT Du Pont 


97% 


5.6 


6.6 


3.0 


2.6 


DDD Geigy 


99-100% 


39.8 


16.8 


6.4 


7.8 


Acetone (control) 




46.2 


19.0 


8.2 


8.8 


Untreated (control) 




48.2 


17.8 


8.4 


8.2 


Difference required 


at odds 










of 19 to 1 




15.54 


5.30 


2.51 


2.42 



In connection with the information given in Table I it should be 
noted that with the pomace fly DFDT Du Pont produced complete 
mortality in four replicates at 12 hours and at 24 hours in one replicate; 
and DDT produced complete mortality in one replicate at 24 hours, 
in one replicate at 36 hours, and in one replicate at 48 hours. With the 
acrobat ant DFDT Du Pont produced complete mortality in 12 hours 
in two replicates, and in 24 hours in two replicates. With the spotted 
ladybird beetle DFDT Du Pont produced complete mortality in one 
replicate at 36 hours, in one replicate at 48 hours, and in three replicates 
at 60 hours. 



Entomology 161 

A fumigant action by DFDT Du Pont was suspected and was 
subsequently verified in a supplementary experiment with the pomace 
flies. It should be noted, however, that cheese cloth covers were' used on 
the ants and ladybird beetles and ventilation of these tests would be 
expected to be adequate. 

From Table I it is apparent that the results obtained with one 
species in general parallel those obtained with the others. For all four 
species four materials, DFDT Du Pont, DDT, p,p'-DDT Geigy, and p,p'- 
DDT Du Pont, were significantly effective. If the rapidity of action is 
considered, DFDT Du Pont would be indicated to be first and DDT would 
be second. 

Although Table I is self-explanatory, one should point out a few 
further items: (1) Ordinary technical DDT compared remarkably well 
with the more highly refined p,p'-DDT samples. (2) The sample of 
methyl analogue was significantly effective only against the spotted 
ladybird beetle. (3) The samples of methoxy analogue and of bromine 
analogue were definitely inferior to DDT in insecticidal efficiency. 
(4) The samples of DDD and o,p'-DDT were practically ineffective. 

Comparative Data in the Literature 

The author attempted to examine all literature reports having 
bearing on comparisons among the isomers and analogues of DDT. Of 
this literature only a rather small fraction is particularly pertinent. 

One of the species used here has been previously used in similar 
tests. In 1945 Morrison (12) reported on the use of pomace flies for 
exposure to deposits of chemicals impregnated into paper. In 1947 
Proverbs and Morrison (16) reported on the use of this technique in 
testing eighteen chemicals including technical DDT, fluorine, bromine, 
and methyl analogues, and DDD, among others. They found the halogen 
analogues to be, in order of decreasing toxicity, fluorine, chlorine, 
bromine, and iodine. All analogues except the fluorine analogue were 
less toxic than DDT. Further, the fluorine analogue was found to be 
somewhat volatile and less persistent but about nine times as effective 
as the technical DDT at twenty hours exposure. 

In 1946 Kirkwood and Dacey (9) reported on tests of three fluorine 
analogues against the pomace fly. The p,p' analogue was the most 
effective, but only about two fifths as effective as DDT. 

In 1947 Metcalf and Gunther (13) reported p,p'-DDT ten times as 
effective as the methyl analogue and a hundred times as effective as the 
promine analogue against the pomace fly. 

Considerable comparative work has been done on houseflies and 
mosquitoes. In 1943 Prill et al (14) ran tests on houseflies by means 
of the Peet-Grady technique. They found the ethoxy, and methoxy 
analogues (among others) to be inferior to DDT. Others of their tests 
rated the methoxy analogue equal to DDT against mosquito larvae. In 
1946 Gersdorf (6) compared o,p'- and p,p'-DDT against houseflies and 
found the p,p' isomer forty-four times as effective at the ten per cent 
L. D. Neither gave fast knockdown. 



162 Indiana Academy of Science 

In 1946 Prill et al (15) reported on a three year investigation of the 
comparative toxicities of thirty-two chemical relatives of DDT as tested 
against Culex quinquefasciatus and the housefly. They found the 
methoxy analogue gave a more rapid knockdown but less total toxicity 
than DDT. From the results of these and other investigations the 
authors concluded that substitution of radicals larger spatially than 
methoxy or ethoxy radicals into the p,p' positions, and any variation 
from the p,p' positions greatly reduced toxicity. 

In 1947 Fay et al (5) tested several organic compounds for residual 
action against houseflies and mosquitoes over a twenty-six week period. 
DDT proved superior to DDD in these tests. 

Comparative work has also been done on lice and bedbugs. In 
1946 Busvine (2) summarized the results of tests of forty-one analogues 
of DDT against bedbugs and human lice with the general conclusion that 
DDT and the chemicals closest to it in chemical structure were the most 
effective. In another article Busvine (3) rated DDT superior to DDD and 
both superior to the fluorine analogue when used against the same two 
species. 

In 1946 Cristol et al (4) reported the o,p' isomer of DDT ineffective 
and the o,o' isomer only slightly effective against lice. In 1947 Riem- 
schneider (17) reported making some fluorine analogues of DDT and 
claimed one of them was the most effective insecticide yet made. Against 
lice one per cent of this fluorine analogue was as effective as ten per 
cent DDT. 

In 1944 Martin and Wain (11) reported on tests of various DDT 
analogues as contact poisons against several species. They concluded 
that the fluorine analogue had the highest insecticidal effectiveness, that 
technical DDT was of intermediate effectiveness, that the bromine and 
iodine analogues were of low effectiveness, and that organic-substituent 
analogues were still less effective. 

Knipling in 1947 (10) suggested that although the methoxy analogue 
and DDD were generally less effective than DDT as insecticides, they had 
promise of being useful because of a lesser toxicity to warm blooded 
animals. 

Conclusion 

The results of this work appear to be largely in accord with results 
obtained by others with the same and other species of insects. Technical 
DDT, p,p'-DDT, and the fluorine analogue of DDT are shown to be more 
effective against the pomace fly, the acrobat ant, the spotted ladybird 
beetle, and the striped blister beetle, than are others of the more common 
isomers and analogues. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bradlow, H. L., and C. A. VanderWerf. 1947. The preparation and 

chemical composition of difluorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Jr. Amer. Chem. 
Soc. 69:662-664. 

2. Busvine, J. R. 1946. New synthetic contact insecticides. Nature 158:22. 



Entomology 163 



1946. Insecticide tests with analogs of DDT. Jr. Soc. Chem. 



Ind. 65:350-3 60. 
t. CRISTOL, S. J.. II. L. Haller. and A. W. Linoquist. 1946. Toxicity of DDT 
isomers to some insects affecting" man, Sci. 104:343-3 44. 

5. Fay, R. W., E. L. Cole, and A. J. Buchner. 1947. Comparative residual 

effectiveness of organic insecticides against houseflies and malarial 
mosquitoes. Jr. Econ. Ent. 40:635-640. 

6. Gersdorff, W. A. 1946. DDT against house flies. Soap and Sanit. Chem. 

22(3):126-127. 

7. Gunther, F. A. 1945. Aspects of the chemistry of DDT. Jr. Chem. Ed. 

22(2) :238. 

8. Haller, H. L., P. D. Bartlett, N. L. Drake, M. S. Newman, S. J. Cristol, 

C. M. Baker, R. A. Hayes, C. W. Kilmer, B. Magerlein, G. P. Meuller, 
A. Schneider, and W. Wheatley, 1945. The chemical composition of 
technical DDT. Jr. Amer. Chem. Soc. 67(9) :1591-1602. 

9. Kirkwood, S., and J. R. Dacey. 1946. Synthesis of some analogs of 

l,l-bis(p.-chlorophenyl)2,2,2-trichloroethane. Canad. Jr. Res. 24B:68-72. 

10. Knipling, E. F. 1947. New synthetic insecticides for use against insects 

affecting man and animals. Soap and Sanit. Chem. 23(7) :127-131. 

11. Martin, H., and R. L. Wain. 1944. The qualitative examination of insecti- 

cidal properties. Progress Report, 1944. Rep. Agric. Hort. Res. Sta. 
Bristol, pp. 121-140. 

12. Morrison, F. O. 1945. Comparing the toxicity of synthetic organic com- 

pounds. Annual Rep. Ent. Soc. Ontario. 76:18-20. 

13. Metcalf, R. L., and F. A. Gunther. 1947. Mechanisms of insecticidal 

action I. Dithenyltrichloroethanes. Jr. Amer. Chem. Soc. 69:2579-2581. 

14. Prill, E. A., A. Hartzell, and J. M. Arthur. 1943. Insecticidal activity 

of some alkoxy analogs of DDT. Sci. 101:464-465. 

15. Prill, E. A., M. E. Synerholm, and A. Hartzell, 1946. Some compounds 

related to "DDT" and their effectiveness against mosquito larvae and 
houseflies. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. 14(6) :341-353. 

16. Proverbs, M.D., and F. O. Morrison. 1947. The relative insecticidal activi- 

ties of DDT and related organic molecules. Canad. Jr. Res. (D) 
25(l):12-44. 

17. Riemschneider, R. 19 47. Fluorinated hydrocarbon contact insecticides. Z. 

Naturforsch. 26:245-246. 



Legume Pollination Problems' 

Ray T. Everly, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station 



During the past two decades there has been a gradual and consistent 
decline in the quantity and quality of the legume seed produced in the 
relative humid areas lying east of the Mississippi River. Legume seed 
production in Indiana has followed a similar trend, the yields during the 
last eight years having reached a very low level as shown in table I. 



Table I. Acreages and yields of legume seed grown in Indiana.- 





Red 










Sw 


eet 






Year 


Clover 


Alfalfa 


Als 


ke 


Clover 


Lespe 


deza 




acres 


bu. 


acres 


bu. 


acres 


bu. 


acres 


bu. 


acres 


bu. 


1941 


244000 


.90 


16800 


.85 


6000 


1.20 


5900 


2.80 


28000 


3.83 


1942 


134000 


.75 


2000 


.85 


3000 


1.10 


6400 


1.90 


14800 


3.17 


1943 


194000 


.70 


1500 


.75 


1800 


1.20 


4500 


2.40 


27000 


2.58 


1944 


360000 


.70 


27000 


.75 


4000 


.90 


6800 


1.50 


33000 


5.50 


1945 


180000 


.70 


8600 


.70 


3500 


1.00 


5000 


2.00 


18000 


3.17 


1946 


420000 


.70 


8200 


.50 


5000 


.90 


4500 


2.00 


34000 


3.38 


1947 


139000 


.65 


5000 


.75 


2000 


1.00 


3500 


3.00 


21000 


4.58 


1948 


291000 


.65 


2000 


.80 


3000 


1.00 


1600 


1.50 


36000 


4.41 


Av. 

1941 






















—48 


242250 


.72 


8887 


.74 


3537 


1.03 


4775 


2.14 


26850 


3.51 


Av. 






















1931 






















—40 


203100 


1.01 


7400 


.96 






4700 


2.20 


30000 


2.13 



There are many factors responsible for this situation. These include 
plant diseases, cultural practices, destructive insects, and lack of ade- 
quate pollination. Of the legumes grown for seed in Indiana, alfalfa and 
red clover offer the most serious problems in pollination. 

In the past legume seed producers have depended on native bees to 
carry the burden of pollinating the legume flowers. The trend in recent 
years toward more intensive farming has resulted in the reduction of the 
types of areas in which native bees nested. Removal of heavy growth 
along fence rows, intensive pasturing of wooded areas and clearing of 
undergrowth, ditching and straightening of streams and rivers, and 
draining of low swampy areas have all contributed to a changing ecology 



1 Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Purdue University 
Journal Paper No. 438. 

-Justin et al, 1946 and 1948. 

164 



Entomology 165 

and the reduction of the native bee populations. Diseases of native bees, 
particularly the bumblebee, may also have contributed to this reduction. 
Not so many years ago it was a common occurrence to plow up bumblebee 
nests when fall plowing, an occurrence which is rare today. Unless care 
is used in applying the many new chemicals for weed control, further 
depletion of our native beneficial insects may occur through the destruc- 
tion of such flowering plants as dandelions, wild asters, goldenrod, and 
smartweed, which are essential pollen and nectar sources for maintaining 
and increasing these insects. Since farming practices and other ecological 
factors have resulted in a diminishing native bee population over large 
areas of Indiana, interest has been focused on the use of the honeybee 
for the pollination of alfalfa and red clover. 

Beard and Dunham (1) have shown that with an optimum stand, 
maximum production of flowers, and complete pollination, red clover is 
potentially capable of yielding 12 bushels of seed per acre. Other inves- 
tigators put the maximum yield of alfalfa at 40 bushels per acre. We 
will probably never reach such yields, but in view of such potential yields 
we should certainly not be overly optimistic if we attempt to produce 
3 bushels of red clover seed and 5 bushels of alfalfa seed per acre. 

Few people appreciate the magnitude of producing 5 bushels of 
alfalfa seed per acre. There are on the average about 200,000 alfalfa 
seeds per pound or approximately 12,000,000 per bushel, according to 
statistics in the United States Department of Agricultural Yearbook for 
1948. Since a single alfalfa flower will produce between 2 and 3 seeds 
per pod, a minimum of 4,000,000 flowers or 92 per square foot must be 
visited and pollinated to produce one bushel of seed. To produce an 
average of five bushels of seed, 20,000,000 flowers or 460 per square foot 
must be pollinated. If the 5000 acres harvested for alfalfa seed in 1947, 
Justin et al (7), had produced five bushels of seed to the acre, it would 
have been necessary to pollinate a total of one hundred billion flowers. 

Red clover pollination requirements are even more startling. Each 
pound of red clover seed contains approximately 275,000 seeds, (USDA 
Yearbook 1948), or 15,500,000 per bushel. Since each clover flower pro- 
duces only one seed, 15,500,000 pollinations are necessary to produce a 
bushel of red clover seed. An average clover head contains from 125 to 
175 individual flowers. If we should obtain a minimum of 25 pollinations 
per head, it would require a total of 620,000 heads or 15 per square foot 
to produce a bushel of seed per acre. To produce three bushels of seeds, 
46,500,000 flowers, 1,860,000 heads, or 45 heads per square foot will be 
needed. In Indiana in 1948 there were 291,000 acres of red clover har- 
vested for seed, Justin et al (7). If each of these acres was to produce 
three bushels of seed, there would have to be a total of four trillion, five 
hundred ten billion, five hundred million flowers pollinated or one 
hundred eighty billion four hundred million heads containing 25 pollina- 
tions each. 

Pollination of Alfalfa 

In most areas of the more humid regions, honeybees are notoriously 
inefficient pollinators of alfalfa. This is due principally to the peculiar 



166 Indiana Academy of Science 

structure of the alfalfa flower which makes it difficult for honeybees 
to obtain pollen. The reproductive parts of the alfalfa flower, commonly 
called the "sexual column," consist of the pistil and the stamens. This 
column is enclosed by the keel petals and is under a tension when the 
flower is fully opened. When pressure is exerted on the keel petals this 
sexual column springs forward with considerable force. The stigma of 
the pistil first strikes the pollinating insects followed by the anthers 
which dust the insect with pollen. This mechanism insures cross-pollina- 
tion which is necessary to produce vigorous plants and good seed yields. 
This process of releasing the sexual column is known as "tripping" and 
very little if any seed will be produced if the flowers are not tripped. 
Honeybees collecting nectar soon learn to avoid tripping alfalfa flowers 
because of the force of the released column and secure the nectar from 
the side of the flower by inserting their proboscis between the wing and 
standard petals. Pollen collectors usually seek other sources of pollen 
when available. However, most investigators report that the honeybee 
while collecting nectar from alfalfa flowers will trip as high as four 
percent of the flowers by accident. Under average conditions the best 
estimates place the maximum tripped at two percent. Nectar collecting 
honeybees when present in large numbers will tend to compensate for 
their low efficiency of tripping and may be responsible for a considerable 
seed set. If honeybees can be induced to work alfalfa for pollen their 
efficiency is very high and they will be responsible for high seed yields. 

In the western areas of the United States, where most of the alfalfa 
seed is produced, the honeybee is the main agent of pollination. These 
areas are largely isolated valleys which are under irrigation and where 
competing nectar and pollen plants are at a minimum. Hare and Van- 
sell (5), found that at Delta, Utah, honeybees collected 32.4% of the 
pollen from alfalfa, 42.0% from greasewood, and 16.0%) from corn, 
sweet clover, and cockle-bur. Since alfalfa was the main crop in this 
area, the low percentage of pollen from corn, sweet clover, and cockle- 
bur was probably due to the small numbers of these plants in the area. 
In the humid areas honeybees are rarely found collecting pollen from 
alfalfa flowers, as there are generally many other sources from which 
pollen can be more easily obtained. 

The question arises can honeybees be of any value in producing 
alfalfa seed ? A strong colony of honeybees will contain approximately 
60,000 individuals. According to Park (9), about % or 20,000 of these 
will be field bees. Various authorities (4,9, 10) estimate that from 2.8% 
to 5% of these field bees will be pollen collectors. This means that if 
we take 4% as a suitable average for pollen collectors, 96% or 19,200 
bees from a colony of 60,000 individuals will be collecting nectar. 
Park (9) estimates that the average life of a field bee is 20 days during 
which it will make an average of 10 trips a day for nectar. If we take 
the average tripping efficiency of the nectar-collecting honeybee as 1.5%, 
each bee would have to visit 347 flowers per trip to cause sufficient 
tripping to produce five bushels of alfalfa seed. This would mean an 
average of 4 honeybees per square yard. If we assume that a minimum 



Entomology 167 

of 350 alfalfa flowers are necessary to produce a bee-load of nectar, and 
if these nectar-collecting field bees could be confined to one acre, they 
could trip sufficient flowers to produce a 5 bushel yield of alfalfa seed. 

Some experimental work has been done in the area east of the 
Mississippi river which has given definite indications that concentrated 
populations of bees in alfalfa will produce good yields of seed. Drake (2) 
reports the results of the use of bees in pollinating alfalfa in eastern 
Nebraska which corroborates the experimental results nearer Indiana. 
In this study, 256 colonies of bees were placed in a 250 acre alfalfa field. 
Parts of this field were cut for hay on each of three different dates with 
intervals of 8 to 10 days, which resulted in prolonging the period of 
bloom of the seed crop. As a result, he reports that 2050 bushels of 
cleaned alfalfa seed were harvested and 7 tons of extracted alfalfa honey 
was produced from these 250 acres. This averages a little more than 8 
bushels of clean seed per acre, indicating that the honeybees collected 
some pollen from the alfalfa or that the nectar-collecting bees were 
augmented by sufficient native bees to increase the seed yield above five 
bushels. It would appear that honeybees may be able to do an adquate 
job of pollination in alfalfa. 

The beekeeper who is willing to place his bees at the service of the 
alfalfa seed grower should keep in mind the following points, if a 
maximum amount of honey as well as a good seed yield is to be obtained. 

1. Harmful insects must be controlled. Plantbugs when present in 
numbers as few as 7 or 8 per sweep can completely destroy the bloom 
of the alfalfa plants. Leafhoppers will also seriously affect seed yields. 
Wilson (12) in the vicinity of West Point, Indiana, found that one pound 
of DDT and one-half pound of Chlordane per acre, applied as a wettable 
powder spray at the prebloom stage of growth gave excellent control for 
a period of four weeks, and resulted in the best seed set. Insecticides if 
applied in the proper dosages at prebloom will not injure any pollinating 
insects. 

2. Prolong the period of blooming by cutting parts of the field at 
least three different times, a week to 10 days apart. This will result in 
greater concentration of bees in the blooming part of the field with 
resultant increase in pollinations. The longer period of bloom will allow 
the colonies to build up with consequent heavier honey yields. 

3. Hay cuttings of competing crops should be made where possible 
to reduce sources of more easily available nectar in the vicinity. 

4. Not less than one colony per acre should be used and the bees 
should be located in the field or closely adjacent if possible. Best results 
would probably be obtained if the colonies were dispersed in the field, but 
the distribution will have to be adjusted to reduce the labor of examining 
the bees. 

Pollination of Red Clover 

The attraction of honeybees to red clover is the reverse of their 
attraction to alfalfa. Pollen-collecting field bees readily work red clover 
flowers, but the nectar-collecting bees are indifferent to them. This is 



168 Indiana Academy of Science 

clue mainly to a physical incompatibility between the bees anatomy and 
the anatomical structure of the red clover flower. 

Measurements given by Martin (8), indicate that the average length 
of the corolla tube of a red clover flower is 9.2 mm. The tongue of the 
worker honeybee averages 7.37 mm. Since the nectar rarely rises over 
1 mm. in the clover flower corolla it is obvious that the tongue of the 
worker honeybee cannot reach the nectar. Although some flowers may 
be slightly shorter than the average, these are not sufficiently numerous 
to make the clover plant attractive to nectar-collecting bees. Measure- 
ments of the quality of red clover nectar indicate that it compares favor- 
ably in sugar content to that of other flowers which do attract the 
honeybees. It seems apparent that the small quantity of nectar produced 
and its unavailability are responsible for this indifference on the part of 
nectar-collecting bees. Bumblebees, which are well known as pollinators 
of red clover have much longer tongues and can readily obtain the nectar 
from the flowers. 

Attempts have been made to breed red clover varieties with shorter 
corollas. In every case the attempt has failed. It was found that short 
corollas are generally associated with inherent weaknesses in the plants 
or with peculiarities of environment. With the development of con- 
trolled breeding of honeybees through artificial insemination, it may 
become possible to breed a strain of honeybees with longer tongues. 
However, there is no information at present that the variability of 
tongue length in honeybees is sufficient to warrant an attempt to breed 
longer-tongued bees. 

The problem of red clover pollination lies in the inability of nectar- 
collecting bees to obtain the nectar in the clover flowers, and the com- 
petition of other sources of pollen at the time the clover plants are in 
flower. Honeybees will readily collect pollen from clover blossoms and 
in so doing assure pollination of the flowers visited. Beard and Dun- 
ham (1), showed that in north-western Ohio, 82% of the clover pollina- 
tion was accomplished by honeybees, 15% by bumblebees, and 3% by 
miscellaneous insects. The authors recommend growing red clover for 
seed in the vicinity of large colony sites, or enticing beekeepers to 
locate their yards near clover seed fields by offering free colony sites. 
They imply that honeybees can be depended on to pollinate red clover. 
However, since red clover in most years will not produce sufficient nectar 
available to honeybees, other inducements besides free colony sites will 
have to be offered. The beekeeper, no matter how altruistic and philan- 
thropic he may be, is in the business to earn a livelihood, and depends on 
honey and associated products for his income. 

Red clover must be cross-pollinated to produce seed, and since only 
pollen, collecting field honeybees will pollinate red clover flowers, the 
successful use of honeybees for this purpose will depend on a strong 
colony putting enough pollen-collectors in the field during the flowering 
period, to pollinate the number of flowers necessary for economic seed 
production. As stated previously, 46,500,000 flowers must be pollinated 
to produce three bushels of seed. Under the discussion of the use of 



Entomology 169 

honeybees to pollinate alfalfa, it was estimated that a colony of 60,000 
bees will put 20,000 bees in the field, of which approximately 4% or 800 
will be pollen collectors. Using the estimate of 20 days for the life of 
the field bee and 8 pollen trips per day (Park, 9), each pollen-collecting 
field bee must visit 363 flowers on each trip to pollinate sufficient flowers 
to produce three bushels of seed per acre. Dunham (3), has stated that 
to obtain a full load of pollen, a bee must visit 346 florets. This figure 
is slightly less than the estimated requirements, but falls well within the 
limits of error in obtaining these estimates. By using several cutting 
dates for the hay crop to prolong the blooming period, one colony per 
acre should be able to pollinate sufficient red clover flowers to produce a 
yield of 3 bushels of seed. 

Farmer and beekeeper opinions as reported by Martin (8), from 
Iowa show very diversified opinions as to the value of honeybees for red 
clover seed production. Martin states, "it is lamentable, (this diversified 
opinion), in view of what is being done in European countries where 
honeybees are well known to be of value in red clover seed production 
and are systematically and effectively used to increase yields to as much 
as 8 bushels in some countries. European red clovers are very similar 
in length of flowers and amount of nectar secreted to American clovers. 
The successful use of the honeybee to pollinate red clover in the United 
States has yet to be worked out." It appears that the problem is not 
insurmountable. 

Since bees will only work red clover to obtain pollen, it is obvious 
that the beekeeper will not be interested in red clover seed production 
unless he receives some type of remuneration. There are several ways 
this may be accomplished depending on the localities and the individuals 
involved. 

1. Direct rental payments at so much per colony. In such case 
written requests for such service and an agreement on payment should 
be made, as the grower assumes all risk for failure of his seed crop. 
Many factors other than inadequate pollination can cause seed losses. 

2. Sharing seed yields with the beekeeper. Under such an arrange- 
ment the seed grower and beekeeper agree to share all seed above a base 
amount (usually one bushel) on a percentage basis, usually 50-50. This 
type of agreement is receiving serious consideration in many localities. 

3. The seed grower agrees to plant some crop as a source of nectar 
supply for bees placed in the vicinity of his clover seed fields. Under 
this type of arrangement, the grower agrees to plant a specified number 
of acres of some nectar secreting crop in return for the services of the 
bees to pollinate the red clover crop. This would assure the beekeeper 
a honey crop as his payment and the seed grower would obtain the 
services of the pollen-collecting bees to produce a seed crop. The main 
point to be considered under such an arrangement will be to plant a 
nectar crop such as sweet clover or alfalfa which will not compete with 
the red clover as a source of pollen. If the use of honeybees should 
become widespread under such agreements, the disposal of the surplus 



170 Indiana Academy of Science 

honey might become a problem. This type of agreement has been used 
extensively in Wood county, Ohio. 

Injurious insects are a complicating factor in red clover seed pro- 
duction. Many more insects attack red clover than are at present 
injurious to alfalfa. Those attacking the roots and foliage weaken the 
plant or may completely destroy it, thus reducing stands and presenting 
a hazard to second crop seed production. Other insects attack the heads 
directly and present the problem of control without injury to pollinating 
insects. The use of DDT on any forage crop that may be fed to lactating 
animals and those being prepared for the market must be avoided in 
order to prevent the presence of DDT in milk products and in the fatty 
tissues of meat for human consumption. This means that if the grower 
treats his field for insect control as a step in seed production, failure of 
seed set from any other cause will not permit him to use the crop for 
hay or grazing, except under certain restrictions. 

The use of honeybees for pollinating red clover then follows the 
same procedure as those for alfalfa with a few modifications. 

1. Although the control of injurious insects on red clover by pre- 
bloom treatment is still in the experimental stages, it is recommended 
as a precautionary measure. Methoxychlor may be substituted for DDT, 
but should be used with chlordane to control plantbugs. The use of 
methoxychlor in place of DDT, makes possible use of the crop for forage 
in event of seed failure under present Pure Food and Drug rulings. If 
properly applied in correct dosages and at the prebloom stage of growth, 
no injury from insecticides will occur to pollinating insects. 

2. Prolonging the flowering period of the red clover may be less 
desirable than in alfalfa, unless the bees have a source of nectar avail- 
able to maintain colony strength. Colony strength may also be main- 
tained by feeding, but this involves additional expense and labor. If an 
additional source of nectar is available, cutting the hay crop at intervals 
of 8 to 10 days will result in a greater concentration of bees in the clover 
in flower at any one time, and consequently a chance for a larger seed set. 

3. Avoid competing crops as sources of pollen supply. The knowl- 
edge of the beekeeper should make possible the removal of competing 
sources of pollen, or if a crop is apt to compete some adjustment of 
planting or cutting time should be made to avoid competition. 

4. Not less than one colony per acre should be used, and if possible 
locate the bees in the field to be pollinated or as close as practical. 
Shading of the colonies if necessary can be accomplished by the use of 
light frames and cloth, which can be removed for examinations of the 
bees. 

The assistance of seed growers and beekeepers in experimental 
studies and the opportunity to make observations when bees are utilized 
for legume pollinations are greatly needed if we are to solve the prob- 
lems of using honeybees as pollinating agents in legume fields, thereby 
creating more opportunities for beekeepers through a greater demand 
for honeybees. 



Entomology 171 

Summary 

Reductions in numbers of native pollinating insects throughout the 
greater portions of Indiana have resulted in decreased yields of legume 
seed, and have stimulated interest in the use of honeybees to pollinate 
alfalfa and red clover. These crops present the greatest problems in 
pollination. 

Pollen-collecting honeybees will not work alfalfa flowers in this area 
as more easily available sources of pollen are usually present. However, 
the nectar-collecting bees readily work alfalfa flowers, and although 
only one to two percent efficient, there are sufficient nectar-collecting 
field bees in a colony of 60,000 bees, to trip the flowers necessary to 
produce approximately five bushels of seed per acre. 

Although red clover nectar contains adequate amounts of sugar, 
honeybees usually cannot obtain it due to the length of the clover flower 
corollas which are approximately 2 mm. longer than the tongues of the 
honeybees. Pollen-collecting field bees will readily work red clover 
flowers. There is a sufficient number of pollen-collecting field bees in 
a colony containing 60,000 bees, to pollinate the flowers necessary to 
produce three bushels of red clover seed per acre. Since beekeepers 
cannot generally expect a honey crop from red clover, some method of 
remuneration for placing colonies of bees in red clover seed fields must 
be arranged. Such methods include direct rental, sharing seed crop, and 
providing nectar crop. 

Points to be observed in the use of honeybees for pollinating legumes 
include prebloom treatment of the crop for injurious insect control; 
staggering of first crop hay cuttings to prolong the flowering period; 
elimination of competing crops as sources of nectar or pollen; and, 
using not less than one strong colony of bees per acre. 



Literature Cited 

Beard, D. F m and W. E. Dunham. 1945-. Honeybees. Ohio State Ext. Bui. 

2 53 rev. Apr. 1945. 
Drake, C. J. 1948. Influence of Insects on Alfalfa Seed Production in Iowa. 

Jour. Ec. Ent. 41 :5, pp. 742-750. 
Dunham, W. E. 1939. Insect Pollination of Red Clover in Western Ohio. 

Gleanings Bee Cult. 67:486-488, 525. 
Franklin, W. W., and R. L. Parker. 194S. Alfalfa Pollination. Proc. 3rd 

Ann. Meet. North Central States Br. AAEE, Peoria, 111., 1948. p. 65. 
Hare, Q. A. and George H. Vansell. 1946. Pollen Collections by Honeybees 

in the Delta, Utah, Alfalfa Seed Producing Area. Jour. Am. Soc. Agron. 

38:462-469. 
Justin, Miner M., et al. 1946. Indiana Crops and Livestock, annual crop 

summary. Dept. Agr. Statistics No. 255, Dec. 
Justin, Miner M., et al. 1948. Indiana Crops and Livestock, annual crop 

summary. Dept. Agr. Statistics No. 279, Dec. 
Martin, J. N. 1946. Some Data and Comments from a Number of Red 

Clover Growers and Beekeepers plus Some Observations of the Writer on 

the Honeybee Red Clover Problem. Rent, of Iowa State Apiarist, 1946: 

78-82. 



172 Indiana Academy of Science 

9. Park, O. W. 1946. Activities of Honeybees — Hive and Honeybees. (Roy A. 
Grout, Ed.), Dadant and Sons, Hamilton, 111. 1946 Ed., pp. 125-219. 

10. Park, O. W. 1947. Beekeeping Section. Proc. 2nd Ann. Meet. North Cent. 

States Br. AABE, Des Moines, la. p. 71. 

11. U. S. Dept. Agr. Grass Yearbook 1948. 

12. Wilson, C. M. 1949. Organic Insecticides to Control Alfalfa Insects. Join'. 

Ec. Ent. 42:49fi-49S. 



The German Roach as a Laboratory Test An mal 

George E. Gould, Purdue University 



The German cockroach, a common pest of kitchens, makes an 
excellent "guinea pig" for the preliminary testing of new insecticides in 
the laboratory. It can be reared in large numbers in the laboratory and 
is easily handled in the testing procedures. The use of this small insect 
provides a rapid screening method for chemicals whereby an estimate 
of their insecticidal value can be determined in the laboratory before 
more extensive tests are made in the field. 

The present stock of roaches in our laboratory has been maintained 
with no difficulty for 12 years. The procedure followed in rearing roaches 
is to select 300 young females and 150 males about May 1. Approximately 
20 females and 10 males are started in each of 15 glass battery jars. 
In each jar are placed a cotton-stoppered vial of water and an inverted 
paper cup. The cup has two small pieces cut out of the rim to permit 
the roaches to crawl inside the cup for protection. Food, a pellet form 
of commercial dog food, is placed on top of the paper cup. Roaches are 
kept in the glass jar by an inch band of vaseline .around the inside of 
the mouth and by cheese cloth held in place over the mouth by a rubber 
band. 

During the summer months the roaches are allowed to live and 
reproduce in the jars. They require only such attention as supplying 
water and food once a week and cleaning out the debris every two 
weeks. The trouble from mites killing roaches, experienced in some 
laboratories, has been avoided by cleanliness and by separating food 
and water to prevent the growth of mold. By early August each jar 
has a large population of about 200 adults and perhaps 1500 nymphs. 
When the jars become crowded, the entire lot is dumped into the large 
stock cage. 

The stock cage consists of an outer wooden box 24 by 30 inches 
and an inner cage 19 by 24 inches. The outer box has 8 inch sides 
which are lined with a 7 inch continuous piece of celluloid. The inner 
cage consists of a wooden frame of 1 by 2 inch lumber with a screen- 
wire bottom and 6 inch celluloid sides. The celluloid attached to the 
wooden box is coated on the inside with a thin film of vaseline, while 
both sides of the inner celluloid walls are coated. Roaches are placed 
in the inner cage, where the adults are retained by the vaseline-coated 
walls, while the young can go through the screen-wire into the larger 
wooden box. Although the top is open, adults cannot fly out. The small 



1 Contribution by Department of Entomology, Purdue Agri. Experiment 
Station Journal Paper No. 437. 

173 



174 Indiana Academy of Science 

nymphs occasionally crawl over the vaseline and so a band of sodium 
fluoride is kept on the table around the cage. Ground dog food is supplied 
by inverting a four-ounce glass jar on two small pieces of wood set in a 
petri dish. Water is supplied in the same manner except that a piece of 
screen-wire is placed under the jar openings to prevent entrance and 
subsequent drowning of roaches. 

Roaches from the 15 battery jars are placed in the stock cage about 
August 1 and in two weeks a number of newly-hatched nymphs has 
accumulated. To remove the young the inner cage is tapped several 
times and then set out on a piece of paper previously prepared with a 
two inch band of sodium fluoride slightly larger than the bottom of the 
cage. The young are now exposed in the outer box and are picked up 
with a "suck" bottle for transferring to the glass battery jars. Subse- 
quent lots are transferred to the jars at weekly intervals and thus give 
roach populations of known ages. 

The length of time required for nymphal development varies with the 
temperature of their environment. According to previous studies (6) 
this period ranges from 103 days at 70 to 75°F to 74 days at 83 to 86°F. 
As the roaches mature, they are removed from the stock jars and are 
separated according to their sex. These roaches are ready for use in the 
insecticide tests on the following morning. The roaches not used in the 
tests are placed in the large stock cage in order to replenish that supply. 

This rearing procedure has been followed for the past eight years 
and has provided an ample supply for testing by about October 15. 
The settling dust method of testing insecticides has also been followed 
for eight years and has been described in previous articles (2, 3, 4, 5). 
It consists, in brief, of blowing the insecticide up in a tower and per- 
mitting it to settle for seven minutes on a 5 by 5 inch wooden tray. Then 
the tray is taken out of the cylinder and 10 or 15 roaches introduced. 
The roaches run through the film for seven minutes and then are 
transferred to clean jars for observation for 96 hours. 

The rapidity of roach development is of interest not only to the 
housewife but also to the laboratory worker. Previous studies by Gould 
and Deay (6) indicate that at a room temperature of about 76°F 
incubation of eggs requires 28 days and nymphal development about 
95 days. In order to estimate the possible number of offspring in one 
year from a pair of roaches, the figures of the earlier studies (6) have 
been used. Suppose we assume the start of this colony May 1 with one 
female and one male and that half the offspring produced are females. 
The German female produces five capsules during her adult life of about 
six months. If the capsules contain an average of 32 individuals and all 
survive and leproduce, then the population the following May would 
consist of 3200 adults and 37,376 nymphs and a year later of 3,000,000 
or more. 

The American roach has also been used as a test insect but is not 
so well adapted for rearing. It requires 15 to 18 months to mature and 
being larger needs more space and food. Usually when this roach is 
used, it is trapped as needed. Burnett (1) and others have stated that 



Entomology 



17: 



the American roach is more prolific, as a female produces 1440 eggs as 
compared to 160 for the German Roach. This is true but the American 
has a much longer developmental period and would have about 1200 
offspring, all nymphs, in a 12 months period as compared with the 
40,000 for the German. 

The advantages of using the German roach for laboratory testing 
are many and include ease of culture, low cost of rearing, rapid rate 
of reproduction, small rearing space, species readily available, species 
representative of a group, species economically important in itself, and 
the results are applicable to other species. According to a survey of 
test insects used by entomological laboratories, the National Research 
Council (Mimeograph report, October, 1949) found the German roach 
second to the housefly in a list of 192 insects. The American roach was 
used frequently, while a few laboratories listed the Oriental roach, the 
brown-banded roach and the smoky brown roach. 

Variation in susceptibility to insecticides of different insects and by 
different stages of the same insect has been noted by many workers. 
Among roaches the fifth instar is considered the most difficult to kill, 
followed by the adult female, the fourth nymphal instar and the adult 
male. In our tests both males and females were used until 1948 when 
females alone were used. In table I the effectiveness of some common 

Table I. Comparison of the kill of male and female German cock- 
roaches treated with certain insecticides, 1947. 



Insecticide 


Males 


Females 


and per cent 










of active 
ingredients 


Per cent 
kill 


Survival 

time 
in hours 


Per cent 
kill 


Survival 

time 
in hours 


Sodium 5 


52 


73 


14 


90 


rluoride 10 


86 


64 


32 


74 


25 


92 


53 


74 


68 


D.D.T. 0.75 


34 


59 


28 


76 


1.0 


85 


51 


46 


63 


2.5 


100 


41 


S8 


71 


Benzene 0.1 


50 


58 


20 


74 


hexachloride 0.2 


100 


31 


94 


42 


0.3 


100 


35 


100 


56 


Lindane 0.1 


11 


72 


5 




0.3 


67 


54 


35 


62 


0.5 


100 


2 2 


86 


55 


Toxaphene 0.5 


82 


78 


33 


80 


0.75 


9 7 


68 


42 


86 


1.0 


100 


61 


80 


81 


Parathion 0.03 


42 


45 


20 


52 


0.05 


92 


37 


70 


44 


0.1 


100 


25 


98 


38 


Chlordane 0.5 


56 


78 


22 


90 


1.0 


98 


52 


83 


83 


2.0 


100 


57 


89 


74 



176 



Indiana Academy of Science 



chemicals against the two sexes is compared. The averages given in the 
table are based on 10 tests of five roaches each. The kill of males was 
from 20 to 270 per cent better than that of females. An average of 
the 13 comparisons in the table show a 70 per cent kill of males and a 
40 per cent kill of females. The response of the two sexes to the action 
of some insecticides shows a high degree of correlation. Since the 
females in these tests and in most others made between 1941 and 1947 
were nearly twice as difficult to kill as the males, females alone have 
been used in most tests in the past two years. 

Several hundred mixtures have been tested in the laboratory during 
the past seven years and results of 1943 to 1947 have been published 
(2, 3, 4, 5). In the 1948 and 1949 tests two changes were made in 
procedure: first, females were used in most tests and, second, dilutions of 
the active ingredient were reduced to a point where kills were less than 
100 per cent. In the past there has been no method of comparison where 
two materials killed all roaches. By the use of lower dilutions three or 
more values giving less than 100 per cent kills can be plotted on 
logarithmic probability paper (Wadley, 7). When the three or more 
points are located, a straight line can be fitted to them. 

The data on females for 1947 (Table I) were the first to be plotted 
on log probability paper. For 1948 (Table II) and 1949 the complete 
series of 10 tests for each material was run only on the females. The 
straight lines for these materials are shown on the accompanying 
graph (Fig. 1). Where these lines intersect the line for a 50 per cent 
kill, a value for each in terms of percentage of active ingredients can 
be ascertained. If the quantity for the best material is assigned a 
value of 1, then the comparative values of the other materials can be 
established. These values based on the per cent active ingredients 
necessary for a 50 per cent kill are as follows: 



Material 


Per Cent 
Active Ingredient 


Value 


( lompound 497 


.031 

.042 

.0715 

.107 

.123 

.283 

.425 

.71 

1.1 

3.0 

4.7 

4.8 

8.6 
13.5 


1.0 


Parathion 


1.3 




2.3 


Pyrethrins in pyrethrum powder 

Benzene hexachloride (gamma) 

Lindane (gamma) 

( 'hlordane 


3.5 
4.0 
9.1 

13.7 
22.9 


DDT 


35.5 


DDD 


97.0 


DMDT 

Sodium fluoride (males) 

Pluoro DDT 

Sodium fluoride (females) 


151.6 
154.8 
277.4 
435.5 



Entomology 



177 



Table II. The percentage of kill and the survival time in hours of 
female German roaches treated in the laboratory in a settling 1 dust 
chamber with various strengths of insecticides. Prophyllite was used 
as diluent in all mixtures. 1948. 





Per cent 








active 


Per cent 


Survival 


Material 


ingredient 


kill 


time 


Rotenone (5% cube) 


3.0 









2.5 


12 


75 


Rotenone extract 


5.0 


62 


65 


Rotenone extract 


7.5 


42 


46 


Rotenone extract plus 1% piperonyl butoxide 


1.0 


8 






0.075 


18 


52 


Pyrethrum powder 


0.1 


28 


61 


Pyrethrum powder 


0.15 


8 6 


43 


Pyrethrum extract (20%) impregnated 


0.25 


20 


62 


Pyrethrum extract 


0.375 


3 8 


60 


Pyrethrum extract 


0.5 


86 


46 


Pyrethrins plus .25% piperonyl cyclonene 








impregnated separately and mixed 


0.25 


C 




Same mixed as liquids and impregnated 


0.25 


40 


67 


Pyrethrins plus .50% piperonyl cyclonene . . . 


0.50 


86 


37 


Pyrethrins plus .50% piperonyl cyclonene .... 


0.2 


84 


58 


Pyrethrins plus .25% piperonyl butoxide 


0.25 


70 


46 


Pyrethrins plus .125% piperonyl butoxide 


0.125 


8 




Pyrethrins plus .50% piperonyl buto:?q§de ... 


0.5 


9 6 


3 7 


Pyrethrins plus .20% piperonyl butoxide .... 


0.2 


68 


57 


Pyrenone T127 (pyrethrins and p. cyclonene) 


0.02 







Pyrenone T127 


0.04 


20 


48 


Pyrenone T127 


0.06 


3 8 


38 


Pyrenone T127 


0.1 


70 


52 


Pyrenone T166 (pyrethrins and p. butoxide) . . 


0.02 


4 




Pyrenone T166 


0.03 


28 


46 


Pyrenone T166 


0.04 


67 


40 


Pvrenone T166 


0.05 
2.5 


76 

80 


46 


D.D.T. 50% wettable powder 


80 


D.D.T. 100% impregnated on powder 


2.5 


-1 


81 


D.D.T. 50% wettable aerosol grade 


2.5 


88 


78 


pp'D.D.T. 100% powder 


2.5 


16 


72 


D.D.T. 100% powder 


5.0 


33 


84 


Ditolyl trichloroethane 25% powder 


2.5 


6 




pp' isomer of above 


10.0 







Fluoro D.D.T. 100% impregnated in powder 


2.5 


2 




Fluoro D.D.T. 


5.0 


26 


no 


Fluoro D.D.T 


7.5 

10 .0 

2.0 


40 
58 
22 


69 


Fluoro D.D.T 


91 


D.D.D. 50% wettable powder 


85 


D.D.D 


4.0 


78 


79 


D.D.D. 


6.0 
2.5 


86 
10 


74 


Methoxychlor 50% wettable powder 




Methoxychlor 


5.0 


60 


58 


Methoxychlor 


7.5 
2.5 


78 



63 


pp' isomer of above 50% wettable powder 




pp' isomer 


5.0 
10.0 
0.3 
0.5 
0.75 
1.0 
1.0 
17.5 


10 
12 
21 
62 
93 
100 
82 
66 


74 


pp' isomer 


75 


Chlordane 5 % dust 


90 


Chlordane 


71 


Chlordane 


71 


Chlordane 


66 


Toxaphene 50% powder 


77 


Sodium fluoride 


74 



178 



Indiana Academy of Science 



2 

E 80 
I 70 

60 

g5S 

< 30 
Z 20 
U 

O 10 
£C 

UJ 5 
Q. 
2 




.01 .02 .03 .05 .06.1 .2 .3 .4.5.6 .8 1.0 2. 

PERCENTAGE OF ACTIVE 

Figure 1. The percentage mortality of tl 
different concentrations of insecticides. 



3. 4. 5. 6. 8. 10. 

INGREDIENTS 



20 30 40 60 80 100 



female German roach exposed to 



In the tests of 1949 (Table III.) considerable attention was given 
to the non-poisonous materials, pyrethrum and rotenone. These ma- 
terials were used alone and in combinations with activators. Rotenone 
in the form of cube powder produced no mortality, while the extract 
gave a low kill. The addition of the activator, piperonyl butoxide, to the 
extract produced no measurable response. On the other hand the 
addition of either piperonyl cyclonene or piperonyl butoxide greatly 
increased the effectiveness of pyrethrum extract. The butoxide gave 
better results as a 50 per cent kill was obtained with .037 per cent 
pyrethrins while the cyclonene required .07 per cent of the pyrethrins 
for the same kill. Pyrethrum extract alone required .37 per cent active 
material for a 50 percent kill, while pyrethrum powder required .11 
per cent. In the preparation of laboratory mixtures it was found that 
the liquid pyrethrum extract had to be combined with the liquid 
piperonyl material before they were impregnated on the dust. Of the 
many laboratory mixtures prepared with pyrethrum none were as 
effective as the commercial preparation. 

In the second series several of the new chlorinated hydrocarbon 
materials were compared. A dust prepared from a standard DDT 
wettable powder was more effective than dusts prepared from the 
pp'isomer and the technical DDT, but was less effective than the dust 
made from the aerosol grade of DDT. DDT was better than the fluoro 
and tolyl analogs of DDT. It was also better than DDD and methoxy- 
chlor, but was less effective than chlordane and toxaphene. 

In 1949 two new compounds were tested along with several of the 
older materials. Considerable variation was found in the results from 



Entomology 



179 



Table III. The percentage of kill and the survival time in hours of 
female German roaches treated in the laboratory in a settling dust 
chamber with various strengths of insecticides. Pyrophyllite was used 
as diluent in all mixtures. 1949. 





Fer cent 








active 


Per cent 


Survival 


Material 


ingredient 


kill 


t i m e 


Compound 118-K-W 


0.075 


63 


84 




0.1 


66 


72 




0.175 


82 


81 




0.25 


98 


63 




0.01 


14 


9 2 




0.03 


36 


94 




0.05 


75 


81 


DDT 50% wettable powder 


1.0 


23 


92 




1.5 


45 


70 




2.0 


65 


75 


DDT micronized 50% wettable powder 


1.0 


42 


85 




1.5 


54 


67 




2.0 


84 


79 


Pluoro DDT 


2.5 


31 


67 




5.0 


71 


58 




10.0 


94 


51 


Chlordane 


0.5 


62 


76 




0.35 


24 


47 




0.4 


34 


86 




0.5 


92 


72 


CS-645A 


2.0 


26 


54 


Sodium fluoride 


10.0 


28 


86 




17.5 


57 


81 




25.0 


70 


51 



different laboratory mixtures and between commercial mixtures. This 
variation was especially noticeable when a commercial mixture was 
compared with a laboratory mixture. The process of manufacture also 
influenced results as indicated in the difference between a micronized 
and a regular DDT. The finely ground material gave 10 to 20 per cent 
better kills at the various dilutions. A sample of fluoro DDT gave better 
kills this year than did the sample from another company used in 1948. 
The two new compounds, No. 118 and No. 497, gave excellent 
results with roaches. Several samples formulated by different companies 
or at different times by one company showed variable results but in 
general were about as good as parathion. Another new chemical, 2-Nitro- 
l,l-bis(p-chlorophenyl) propane, (CS-645A) showed some toxicity to 
the roach, as it killed 26 percent at a 2 per cent dilution. Two mixtures 
prepared by a graduate student in chemistry and designated as CI 12 
and R103 showed no toxicity to roaches. 



Summary 

The German roach has been used in the laboratory for the past 
eight years as a test insect in the evaluation of insecticidal efficiency. 



180 Indiana Academy of Science 

Because of its ease in rearing and its rapid rate of reproduction this 
insect has proven itself to be an excellent "guinea pig" in the study of 
insecticides. These preliminary tests in the laboratory have given a 
comparative rating of many new materials and have indicated those 
materials worthy of further tests in the field. 

Of the materials used in the past eight years the compound 497 
has given the best kill. Other materials in order of decreasing efficiency 
are parathion, No. 118, pyrethrins in pyrethrum powder, gamma-benzene 
hexachloride, lindane, chlordane, toxaphene, DDT, DDD, DMDT, DFDT, 
and sodium fluoride. Pyrethrum extract activated with one of the 
piperonyl compounds gave an excellent kill and on the basis of pyrethrins 
only would rate near 497. 

A high rating in these tests does not necessarily indicate that the 
material would be of practical value in roach control. Many of these 
materials are highly toxic to humans and consequently would be of 
little value in the home and around food manufacturing plants or 
storage. Among the recommended treatments pyrethrum powder and 
activated pyrethrins are foremost in the contact materials and chlordane 
oil solution as a residual treatment. DDT, chlordane dust and even 
sodium fluoride are still of value against certain roaches and in 
certain locations. 

Literature Cited 

1. Burnett, Douglass, Jr. 1949. Roaches: How to identify and principles of 

control. Pest Control 17:8:9-12. 

2. Gould, Geo. E. 1943. Replacement materials for roach control. Soap and 

Sanitary Chemicals 19:8:90-93, 111. 

3. - . 1943. Recent developments in roach control. Pests and Their 

Control 11:12:12-13, 22-23. 

4. - — . 1945. Roach control tests. Soap and Sanitary Chemicals, 

21:2:113-115, 121. 

5. - — . 1948. The' newer insecticides against roaches. Soap and 

Sanitary Chemicals 24:3:147, 149, 177, 179. 

6. Gould, Geo. E. and H. O. Deay. 1940. The biology of six species of cock- 

roaches which inhabit buildings. Purdue University Agri. Expt. Sta. Bui. 
4 51. 

7. Wadley, F. M. 19 45. The evidence required to show synergistic action of 

insecticides and a short cut in analysis. U. S. Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine ET-223. 



The Control of Insects in Sod Culture Peach Orchards 

G. Edw. Marshall, Purdue University 
Agricultural Experiment Station 



Looking- at a map of Indiana, which shows the areas set aside for 
reforestation, one will observe a great number of such projects in 
the south-central counties. Here a large part of the land area has been 
eroded until it is unfit for general farming. Still more thousands of 
acres are being farmed in such a manner that within a few years they 
will be almost worthless. The growing of peaches has contributed its 
part toward the loss of our land. 

For years growers have been taught that clean cultivation is 
necessary in growing peaches regardless of whether or not the land is 
rolling or relatively level. Accordingly, where the orchards have been 
planted on rough land the productive period of the land is often limited 
to the life of one peach orchard. However, during the last few years 
through studies in progress we have learned that very remunerative 
peach crops may be grown on land kept in sod. This work is being 
carried on at the Fruit Insect Research Orchard of the Purdue University 
Agricultural Experiment Station at Orleans, Indiana, and was under- 
taken in order to study its effect upon insect populations and their control. 

First to be considered in growing peaches in sod is the availability 
of moisture and soil fertility maintenance. During the past three years 
Gage Elberta peaches planted in 1941 and maintained under sod culture 
have shown no signs of drought. Through the application of a pound of 
nitrate a year for each year of age of the trees in 1949 this orchard 
began to show evidence of too much nitrogen. 

Two diseases which thrive under sod conditions in peach orchards 
are brown rot and scab. Brown rot especially has been a problem in 
sod or even weedy orchards. This is caused to a great extent by the 
fallen peaches which cannot be easily picked up and destroyed. Our 
present work is showing that if sod and weeds are kept cleaned out 
from beneath the trees, over the area just large enough that all 
dropped peaches fall on clean ground where they may be easily seen 
and removed, this peach disease remains a very minor one. Cutting the 
sod from beneath the trees only permits the growth of grass over the 
remaining areas of the orchard. To keep the area beneath the trees 
clean the ground will need to be hoed at least twice during the 
summer season and the drops picked up periodically. The cost of the 
operation in this study has been found to be 65 cents per tree for trees 
returning a crop which sold for almost $14.00. Under such treatment 
and for the past several years not more than two sprays have been 

181 



182 Indiana Academy of Science 

applied for brown rot control and these have become more necessary 
against scab than to control brown rot. 

Two insect pests which have in the past given considerable difficulty 
in control whether the orchard is in sod culture or not are the plum 
curculio and the Oriental fruit moth. Lead arsenate with plenty of lime 
or chlordane applied as suggested in the Indiana spray schedule will 
control the plum curculio very satisfactorily. The Oriental fruit moth 
has ceased to be a problem of importance where DDT sprays can be 
applied at intervals of five to six days during the third brood of the 
insect. 

Spider mites on the peach orchard became a problem for the first 
time in 1949. Only one spray application of parathion applied August 2 
was needed for excellent control. This spray was put on when the 
mite count averaged 30 per leaf. A portable Bean sprayer was used. 
The operator drove down each tree row and before spraying the outside 
of the tree he sought an open place under it and without going under 
sprayed the opposite side of the tree from beneath. No particular 
effort was made to be certain that every part of the under side was hit. 
However, inasmuch as this operation was carried out in each row both 
sides of the under part of the tree was sprayed. Examinations indicated 
that the mite population was kept under control. 

The tarnished plant bug and pentatomids, which cause cat-facing 
of fruit, present what is at present the only remaining threat in sod 
culture of peaches. The insects which cat-face the fruit are certainly 
more destructive under sod conditions than under clean culture, how- 
ever, the type of vegetation which surrounds the orchard seems to be 
more important than sod within the planting. As we have studied this 
problem it has been found that fruit damage is greater in years in which 
the fruit set is light and when alfalfa or clover instead of corn is planted 
in adjacent fields. Under conditions existing at this station the tarnished 
plant bug causes greater damage than do the pentatomids. 

In 1949 thinning was finished on June 14. At that time, all the cat- 
faced peaches were removed. Between this date and August 6, the 
percentage of peaches injured by lygus and pentatomid bugs was as 
great as it had been before thinning time. About June 6 the dimpling 
caused by tarnished plant bugs stopped and from that time on points 
of attack on the fruit were marked by exudes of wax. Often these 
hardened wax exudes stand out pedestal-like a quarter of an inch or more 
from the fruit. In other instances the wax flattens out on the surface 
of the peaches and dries hard and shiny. 

Caged lygus bugs were put over uninjured peaches each week 
beginning May 14. When they could be found, pentatomid species were 
likewise caged separately over the uninjured fruit. The date when the 
pentatomids no longer cat-face peaches is not certain because it has 
often been impossible to find these insects when needed for caging. 
Lygus bugs are rather difficult to collect and cage without injury to 
the insects. Often the caged bugs died the same day they were put 
on the fruits. Observations of insects which lived in cages one or more 



Entomology 



18: 



Table I. Injury, if any, caused by caged bugs. 



Date confined to 




caused 




caused 


cages over peaches 


Lygus 


injury 


Pentatomids 


injury 


May 1 7 


X 


yes 


X 


yes 


May 25 






X 


yes 


May 27 


X 


yes 






June 2 


X 


yes 






June 6 


X 


yes 






June 14 


X 


yes 






July 6 






X 


No 


July 19 


X 


yes 






Aug. 6 


X 


No 


X 


No 


Aug. 12 


X 


No 







days were the only ones recorded. Table I gives the data gathered by 
this method. 

Here the evidence indicates that injury by lygus does not occur after 
mid-July and that injury from pentatomids may stop as early as June 
1. Field studies corroborate in some ways the cage studies. 

An acre block of Gage Elberta trees planted seven rows one way 
and six the other were used to determine the severity of the attack 
by cat-facing insects. Counts were made by selecting the corner trees 
first. From each of these 100 peaches were examined for cat-facing 
injury. When these four trees were finished four others were selected. 
The position of the second four was two trees in from the corner ones 
toward the center of the block. This was repeated on two more which 
were at the center of the acre block. After these counts were completed, 
the record showed that trees which carried a very light load were not 
comparable with those carrying a full crop of peaches. 

The following half dozen tree records show how uniformly catfacing 
increased in as many locations in the orchard before thinning. 
Individual tree counts recorded as percent cat-faced fruits: 

Counts taken May 14 8 7 4 13 16 9 

Counts taken June 8 17 13 13 34 28 15 

Thinning was finished on June 14. In the thinning operation every 
cat-faced peach was removed insofar as this was possible. A count of 
the number of cat-faced peaches was taken on August 16 using the 
same trees from which the counts of May and June had been made. The 
average number of peaches cat-faced per 100 each time counts were 
made were: 



May 14 


June 8 


June 14 


August 16 


12.3 


15.7 


injured 
peaches 
removed 


19.1 



184 Indiana Academy of Science 

Thus it is seen that cat-facing injury in the field as in caged tests 
continued well after thining time — June 8. To control this type of 
injury a chlordane schedule was used. Here again cages were used to 
determine the effectiveness of the spray on both kinds of insects and 
incidentally on curculio. The insects were caged over the foliage and 
fruit as soon after spraying as the foliage was dry. The results obtained 
indicate that the kill of both curculio and lygus is practically 100 percent 
when 2.5 pints of 40 percent chlordane per 100 gallons is used but that 
only about half the pentatomids die. The study shows that a higher 
concentration of chlordane, another insecticide or a shorter interval 
between sprays is needed if effective control against cat-facing is 
effected. Inasmuch as cat-facing injury this past season has exceeded 
by far any other year since our studies began and since this is the first 
year chlordane has been used without being accompanied by lead 
arsenate and lime to control curculio it may be that lead arsenate-lime 
combinations have in the past been responsible to some extent for the 
lighter attack by cat-facing insects. 



The Relation of Particle Size to the Toxicity of DDT Dusts 1 

R. P. Mullett, 663 King Avenue, Marion, Ohio 



The purposes of this work were to find the most effective particle- 
size range of the toxicant DDT against the adult Mexican bean beetle, 
Epilachna varivestis Muls.; and to find which, if any, particle-size range 
of the diluent, Pyrax ABB, is the most effective in combination with 
DDT. 

With the beginning of the investigations of the relation of particle- 
size to toxicity, it was found that generally the smaller particles of any 
particular poison were the most efficient for killing insects. However as 
more evidence was assembled it became apparent that a small-particle 
size of toxicant could not arbitrarily be rated as the most efficient killing 
size for all insects; and that any particular insect usually has a specific 
particle-size range for each particular insecticide or group of insecticides 
to which it is susceptible. Seigler and Goodhue (7) in tests on codling 
moth larvae found that there was little difference in the toxicity of 
coarse, medium and fine particles in calcium arsenate, Paris Green and 
cryolite samples, although the medium size was slightly superior to the 
coarse and fine. The respective sizes of these materials in their order 
listed were: 28, 5, 3 microns; 29, 10, 3 microns; 28, 8, 2 microns. Smith 
et al (9) observed that the coarse samples (samples containing the 
smallest percentage of particles below 5 microns in size) of Calcium 
arsenate caused the highest mortality to the boll weevil, and the 
larvae of the cotton leaf worm. Gaines (2) showed that the coarse 
sample of calcium arsenate was six times and the medium sample four 
times as toxic as the finest sample to fifth instar cotton leaf worm. 
McGovran et al (6) showed that the smallest particles of Paris Green, 
averaging 1.1 microns, caused the highest mortality and the least 
feeding; and the largest size particles, averaging 22 microns, gave the 
least kill and permitted more feeding among adult Mexican bean 
beetles. Smith (8) in tests on mosquito larvae found that the smaller 
particles were more toxic and induced more rapid paralysis than the 
larger particles because the fine powder covered more surface. With 
DDT, Woodruff and Turner (11) found that a reduction of DDT particle 
size caused an increase in toxicity of residues to the housefly. Also 
DDT dusts of the smallest particle size (10-20 microns) gave the best 
control of potato insects, particularly the potato flea beetle, and the 
heaviest yield of potatoes. 



1 The data presented herein were obtained during the preparation of his 
thesis for the Master's degree at Purdue University. Contribution from the 
Entomology Department. 

185 



186 Indiana Academy of Science 

With regards to particle size of the diluent as effecting toxicity, 
Shipitzina found in 1935, as quoted from McGovran et al (6) in tests 
concerning the natural abilities of insect larvae to ingest different sizes 
of particles of insecticidal materials that "first-instar mosquito larvae 
(Anopheles maculipennis messeae) ingested quartz particles with maxi- 
mum diameters ranging from 22.8 to 34.2 microns, and that fourth 
instar larvae ingested particles 68 to 165.3 microns in size." Chiu (1) 
found that in testing inert materials against the adult bean weevil, 
they are effective as killing agents, presumably because of the desiccating 
effect. The particles of finer sizes gave higher insecticidal efficiency. 
Hunt (4) found that abrasion is a primary action of a diluent in effecting 
toxicity of complete dusts, and that this abrasive action ultimately 
effects the speed of penetration of the toxicant present, and the desiccat- 
ing effect of the dust upon the insects. The importance of these modes 
of action are, in turn, dependent upon climatic conditions, one particular 
set of climatic conditions favoring at any given time one or the other 
actions. 

Materials and Equipment 

The diluent for the dusts in this series of experiments was Pyrax 
ABB produced by the R. T. Vanderbilt Company of New York, and 
manufactured by the Standard Mineral Company of Robbins, North 
Carolina. According to Watkins and Norton (10) the material undergoes 
a milling and air-flotation process; the color is cream; the specific 
gravity is 2.84; the density is 30#/cu. ft. by the Scott volumeter; the 
average particles are flat, plate-like flakes. The average chemical 
analysis is as follows: 

Ignition loss 4.00% 

H2A12(Si03)4 93.96% 

MgO 0.02% 

CaO 0.06% 

K20 1.54% 

Fe203 0.07% 

Na20 0.20% 

Ti03 0.15% 

The DDT used for these tests was manufactured by Geigy Company 
Incorporated of New York. The material possessed a melting point of 
90 degrees, and is known as a technical commercial type. According to 
Ginsburg (3) a sample of this chemical consists largely of two isomers, 
P,P'-DDT (l-trichloro-2,2-bis(p. chlorophenyl) ethane) and 0,P'-DDT 
(l-trichloro-2,0-chlorophenyl-2-p. chlorophenyl ethane). These isomers 
are present in quantities that may vary from 70-80 and 15-20 per cent, 
respectively. In addition there are usually present in small quantities, 
other isomers, by-products and impurities. The material is white, 
somewhat damp to the touch and is composed of clotted clumps of 
irregular crystals. 

Both of the dust constituents were separated into the various 
particle-size ranges separately on a Ro-Tap Test-in Sieve Shaker. The 



Entomology 



187 



Pyrax ABB was shaken for a period of one half hour, at which time 
the various particles had settled into their respective screen sizes 
(Figs. 1-5). 




Figure 1. Microphotograph of 
DDT particles of size-range 104- 
149 microns (X110). 



A** 



4 



Figure 2. Microphotograph of 
DDT particles of size-range 74- 
104 microns (X110). 




Figure 3. Microphotograph of 
DDT particles of size-range 53-74 
microns (X110). 



Figure 4. Microphotograph of 
DDT particles of size-range 44-53 
microns (X110). 



fx 



t f 



%l/r- 



Figure 5. Microphotograph of 
DDT particles of size-range 0-44 
microns (X110). 



188 



Indiana Academy of Science 



The sieve nest was then removed from the machine and each sieve 
was tapped separately to free the meshes of clogging particles. The nest 
then was replaced in the machine and shaken for an additional fifteen 
minutes. The DDT was treated in a like manner, except it was first 
ground in a mortar. Since the DDT caused extreme clogging of the 
sieve meshes, the sieved-out portions of DDT were removed at the end 
of the first half-hour, and the sieves were washed with carbon disulphide 
to dissolve the remaining DDT and dried. Then the DDT particles were 
placed in their respective sieves and shaken for the remaining fifteen 
minutes. The resulting particle-size ranges, the sieve sizes and their 
micron equivalents, plus the resulting particle-size analysis by this 
method of fractionation for the Pyrax ABB, are given in Table I. It 
was not possible to secure a reliable particle-size analysis for DDT, 
because of the excessive amount of clogged material that had to be 
dissolved out of the sieve screens. The various particle sizes of DDT 
obtained are shown in the microphotographs (Figs. 1-5). 

Table I. The physical data of the sieving operation. 







Micron-size ranges 




Sieve sizes 




of sieved 


particles 


Pyrax 


in meshes 


Micron-size 






particle 






per inch 


Equivalents 


DDT 


Pyrax ABB 


-size analysis 


100 


149 




Above 1492 


0.16% 


150 


104 


104-149 


104-149 


2.22% 


200 


74 


74-104 


74-104 


0.83% 


275 


53 


53-74 


53-74 


3.19% 


325 


44 


44-53 


44-53 


6.11% 






0-44 


0-44 


87.84% 



2 This particlp-range size material was not used in the experiments. 



The DDT and Pyrax ABB were mixed at a 2 per cent concentration 
by weight, as determined by preliminary tests for the L.D. 50. These 
materials were mixed in relatively small quantities, approximately 100 
grams, because of excessive amount of time needed to obtain the 
various particle-size fractions by the sieving process. The mixing was 
done on a Model 10 Oster Mixer modified to the mixing of dusts. A 
150 Watt bulb was put into the circuit as resistance to reduce the 
speed of the mixing blades to the point where the size of the particles 
was not affected. The upright mixing blades of the machine were 
inverted and another blade was added to create stirring in all parts 
of the mixing container. The original mixing container was discarded 
and a pint Ball jar was substituted. Each sample was mixed for 
fifteen minutes. 

The testing cages used were 10-inch lantern globes covered at one 
end with cheese cloth. Six-inch, two-leaved Striyigless Greewpod beans, 



Entomology 189 

grown in three-inch pots, were used as the testing plants. A turntable 
set to revolve once in three seconds was the dusting platform. The 
dusting equipment had as its air source the motor from a Hudson 
Electric-Spray, Paint sprayer 305. The dusting container consisted of 
an ordinary, insect suck-bottle, with a piece of glass tubing slightly 
drawn to serve as a nozzle. The speed of the duster motor was cut by 
inserting a 150 Watt bulb in the circuit to prevent excessive blowing and 
wasting of the dust material. Early second-brood and early third-brood 
adult Mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis Muls., approximately 
one week old and collected in the field as needed, were used as test 
insects. 

Experimental Procedures 

The general plan of procedure for this series of experiments was to 
secure various particle-size ranges of DDT and similar particle-size 
ranges of Pyrax ABB, and test, as separate samples, all combinations 
of these two materials possible, within the limits of time and the 
material on hand. This plan resulted in the running of four series of 
experiments. In the first series, DDT and Pyrax ABB of the same 
particle size were mixed and tested; in the second series the 
largest DDT particles were mixed with Various Pyrax ABB particles; 
in the third series, the smallest-sized particles of DDT were mixed 
with the various Pyrax ABB particles; in the last series, the next to 
the smallest DDT particles were mixed with the various Pyrax ABB 
particles and tested. Table II lists the combinations of the dust mixtures 
used in these four series of tests. 

Each sample of dust in a series was run on five plants at a time, 
each plant being infested with five beetles, making a total of 25 beetles 
per test for each sample. Each test was replicated five times, each on 
different days. Untreated checks were used with all tests. Checks 
treated with Pyrax ABB particles of the same size-range as those in 
the dust being tested were run with the first series of tests, but these 
were discontinued when no mortalities over the normal amount in 
untreated checks were produced. This non-toxic characteristic of 
Pyrax materials is indicated by Hunt (4) in his paper on the toxic 
action of diluents. 

The five plants used for each sample were dusted at the same time 
by placing them on the dusting turntable together. The dust gun was 
held two feet from the plants during the dusting operation which 
lasted for six revolutions of the turntable. For three turns the dust 
was directed at the topside of the leaves, and for three turns at 
the lower side of the leaves. The 25 beetles for each sample test were 
placed together in a pint ice cream container covered with a layer 
of cheese cloth, and dusted therein for a count of three seconds. This 
method for dusting the insects was used as it was impossible to retain 
the beetles on the plants during the dusting operation. Lantern 
globes then were put over the plants and the beetles were added, five 
per plant. All of the tests of one replication of a series were run at the 



190 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table II. The various dust mixtures for the four series of tests, 
showing the sample designations for each mixture, and the formulation 
of the mixture according to micron size of the DDT and Pyrax ABB 
particles. 





Sample 


Formulation by Micron Size 


Test Series 


DDT 


Pyrax ABB 


One 


Al 


104-149 


104-149 




Bl 


53-74 


53-74 




Dl 


44-53 


44-53 




El 


0-44 


0-44 




Fl 


Untreated 


Untreated 


Two 


B2 


104-149 


74-104 




C2 


104-149 


53-74 




D2 


104-149 


44-53 




E2 


104-149 


0-44 




F2 


Untreated 


Untreated 


Three 


A3 


0-44 


104-149 




B3 


0-44 


74-104 




C3 


0-44 


53-74 




D3 


0-44 


44-53 




F3 


Untreated 


Untreated 


Four 


A4 


44-53 


104-149 




C4 


44-53 


53-74 




D4 


44-53 


44-53 




E4 


44-53 


0-44 




F4 


Untreated 


Untreated 



same time. The tests of Series One were run in the month of August, 
and were kept together in a room of fairly constant temperature. The 
tests of the other three series were run in October and kept in a 
greenhouse. The different climatic factors resulting from the differences 
in season and site of operation may have affected the final results of the 
experiments somewhat. Mortality counts were taken every twenty-four 
hours for a ninety-six hour period. Gross feeding estimates also were 
made at the twenty-four period to determine if the dusts had any 
effect on the rate of feeding. These were rated as none, slight, 
moderate and excessive damage (Fig. 6). The numerals 0, 1, 2 and 3 
were used as working designations for these criteria, respectively, and 
the total average feeding per sample was expressed as a mean of the 
arithmetic sum of all the tests of a sample. The larger the numerical 
values the heavier was the feeding. 

Observations were made on the coverage and adherence of each 
particle-size range, and some variation of these properties was found. 
The Pyrax ABB particles controlled the coverage and adherence, for they 



Entomology 



191 




Fig. 6. Contact photographs showing- slight, moderate and extensive 
feeding on bean leaves, referred to as (1), (2), and (3) degree damage. 

comprised the bulk of any sample. A dust sample of the El size 
(0-44 microns), the smallest, gave the smoothest and the most consistent 
and best sticking coat on the bean leaves, as well as on the beetles. 
Dusts samples of the Dl size (44-53 microns), the next to the smallest, 
gave a coating that covered the foliage and beetles very well, though 
it did not adhere quite as well as did the smallest particle-size sample. 
Samples of the CI size (53-74 microns) gave good coverage to foliage 
but only a fair coverage to the beetles, and did not stick very well to 
either. Samples of the Bl size (74-104 microns) gave a fairly consistent 
coverage to the foliage, but none to the beetles; and a slight jar would 
cause the material to fall from the foliage. The individual particles of 
the coating were discernible to the unaided eye at this size range. 
Samples of the Al size (104-149 microns) gave a fairly consistent gross 
coverage, though very few of the particles would stick to the beetles. 
If a leaf dusted with this size particle was disturbed in any manner, the 
particles would fall. The individual particles of this size range were 
plainly discernible. 

The data were reviewed statistically according to Love (5) and 
subjected to an analysis of variance to determine the reliability of the 
data. The least significant difference for mortalities between samples 
of a series were ascertained, also. 



Results 

Table III presents the average net mortality of bean beetles for 
the four dust samples in the first series of experiments. These samples 
were composed of combinations of diluent and toxicant of the same 
particle-size range and the untreated check. 

These tests show that sample Dl, representing a combination of the 
next to the smallest particle-size range, 44-53 microns, of toxicant and 
diluent was the best. Sample CI, representing a particle-size range of 
53-74 microns, gave the next best mortality count, but the differences 
between CI and Dl were not significant and cannot be accurately differ- 
entiated. The largest and smallest particle-size ranges, 104-149 and 



192 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table III. The effect of particle size of a two per cent DDT dust 
in Pyrax ABB, of Series One, on the feeding and mortality of Mexican 
bean beetle adults. 







Micron- 


size Range 


Per Cent 




Feeding Rate 






Mortality 








Sample 


24 Hours 


DDT 


Pyrax ABB 


72 Hours 


Al 


2.0 


104-149 


104-149 


41.6 


CI 


1.6 


53-74 


53-74 


63.2 


Dl 


1.5 


44-53 


44-53 


76.8 


El 


1.8 


0-44 


0-44 


35.2 


Fl(Check) 2.8 


....... 


...... 


1.6 



Difference in mortality required for significance at odds of 99:1, 20.4 



0-44 microns respectively, gave the least kills; the former gave a higher, 
but not a significantly higher, mortality count than the latter. Statistic- 
ally the overall data were significant at odds of 99:1, and the difference 
made sample Dl significantly better than samples Al, El and the 
check, but not CI. Sample CI also was significantly better than samples 
Al, El and the check. Samples Al and El were only better than the 
check. 

The sample in this test, Dl, which caused the greatest mortality, 
also permitted the least feeding. Also the dusts of all the samples 
apparently had some repellency effect on the beetles, for more feeding 
was consistently done on the untreated checks than on any one of the 
four treated samples. The Dl size dusts gave good coverage and 
adherence, but not nearly as good as the El sample. This would 
indicate that particle-size has more effect on mortality than does 
coverage and adherence. 

Table IV presents the average net mortality of bean beetles for 
the four dust samples in the second series of experiments. These samples 
were composed of the largest-sized DDT particles, 104-149 microns, in 
combination with all other Pyrax ABB particle-sizes except the 104-149 
micron size, and the untreated check. 

These showed that sample C2 representing a combination of the 
largest-sized DDT particles, 104-149 microns in combination with the 
middle-sized particle range of diluent, 53-74 microns, was the best. 
Sample D2, representing a combination of DDT and Pyrax ABB of 
micron-size ranges 104-149 and 44-53, respectively, was the next best. 
Sample B2, representing a combination of DDT and Pyrax ABB of 
micron size-ranges 104-149 and 74-104 respectively, was the next 
best. Sample E2, representing a combination of DDT and Pyrax ABB of 
micron size-ranges 104-149 and 0-44 respectively, gave the least kill. 
However, although statistically the overall data were significant at 
odds of better than 20:1, the difference in mortality required for signifi- 
cance at these odds was 18.5. At this value none of the mortalities for 



Entomology 



193 



Table IV. The effect of particle size of a two per cent DDT dust 
in Pyrax ABB, of Series Two, on the feeding and mortality of Mexican 
bean beetle adults. 







Micron-size Range 


Per Cent 




Feeding Rate 






Mortality 








Sample 


24 Hours 


DDT 


Pyrax ABB 


72 Hours 


B2 


2.0 


104-149 


74-104 


27.2 


C2 


2.1 


104-149 


53-74 


33.6 


D2 


2.2 


104-149 


44-53 


28.8 


E2 


2.0 


104-149 


0-44 


16.0 


F2( Check) 2.6 


....... 


....... 


4.0 



Difference in mortality required for significance at odds of better than 
20:1, 18.5 



any of the samples were significantly better than any of the others and 
could not be positively differentiated. Sample E2 did not even show a 
significant mortality rate over that of the check, though all other 
samples of the series did. 

The feeding rate among this series of treated tests was very con- 
sistent, all of the tests permitting about the same amount of feeding. 
The untreated check had a much higher feeding rate than any of the 
treated tests, and this indicates again that the dusts cause some repel- 
lency to the beetles. Since the least significant difference between mor- 
talities, which was statistically computed, was greater than any of the 
differences between the actual mortality figures of any of the tests, it 
was not possible to draw significant conclusions concerning the effect of 
coverage and adherence to mortality as opposed to particle-size effect 
on mortality. But the indications are that particle size has more effect 
on mortality than does coverage and adherence, as was the case in Series 
One. Since the tests of Series One showed significantly that the particle 
size of DDT used as the toxicant of the dust sample in Series Two was 
one of the least desirable sizes, it might be anticipated that this DDT size 
would show up better tested with other particle-size ranges of the dilu- 
ent. In other words, that the particle size of the diluent would have some 
effect in giving significant differentiations to mortalities. However, this 
was not the case, which would indicate that the particle size of the 
diluent does not have the pronounced effect on mortality that the particle 
size of the toxicant does, although there is some effect indicated. 

Table V presents the average net mortality of bean beetles for the 
four dust samples in the third series of experiments. These samples 
were composed of the smallest particle-size range of DDT, 0-44 microns, 
in combination with all other Pyrax ABB particle sizes except the 0.44 
micron size range, and the untreated check. The mortality data show 
that sample A3, representing a combination of the smallest-sized DDT 
particles, 0-44 microns, with the largest-sized particles of Pyrax ABB, 



194 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table V. The effect of particle size of a two per cent DDT dust in 
Pyrax ABB of Series Three on the feeding and mortality of Mexican 
bean beetle adults. 





Feeding Rate 
24 Hours 


Micron- 


size Range 


Per Cent 
Mortality 
72 Hours 


Sample 


DDT 


Pyrax ABB 


A3 
B3 
C3 
D3 
F3(Chec 


2.1 
2.1 
2.1 
2.0 
•k) 2.3 


0-44 
0-44 
0-44 
0-44 


104-149 
74-104 
53-74 
44-53 


12.8 
11.2 

8.8 
11.2 

0.0 



Difference in mortality required for significance at odds of better than 
20:1, 8.2. 



104-149 microns, was the best. Sample B3, representing a combination 
of DDT and Pyrax ABB of particle size ranges 0-44 and 74-104 microns 
respectively, was the next best sample. Sample D3, representing a com- 
bination of DDT and Pyrax ABB of particle-size ranges 0-44 and 44-53 
microns respectively, produced the same kill as sample B3. Sample C3 
representing a combination of DDT and Pyrax ABB of particle-size 
ranges 0-44 and 53-74 respectively, was the worst sample. However, the 
difference between the mortalities of any one of the samples was very 
small; and although the overall data were significant at odds of better 
than 20:1, the least significant difference of 8.2, which was computed 
statistically, between mortalities was greater than any of the differences 
between the actual mortality figures of any of the tests except the check. 
Therefore, it was not possible to draw significant conclusions concerning 
the effects on mortality of the various samples tested. 

The feeding rate among this series of treated tests was almost 
identical in all cases; but the untreated check again permitted more 
feeding, indicating that the dust samples had some repellency effect on 
the beetles. As in the cases of Series Two, apparently the particle size 
of the diluent did not have the effect on mortality that the particle size 
of the toxicant had, because of the lack of significance between mortali- 
ties. It was not possible to draw significant conclusions concerning the 
individual effects of particle size and coverage in relation to mortality. 

Another factor entered into this series of tests which makes all of 
the data recorded suspect despite the overall statistical significance. The 
DDT particles of this series were so small they tended to cling together 
and ball up on mixing. This caused lumps and an uneven distribution of 
the DDT throughout the diluent. This would cause a change in some of 
the constant factors of the tests, creating erroneous conclusions. 



Entomology 



195 



Table VI presents the average net mortality of bean beetles for the 
four dust samples in the fourth series of experiments. These samples 
were composed of a combination of the next to the smallest particle-size 
range of DDT, 44-53 microns, and the indicated particle-size ranges of 
P ij rax ABB, and the untreated check. The mortality data show that 
sample D4, representing a particle-size range of the next to the smallest, 
44-53 microns, for both the DDT and the Pyrax ABB, was the best. 
Sample A4, representing a combination of DDT and Pyrax ABB of 
particle-size ranges 44-53 and 104-149 microns respectively, was the 
next best sample. Sample C4, consisting of DDT and Pyrax ABB of 
particle-size ranges 44-53 and 53-74 microns respectively, was the next 
best sample. Sample E4, consisting of DDT and Pyrax ABB of particle- 
size ranges 44-53 and 0-44 microns respectively, was the worst sample. 
However, although the overall data were significant at odds better than 
20:1, the least significant difference of 15.2 required between mortalities 
was greater than the differences between the actual mortality figures of 
any of the samples. Therefore, it was not possible to draw significant 
conclusions concerning the effects of the various samples on mortalities, 
except in the case of the check. All of the samples except E4 were 
significantly better than the check. The feeding rate for all of the sam- 
ples was very nearly the same; and as was the case in the other series 
of tests, the untreated checks allowed more feeding than did the treated 
ones. This indicates that the dusts had some repellency effect on the 
feeding of the beetles. Also, since there was no difference between the 
sample mortalities, it can be concluded from this series of tests as was 
concluded for Series Two and Three, that the particle size of the diluent 
does not have the effect on mortalities that the particle size of the 
toxicant does, although some effect is indicated. It was not possible to 
draw significant conclusions concerning the different effects of particle 
size and coverage in relation to mortality. 

Table VI. The effect of particle size of a two per cent DDT dust in 
Pyrax ABB of Series Four on the feeding and mortality of Mexican 
bean beetle adults. 





FeedingRate 
24 Hours 


Micron-size Range 


Per Cent 
Mortality 
72 Hours 


Sample 


DDT 


Pyrax ABB 


A4 
C4 
D4 
E4 
F4(Che 


1.8 
1.8 
1.8 
1.7 
:k) 2.5 


44-53 
44-53 
44-53 
44-53 


104-149 

53-74 

44-53 

0-44 


20.0 
17.6 
27.2 
16.8 
2.0 



Difference in mortality required for significance at odds better than 
20:1, 15.2. 



196 Indiana Academy of Science 

Conclusions 

From the results obtained in these tests, the following conclu- 
sions may be drawn: 

1. A two per cent dust sample composed of DDT of particle-size 
range 44-53 microns, in combination with Pyrax ABB of the same 
particle-size range, or a dust sample composed of the same materials 
each of a 53-74 micron particle-size range, was the most effective against 
adult Mexican bean beetle. In order of listing dusts composed of these 
same materials, each with respective particle-size ranges of 104-149 
microns and 0-44 microns, were decreasingly effective in relation to the 
first two dust samples. 

2. The coverage and adherence of any dust sample did not have 
the effect on mortality that the particle-size of the dust toxicant did. 

3. The particle size of the DDT in a dust sample had more effect 
on mortality than did the particle size of the Pyrax ABB, although some 
effect by the latter was indicated. 

4. The dusts had some repellency effect on the feeding of the bean 
beetles. 

Literature Cited 

1. Chiu, S. F. 1939. Toxicity Studies of So-called "Inert" Materials With the 

Bean Weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say). Jour. Econ. Ent. 32(2): 
240-248. 

2. Gaines, R. C. 1938. Toxicity of Ten Arsenical Poisons to Fifth Instar 

Cotton Leaf Worms. Jour. Econ. Ent. 31 (6) :659-663. 
(3. Ginsburg, J. M. 1946. Chemical Methods for Analysis of Dichloro-diphenyl- 
trichloroethane (DDT). Jour. Econ. Ent. 39(2) :174-177. 

4. Hunt, C. R. 1947. Toxicity of Insecticide Dust Diluents and Carriers to 

Larvae of the Mexican Bean Beetle. Jour. Econ. Ent. 40(2) :215-219. 

5. Love, H. H. 1943. Experimental Methods in Agricultural Research. The 

Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Puerto Rico, Rio 
Piedras, Puerto Rico. 229 pages. 

6. McGovran, E. R., C. C. Cassil and E. L. Mayer. 1940. Particle Size of 

Paris Green as Related to Toxicity and Repellency to the Mexican Bean 
Beetle. Jour. Econ. Ent. 33(3) :525-531. 

7. Siegler, E. H. and L. D. Goodhue. 1939. Effect of Particle Size of Some 

Insecticides on Their Toxicity to the Codling Moth Larva. Jour. Econ. 
Ent. 32(2):199-203. 

8. Smith, C. L. 1936. The Relation Between the Degree of Fineness of Pyre- 

thrum Powder Produced by Different Periods of Grinding to Toxicity 
to Insects and to Deterioration by Light and Air. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 
44:317-333. 

9. Smith, G. L, A. L. Scales and R. C. Gaines. 1938. Effectiveness of 

Several Insecticides Against Three Cotton Insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 
3l(6):677-682. 

10. Watkins, T. C. and L. B. Norton. 1947. Properties and Commercial 

Sources of Insecticides Dust Diluents and Carriers. Agricultural Insecti- 
cide and Fungicide Association. New York, New York. Pg. 169. 

11. Woodruff. N. and N. Turner. 1947. The Effect of Particle Size on the 

Toxicity of DDT Diluents in Water Suspension. Jour. Econ. Ent. 
4O(2):206-211. 



Some Evolutionary Trends in Plecoptera 

W. E. Ricker, Indiana University 



Structural Evolution 



The families and subfam 
are as follows: 

A. Suborder Holognatha 

(Setipalpia) 

Eustheniidae 

Eustheniinae 
Diamphipnoinae 

Austroperlidae 

Leptoperlidae 

Leptoperlinae 

Scopurinae 
Peltoperlidae 

Nemouridae 

Notonemourinae 

Nemourinae 

Leuctrinae 

Capniinae 
Taeniopteryginae 
Pteronarcidae 

B. Suborder Systellognatha 

(Filipalpia) 
Perlodidae 

Isogeninae 

Perlodinae 

Isoperlinae 
Chloroperlidae 

Paraperlinae 

Chloroperlinae 
Perlidae 

Perlinae 



Acroneuriinae 



ilies of stoneflies recognized by the writer 
Distribution 



Australia and New Zealand 
Southern South America 
Australia and New Zealand 

Australia and New Zealand; Fiji Islands; 

temperate South America 
Japan 
North and South America; east Asia and 

the bordering islands, south to Borneo 

Australia and New Zealand 

Holarctic region 

Holarctic region; South Africa; Tierra 

del Fuego 
Holarctic 
Holarctic 
North America; eastern Siberia 



Holarctic 
Holarctic 
Holarctic 

Nearctic 
Holarctic 

Old-world tropics, and the temperature 
regions of Africa, Eurasia and eastern 
North America 

North and South America; eastern and 
southeastern Asia 



1 Contribution number 421 from the Department of Zoology, 
University. 



[ndiana 



197 



198 Indiana Academy of Science 

Tillyard places the ancestors of present day stoneflies in the family 
Lemmatophoridae of the Permian order Protoperlaria. These insects had 
small wing-like lateral expansions of the prothorax, and a fairly well- 
developed posterior (concave) median vein in both wings, both of which 
have been lost in modern stoneflies. Developments in some of the mor- 
phological features which have been most studied are as follows: 

Nymphal mouth parts: The holognathous families are characterized 
by bulky mandibles, by short thick palpi, and by having the paraglossae 
and glossae of the labium about equal in length. In the adult the man- 
dibles remain large and functional. The systellognathous families have 
thin nymphal mandibles, more slender palpi, and paraglossae greatly 
exceeding the glosae. In the adult the mandibles commonly are much 
reduced, but Dr. Frison has described sclerotized mandibles in adult 
Isoperla decepta and /. minuta, and has observed the latter to feed. 

Gills: Lateral abdominal gills are distinguishable in Protoperlaria 
and are a primitive character. Among modern families they occur regu- 
larly in Eustheniidae, where they are simple in Eustheniinae and 
branched in Diamphipnoinae. Other holognathous families lack lateral 
abdominal gills, but in many instances other gills have been developed. 
These are found in rather diverse locations; for example: on the 10th 
segment surrounding the anus (Leptoperlidae), inside the cloaca (Leuctra 
claasseni), on the ventral side of the thorax and a few of the abdominal 
segments (Pteronarciidae), on the lateral and ventral sides of the thorax, 
and on the subanal lobes (Peltoperlidae), on the coxae (Taeniopteryx), 
and even on the mentum (Nemoura cataractae). Only one systellog- 
nathous stonefly has lateral abdominal gills (Oroperla), but it also has 
a series of thoracic, cervical and submental gills whose homologues occur 
in varying abundance among other Isogeninae. Among the other sub- 
families of Perlodidae all gills have been lost, except for short sub- 
mental gills in some Perlodinae. Chloroperlidae lack gills entirely. 
Perlidae are all characterized by profusely branched lateral thoracic gills, 
and, in many species, by similar gills attached to the subanal lobes. 

Cross-veins : A conspicuous evolutionary trend has been toward a 
reduction of crossveins. In Eustheniidae they are present almost through- 
out the wing; in Pteronarcidae most of the crossveins of the anal fan of 
the hind wing are gone, but they are profuse elsewhere; in Leptoperlidae 
and Austroperlidae they are less profuse but still numerous. Other 
holognathous groups have lost all or nearly all crossveins in the distal 
portion of both wings (except often in the costal space), and proximally 
retain only the mediocubital and intercubital series in the fore wings, 
and sometimes a fair series of costals. Even the M-Cu and CU1-CU2 series 
are much reduced in number in Capniinae. In Systellognatha two lines 
of descent start out with numerous crossveins but lose them in later 
development. Firstly, the isogenine perlids have few to many apical 
crossveins in Arcynopteryx and some Isogenus, but these are lost in the 
more advanced branches of Isogenus and in the derived Isoperlinae. 
Secondly, among the Perlodinae Perlodes retains apical crossveins but 
Dictyopterygella lacks them. They are likewise absent in Chloroperlidae. 



Entomology 199 

Among the Perlidae, the Acroneuriinae often (but not always) have 
apical crossveins. Two genera (Atoperla, Perlinella) have retained 
(reacquired?) a few crossveins in the anal region of the forewing, but 
these lack any in the apical portions of the wings. The Perlinae typically 
lack extra apical crossveins, but one or two may appear sporadically. 
Finally, the hind wing has a series of intercubital crossveins in the primi- 
tive holognathous families, and also in Perlidae and most Perlodidae 
(reduced to 1-3 in Isoperla). In Nemouridae they are regularly reduced 
to a single crossvein, as is true also of Chloroperlinae and Kathroperla, 
but not of Paraperla. 

Posterior portion of the wings: There has been a tendency for the 
anal area of the hind wing (and to a less extent the fore wing) to be 
reduced in more advanced forms, this reduction being correlated, in a 
general way, with small size of the insect as a whole. Thus among the 
holognathous families the small Leuctrae and Capniae have a small anal 
fold in the hind wing, while in Capniella the folded anal region is com- 
pletely absent. The same development occurs in Chloroperlinae, where 
Allopeida has a rather small anal area, in Chloroperla, it is much smaller 
with A 2 only about half as long as Ai, and in Hastaperla it is very small, 
with both anal veins vestigial. With the reduction of anal surface, the 
number of branches of the second anal vein of the hind wing of course 
also decreases. In Chloroperlinae the second cubital vein is much reduced 
in size in the fore wing, and the same is trae even in the hind wing in 
Hastaperla. 

Thoracic structure : The external anatomy of stoneflies has not been 
extensively studied from a comparative standpoint, an exception being 
Hanson's excellent monograph of Capniinae. However, the ventral 
thoracic plates have been used as a partial basis for generic or subgeneric 
recognition by Banks, Hanson and others. Here we will note only the 
"Y-ridge" or supporting structure of the mesosternum. I have not 
examined material of the primitive southern holognathous families, but 
such a ridge appears in Pteronarciidae and also in the Scopurinae of 
Japan. In both cases the arms of the ridge are attached to the posterior 
or inner corners of the f ureal pits (elongate depressions marking the site 
of an inwardly-directed blade of the exoskeleton, used for muscle attach- 
ment). In primitive members of Isogeninae and also in all Perlodinae 
and Isoperlinae the same relationship holds; however in some members 
of both Arcynopteryx and Isogenus the arms of the Y become attached 
to the anterior corners of the furcal pits. This shift apparently occurred 
independently in the two genera, and there is considerable other varia- 
tion in these and other ridges, particularly in Isogenus. Of the other 
systellognathous families, Chloroperlidae retain the primitive posterior 
attachment of the Y-ridge in some genera; in others the arms of the Y 
are lost. Perlidae have the anterior attachment, with the arms of the 
Y short and often nearly horizontal, more like a T. 

Male genitalia: Nothing is more characteristic of stoneflies than 
the large supra-anal process which so often constitutes a main part of 
the male genitalial apparatus. It was already large and well developed 



200 Indiana Academy of Science 

in Protoperlaria, and occurs in much the same form in Eustheniidae, 
Leptoperlidae and Austroperlidae. In these forms the process is sus- 
pended from the tip of a strong, produced tenth tergite. The same point 
of insertion occurs in many Nemouridae, in particular Notonemourinae, 
most Capniinae, some Leuctrinae and some Nemourinae; however, except 
in Notonemourinae, the process is directed upward and/or forward, 
instead of downward. In other Nemourinae and most Taeniopteryginae 
the tenth tergite tends to be shortened, and weakened medially. In a few 
Leuctrinae and Capniinae the supra-anal process is lost, in which event 
the tergite remains (or again becomes) normally sclerotized. 

Another line of development of the supra-anal apparatus consists 
of a shift of the attachment of the process forward to the front of the 
tenth tergite, splitting the tergite into two by the groove in which the 
process lies. At the same time a tough enveloping membrane or cowl 
is developed around the sides and posterior end of the process, which 
dorsally may become sclerotized to form the two paragenital plates. 
This is the condition found in the Pteronarciidae. The same arrangement 
occurs among the Isogeninae, with the addition of two lateral styles 
lying close to the supra-anal process, in most species. In the other two 
subfamilies of Perlodidae all this apparatus is lost, except that Calliperla 
(Isoperlinae) retains a small poorly-sclerotized process. The supra-anal 
apparatus still persists in Chloroperlidae: in the Paraperlinae it is fairly 
close to the typical isogenine form, except that no lateral stylets are 
present. In Alloperla, all but the tip of the process is fused to the tenth 
tergite, in which case the tip is often referred to as the supra-anal 
process proper. In the subgenera Sweltsa and Alloperla s.s. there is 
still a deep groove in which the basal part of the apparatus lies. How- 
ever, in Suwallia and Neaviperla this has largely disappeared The 
same is true of the genera Chloroperla and Hastaperla, in some species 
of which it is difficult or impossible to differentiate the former basal 
part of the apparatus from the dorsum of the tergite, and only the 
small erect tip remains. 

Finally, the Perlidae have all lost the accessory structures associated 
with the supra-anal process, but in the Perlinae the tenth tergite remains 
split and the genital hooks developed from its borders often assume com- 
plicated shapes. The process itself is a low, poorly sclerotized region 
merely filling in the back of the tergite. In Acroneuriinae the tenth 
tergite is complete posteriorly, though Claassenia has genital hooks 
developed from the sides of its posterior margin. The supra-anal process 
itself is unrecognizable except in the Japanese genus Caroperla, where 
it is terminal, erect and of moderate size — apparently a survival from 
pre-perlid ancestors. 

The vagaries of the supra-anal process are of course often associated 
with a development or loss of other genitalial characters, of the most 
varied nature. No segment of the abdomen, unless it be the most anterior 
one, has escaped being involved in the male sexual apparatus, nor have 
its appendages the cerci and the subanal lobes. Many of these develop- 
ments have little consistency from one genus to the next and have evi- 



Entomology 201 

dently been produced independently, hence are not of much value in 
tracing- familial lineages; but others can be traced quite extensively and 
are mentioned in a later section. 

Systematic List of Genera 

The summary table to follow indicates the systematic position of the 
genera and subgenera to be currently recognized on the basis of the 
best information at hand. It is far from a definitive arrangement, as in 
many groups no recent revision has been attempted, and it seems that 
a considerable consolidation of genera should be effected, especially in 
Perlidae. In spite of this, the present arrangement should have some 
value when used in conjunction with Claassen's (1940) very useful world 
catalogue of Plecoptera. Because of Dr. Claassen's untimely death this 
catalogue did not receive the careful systematic reviewing which he had 
planned. The present generic list corrects at least the more obvious 
anomalies of the arrangement of the Catalogue, but errors doubtless 
remain, even though some of the more questionable genera have been 
listed by family only. 

Apart from reassignment of a number of genera, the only novelties 
are the new subfamilies Diamphipnoinae (type genus Diamphipnoa 
Gerstaecker) and Notonemourinae (type Notonemoura Tillyard). It is 
possible that the large southern group Leptoperlinae could also con- 
veniently be subdivided. On the other hand the subfamily Neoperlinae 
of Klapalek has here been consolidated with Perlinae. It was based 
solely on the absence of the anterior ocellus and the proximation of the 
posterior ones — characters found in members of various other groups 
where they have not evoked subfamilial recognition. It should be noticed 
that although numerous species of Neopei'la have been described from 
the American tropical regions, none has been shown to have genital 
hooks developed from the tenth tergite, and it is to be presumed that 
they all belong in Anacvoneuria or some related genus. No unquestioned 
Perlinae have been taken, in America, south of the United States. 

Family Eustheniidae Tillyard 1921 
Subfamily Eustheniinae 

Eusthenia Westwood 1832 

Eastheniopsis Tillyard 1921 

Stenoperla MacLachlan 1866 

Thaumatoperla Tillyard 1921 
Subfamily Diamphipnoinae new 

Diamphipnoa Gerstaecker 1873 
Family Austroperlidae Tillyard 1921 

Austroperla Needham 1905 

Tasmanoperla Tillyard 1921 
Family Leptoperlidae Tillyard 1921 
Subfamily Leptoperlinae 

Antarctoperla Enderlein 1905 

Auklandobius Enderlein 1909 



202 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dinotoperla Tillyard 1921 
Eunotoperla Tillyard 1924 
Gripoptera Samal 1921 
Gripopteryx Pictet 1841 
Klapopteryx Pictet 1841 
Leptoperla Newman 1839 
Megaleptoperla Tillyard 1923 
Nesoperla Tillyard 1923 
Nyclyse Navas 1923 
Paragripopteryx Enderlein 1909 
Paranotoperla Enderlein 1909 
Senzilla Navas 1917 
Trinotoperla Tillyard 1924 
Zelandobius Tillyard 1924 
Zelandoperla Tillyard 1923 
Subfamily Scopurinae Ueno 1938 
Scopura Ueno 1929 

Family Peltoperlidae Claassen 1931 
Cryptoperla Needham 1909 
Neopeltoperla Kohno 1945 
Nogiperla Okamoto 1912 
Peltoperla Needham 1905 
Incertae sedis, possibly Peltoperlidae: Microperla Chu 1928, 
Styloperla Wu 1935 

Family Nemouridae Klapalek 1905 
Subfamily Notonemourinae new 
Notonemoura Tillyard 1923 
Spaniocerca Tillyard 1923 
Spaniocercoides Kimmins 1938 
Subfamily Nemourinae Klapalek 1905 

Nemoiira Pictet 1841. Subgenera Amphinemura Ris 1902, 
Nemurella Kempny 1898, Paranemoura Needham and Claas- 
sen 1925, Protonemura Kempny 1898. 
Subfamily Leuctrinae Klapalek 1905 

Aphanicerca Tillyard 1931. Subgenera Aphanicercella Tillyard 

1931, Aphanicercopsis Barnard 1934. 
Desmonemoura Tillyard 1931 

Leuctra Stephens 1835. Subgenera Despaxia Ricker 1943, 
Moselia Ricker 1943, Pachyleuctra Despax 1929, Paraleuctra 
Hanson 1941. 
Megaleuctra Neave 1934 
Perlomyia Banks 1906 
Rhopalopsole Klapalek 1903 
Strobliella Klapalek 1903 
Udamocercia Enderlein 1909 
Subfamily Capniinae Klapalek 1905 
Allocapnia Claassen 1928 
Apteroperla Matsumura 1931 



Entomology 203 

Capnia Pictet 1941. Subgenus Parcapnia Hanson 1946 
Capniella Klapalek 1920 
Capnioneura Ris 1905 
Capnopsis Morton 1896 
Eucapnopsis Okamoto 1922 
Isocapnia Banks 1938 
Nemocapnia Banks 1938 
T akagripopteryx Okamoto 1922 
Subfamily Taeniopteryginae Klapalek 1905 

Brachyptera Newport 1848. Subgenera Doddsia Needham and 
Claassen 1925, Obipteryx Okamoto 1922, Oemopteryx Klapalek 
1902, Rhabdiopteryx Klapalek 1902, Strophopteryx Frison 
1929, Taenionema Banks 1905. 
Kyphopteryx Kimmins 1946 
Taeniopteryx Pictet 1841 
Nemouridae of uncertain affinity: Allonuria Claassen 1936, Napcia 
Navas 1917, Neofulla Claassen 1936, Neonemura Navas 1919, 
Nephopteryx Navas 1915. 
Family Pteronarcidae Enderlein 1909 
Pteronarcella Banks 1900 
Pteronarcys Newman 1838 
Family Perlodidae Klapalek 1912 

Subfamily Isogeninae Ricker 1943 

Arcynopteryx Klapalek 1904. Subgenera Filchneria Klapalek 
1907, Frisonia Ricker 1943, Megarcys Klapalek 1912, Oroperla 
Needham 1933, Perlinodes Needham and Claassen 1925, Pro- 
tarcys Klapalek 1912, Skwala Ricker 1943. 
Isogenus Newman 1833. Subgenera Dictyogenus Klapalek 1904, 
Diploperla Needham and Claassen 1925, Hydroperla Frison 
1935, Isogenoides Klapalek 1912, Pictetia Banks 1947. 
Pseudomegarcys Kohno 1946 
Subfamily Perlodinae 

Dictyopterygella Klapalek 1904 
Perlodes Banks 1903 
Perlodinella Klapalek 1912 
Skobeleva Klapalek 1912 
Subfamily Isoperlinae Frison 1942 
Calliperla Banks 1947 
Isoperla Banks 1906 
Perlodidae of uncertain position: Diperla Navas 1936, Hedinia 
Navas 1936, Suzukia Okamoto 1912. 
Family Chloroperlidae Okamoto 1912 

Subfamily Paraperlinae Ricker 1943 
Kathroperla Banks 1920 
Paraperla Banks 1906 
Subfamily Chloroperlinae 
Alloperla Banks 1906 
Chloroperla Newman 1836 



204 Indiana Academy of Science 

Haploperla Navas 1934 
Hastaperla Ricker 1935 
Family Perlidae 

Subfamily Acroneuriinae Klapalek 1914 

Acroneuria Pictet 1941. Subgenera Beloneuria Needham and 

Claassen 1925, Eccoptiira Klapalek 1921, Hesperoperla Banks 

1938, Niponiella Klapalek 1907. 
Anacroneuria Klapalek 1909 
Atoperla Banks 1905 
Brahmana Klapalek 1914 
Caroperla Kohno 1946 
Claassenia Wu 1934 
Eutactophlebia Klapalek 1914 
Gibosia Okamoto 1912 
Inconeuria Klapalek 1916 
Kalidasia Klapalek 1914 
Kempyiyia Klapalek 1914 
Kiotina Klapalek 1909 
Klapalekia Claassen 1936 
Macrogynoplax Enderlein 1909 
Mesoperla Klapalek 1913 
Mesoperlina Klapalek 1921 
N eoeuryplax Claassen 1936 
Nirvania Klapalek 1914 
Onychoplax Klapalek 1914 
Perlesta Banks 1906 
Perlinella Banks 1900 
Schistoperla Banks 1937 
Subfamily Perlinae McLachlan 1886 
Agnetina Klapalek 1907 
Cerconychia Klapalek 1913 
Dyaperla Banks 1939 
Etrocorema Klapalek 1909 
Formosita Klapalek 1914 
Hemimelanena Klapalek 1907 
Kamimuria Klapalek 1907 
Kiotina Klapalek 1907 
Marthamea Klapalek 1907 
Neoperla Needham 1905. Subgenera: Javanita Klapalek 1909, 

Ochthopetina Enderlein 1909, Oodeia Klapalek 1921, Pha- 

noperla Banks 1938. 
Neoperlops Banks 1939 
N eophasgayiophora Lestage 1922 
Oyamia Klapalek 1907 
Paragnetina Klapalek 1907 
Perla Geoffroy 1764. Subgenera: Dinocras Klapalek 1907, Esera 

Navas 1909. 
Tetropina Klapalek 1909 



Entomology 205 

Togoperla Klapalek 1907 

Tylopyge Klapalek 1913 
Perlidae of uncertain affinities: Collampla Navas 1929, Colloperla 
Navas 1936, Folga Navas 1918, Fovea Navas 1925, Forquilla 
Navas 1924, Laeissa Navas 1934, Nakaharia Navas 1916, Nedanta 
Navas 1932. 

Distribution of the Families and Subfamilies 

On zoogeographical grounds various groups of stoneflies can be 
arranged as follows: 

1. Eustheniidae, Leptoperlidae and Austroperlidae are ancient fam- 
ilies now confined to the southern periphery of a probable former world- 
wide range — namely the Australasian region and southern South Amer- 
ica — thus paralleling the well-known distribution of the marsupials 
among mammals. However a wingless leptoperlid has persisted in Japan. 

2. The Pteronarciidae are to be regarded as a North American 
family, primarily, which has invaded Asia in relatively recent times, 
where it is known from eastern Siberia and Sakhalin. 

3. Peltoperlidae are rather generally distributed in North America, 
but are not rich in species. A single species has been described from 
South America, but it is poorly known. In Asia the family is represented 
from Japan and the China coast southwestward to India, and on adjacent 
islands of the Pacific; but again is nowhere abundant. 

4. The nemourid holognathous stoneflies are represented by a dis- 
tinct subfamily in Australasia, and by some Leuctrinae in South Africa 
and in Tierra del Fuego (Udamocercia). Like the Eustheniidae et al, 
these southern forms can be regarded as survivals of types once much 
more widespread. In the case of Udamocercia, the closely-related ( ?iden- 
tical) genus Megaleucira still lives in North America, and has also been 
recognized in the Baltic amber. The more typical Leuctrinae, and also 
the Nemourinae, Capniinae and Taeniopteryginae have a holarctic dis- 
tribution, south in Asia to the Himalayan ranges and in America to 
Mexico City (Nemoura venusta). 

5. Among Systellognatha two of the families are holarctic while 
the Perlidae are primarily tropical. Both in Perlodidae and Chloroper- 
lidae the North American fauna seems more varied than the Eurasian — 
though it is also better known. In any event more interesting primitive 
forms or "missing links" have turned up in America — for example 
Oroperla, Calliperla and the Paraperlinae — but it is scarcely possible 
to identify the center of origin of either family. 

6. The Perlidae divide themselves rather sharply into the two sub- 
families Perlinae and Acroneuriinae, characterizing the old and new 
worlds respectively. Most abundant in the American tropics, Acroneu- 
riinae also have a considerable development in temperate North America. 
They are fairly numerous in eastern Siberia, Japan and China and also 
occur in India (Brahmana) and the Malayan region (Kalidasia), if 
these two genera are true acroneuriines. 



206 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Perlinae, on the other hand, are the stoneflies of the old-world 
tropics, including Africa, India and the East Indies. A fair number of 
species range north into Europe, and a much larger number occur 
through central Asia, China and Japan. Three Oriental genera have 
invaded North America, presumably not too long ago. These are 
Neoperla (1 species), Neophasganophora (1 or 2 species) and Paragne- 
tina (5 species). However, it is interesting that none of these species 
occurs west of the great plains, where they might have been expected 
to be if the invasion has been really recent. 

Evolutionary Sequence 

No study of this sort is complete without a family tree, even if 
only a tentative one. Like most phylogenetic trees, the one shown in 
figure 1 is simplified in this respect: that, strictly speaking, no living 
group of organisms is the ancestor of any other living group. This is 
true even in cases (which are known at the specific and possibly the 
generic level in some well-studied groups of animals) where a given form 
X seems likely to have given birth to form Y, and X appears not to have 
changed appreciably itself since the event. When dealing, as here, with 
families and subfamilies, such an eventuality becomes most improbable. 
For example, no modern isogenine is ancestor to any other stonefly 
family or subfamily; we suggest only that some modern Isogeninae are 
reasonable facsimilies of the real ancestors of Chloroperlidae, etc., and 
can stand for them in the family tree. Or in other words, if the actual 
ancestors were before us, we believe that they would look enough like 
modern isogenines to be classified in the same subfamily. In figure 
1 groups having combinations of characteristics not present in any known 
species are shown in boxes and are given a letter designation. 

The transition from the Permian Protoperlaria to modern stoneflies 
was marked by the loss of the lateral expansions of the prothorax and 
the loss of the posterior median vein. The Eustheniinae are possible 
ancestors of all other living stoneflies. The transition from Eustheniinae 
to Leptoperlidae was a simplification of venation, loss of lateral gills, 
and a development of circumanal branched gills. 

Concerning the origin of Nemouridae there are two possible hypothe- 
ses, between which it is difficult to choose. Taking a leptoperlid as a 
starting point, a further loss of crossveins and loss of the circumanal 
gills would yield a primitive nemourid (C). Such a nemourid would 
have retained long cerci and would have copulatory apparatus somewhat 
as in Notonemourinae, where the suspension of the supra-anal process 
and subanal lobes are much akin to some forms of Leptoperlidae, with 
the exception of the ventral lobe on the ninth sternite — the latter being 
a very characteristic nemourid structure. It is this lobe, however, which 
suggests a relationship between Nemouridae and Peltoperlidae, which 
also have it, and in that event these two families would have branched 
directly from Eustheniidae and had a short common history before going 
their separate ways. This is the path illustrated in figure 1. Whatever 
their origin, a major cleavage soon occurred among the early nemourids, 



Entomology 

Paraperlinae 



507 



Iaoperlinae 
Perlodinae * 



Pteronarcidae 




Acroneuriinae 
* Perlinae 



E« Protopteronarcid8 
(10th tergLte cleft) 




Nemourlnae 

T 

Notonemourinae 

Taeniopteryginae 
,Leuctrinae 
•Capniinae 



A. Modified Eustheniidae 
(thoracic gills added) 



Diaophipnoinae «- 



-Eustheniinae - 



Leptoperlinae » Scopurinae 
■► Austroperlidae 



Protoperlaria 
(extinct) 



Figure 1, Tentative phylogenetic tree for Plecoptera. 

splitting off a group (D), characterized by slender nymphs having wing 
pads lying parallel to the axis of the body, from the more robust nymphal 
types having the wing pads set obliquely (the primitive position). Group 
D became further divided into the modern Capniinae and Leuctrinae, 
of which the former characteristically have reduced medial and cubital 
crossveins and long cerci, and the latter have several crossveins and only 
a single cereal segment — though it is not easy to draw a satisfactory 
line of demarcation. The more typical nemourine stem gave rise to 
the Taeniopteryginae on the one hand and the Notonemourinae on the 
other, the latter being an Australasian subfamily some of whose members 
are quite plausible ancestors of the widespread northern Nemourinae. 

The Peltoperlidae are the most puzzling of stoneflies. Their body 
form superficially suggests a cockroach, and it is perhaps surprising 



208 Indiana Academy of Science 

that they have not at some time or other been considered as direct 
descendants of some palaeozoic blattoid ancestor! Venation and gills, 
of course, would not permit such a phylogeny even if a suitable ancestor 
were available. The thin posterior projections of their nymphal thoracic 
sterna are apparently unique in the order. The ventral lobe of Pelto- 
perlidae suggests nemourid affinities, while their thoracic gills relate 
them to the main stem of stonefly evolution. The latter occurrence 
makes it necessary to place the origin of double thoracic gills far back 
in the history of the group — probably in a form still recognizable as 
a eustheniid (A). Such an ancestor also had a pair of cervical gills 
(found in two surviving isogenines and a few Peltoperlae) and possibly 
also the submental gills characteristic of many isogenines. The supra- 
anal process of Peltoperla, is not as prominent as in Eustheniidae or 
Nemouridae, but the tenth tergite has not been cleft. 

The main trunk of stonefly evolution from the Eustheniidae appar- 
ently led first to a form (E) in which the tenth tergite became split and 
the suspension of the supra-anal process moved forward to the segment's 
anterior border; it probably also had lost some of the crossveins of the 
anal area of the hind wing. Of such a form the Pteronarcidae are the 
nearest modern representatives, differing only in the fact that the gills 
have shifted to a ventral position, have become branched, and, on the 
abdomen, are gone from all but the two or three most anterior segments. 
Further "main-line" evolution of Group E involved a major change in 
nymphal mouth parts from the holognathous to the systellognathous 
type, corresponding, in general, to a change in feeding habit from 
herbivorous to carnivorous. The ancestor which made this change (F) 
still had the lateral abdominal and thoracic gills, and had a fairly profuse 
supply of crossveins. Both of these characters persist in the more 
primitive Isogeninae, though abdominal gills occur in only one species 
today. Evolution within the Isogeninae involves a progressive loss of 
gills and of crossveins; while the loss of the supra-anal apparatus, on 
two separate occasions, has produced the Isoperlinae and Perlodinae. A 
third development from Isogeninae yielded the Chloroperlidae, which 
retained the supra-anal process. This family is characterized by long 
slender nymphs usually with short cerci, and with mouth parts somewhat 
altered from the perlodid form. Surviving genera also have either 
an unusually elongated head capsule (Paraperlinae), or the anal area 
much reduced in the hand wing and the second cubital of the forewing 
very short (Chloroperlinae) ; but they were doubtless preceded by early 
forms (H) which lacked these specializations. 

Most characteristic of all modern stoneflies are the Perlidae — - 
the only family which has been really successful in adapting itself to 
tropical conditions; or perhaps we should say, which has driven other 
families out of the lush tropical zone. Our figure shows it diverging 
from the primitive systellognathous ancestor (F) which it had in 
common with the Perlodidae. The abdominal gills of that ancestor do 
not appear in any modern perlid, but its lateral thoracic gills are a 
constant feature of the family — they are always finely branched however. 



Entomology 209 

At an early stage the family divided into the two groups which today 
are characteristic of the two hemispheres. In both divisions the supra- 
anal process lost all function or disappeared (except that one acro- 
neuriine, Caroperla, still has it, quite possibly from primitive times). In 
Perlinae the "genital hooks", or elongated corners of the cleft of the 
tergite, are retained and indeed undergo a rather grandiose development, 
taking complex forms in different genera- At the same time the surplus 
crossveins of the wing have disappeared. The Acroneuriinae, on the 
other hand, have lost the genital hooks of the tenth tergite, which latter 
has become entire (except for hooks developed more laterally in Claas- 
senia) ; however the subanal lobes are almost always produced upward 
into sharp hooks or similar copulatory organs. Many Acroneuriae also 
retain the numerous apical crossveins which must have characterized 
the earliest Perlidae. 

Literature Cited 

Claassen, P. W. 1940. A catalogue of the Plecoptera of the world. Cornell 
Univ. Agricultural Expt. Sta., Memoir 232, 235 pp. 



Studies on the Control of the Taxus Mealybug 

Donald L. Schuder, Purdue University 
Agricultural Experiment Station 



The Taxus mealybug which occurs over the entire State, is a 
serious pest of Taxus in the nursery. Although its identity is still 
controversial, the insect is probably a grape mealybug Pseudococcus 
maritimus (Ehrh.). In connection with our work on this insect in 
Indiana (1949) we found small nymphs, barely discernible with the 
naked eye, at Weigand's Evergreen Nursery, Indianapolis, Indiana on 
April 12. It is reported that the insect overwinters as a small nymph 
protected by the white waxy threads produced by the female as well as 
by bits of bark, dead foliage and other debris. By May 17 the mealybugs 
were established on the twigs where they feed. By June 22 adult mealy- 
bugs, egg masses and small nymphs were present in abundance. 

Until R. B. Neiswander (1949, Jour. Econ. Ent. 42(l):41-44) dis- 
covered the effectiveness of parathion applied as two sprays in the middle 
of May and the first of June no 100 percent control measure was known. 

In 1949 six materials and one mixture were tested on two varieties of 
Taxus commonly grown in the nursery, Taxus cuspidata and T. cuspidata 
var. capitata. Each of the five materials were applied to a ten shrub 
plot at the Weigand's Evergreen Nursery. The plots were arranged 
in a randomized block design and replicated four times. The first 
application was made on May 17 and the second on June 7. The mixture 
of parathion and the miticide C-854 was applied only once on May 17. 
These materials were applied at 200 pounds pressure with a Spartan 
Sprayer, model 3, equipped with a Tee Jet nozzle No. SS 8006. 

Fifteen days after the last application twig samples, approximately 
6 inches long, were taken from the approximate middle of each plant. 
The twigs were placed in waxed ice cream cartons and returned to the 
laboratory where the branches were examined under the microscope 
and the mealybugs and egg masses counted. 

It was noted from these data, presented in Table I, that two appli- 
cations of parathion gave complete control, while one application of 
the mixture of parathion and the miticide C-854 gave almost perfect 
control since only one adult and no egg masses were found in the samples. 
It will also be noted that the variety T. cuspidata capitata which is a 
more dense shrub had more mealybugs and egg masses than the more 
open T. cuspidata. 

210 



Geology and Geography 



211 



Table I. Effect of various chemicals on the mealybug. 











Taxus cuspidata 






Tax us 


cuspid at a 


var. capita t a 




No. 




No. 




Material and 




Live 


No. 


Live 


No. 


dilution per 




Mealy- 


Egg- 


Mealy- 


Pgg 


100 gallons 


Manufacturer 


bugs 


Masses 


bugs 


Masses 


Parathion, 1 pound 


American Cyanamid 












(25%) 


Company 










Mixture, parathion 








1 





1 pound (25%) and 












C-854, 1 1 pound (50%) 












C-S5 4, 1 1 pound 


Dow Chemical 


13 


2 


18 


8 


(50%) 


Company 










methoxychlor, 


E. I. du Pont de 


43 


4 


33 


14 


2 pounds (50%) 


Nemours and 
Company, Inc. 










Compound 118 2 


Julius Hyman 


5 


2 


25 


13 


1 -pound (25%) 


and Company 










Compound 497, 3 


Julius Hyman 


6 


4 


27 


14 


1 pound (25%) 


and Company 










TDE (DDD) 


Rohm and Haas 


36 


6 


24 


15 


2 pounds (50% ) 


Company 










Check-untreated 




27 


2 


29 


17 









1 A miticide containing 50% of K-6451 (p-chlorophenyl p-ehloroben- 
zenesulfonate). 

2 Compound 118 has the chemical formula 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-l :4,5 :8 
diendomethano-l,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalene. 

3 Compound 497 has the chemical formula l,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6, 
7-epoxy-l,4,4a,5,6,7,8,Sa-octahydro-l,4,5,8-dimethanonaphthalene. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Chairman: Preston McGrain, Indiana Flood Control 
and Water Commission 



0. P. Starkey, Indiana University, was elected chairman for 1950. 

ABSTRACTS 
Topographic Mapping in Indiana. C. H. Bechert, Division of Water 
Resources, Indiana Department of Conservation. — The first topographic 
maps of quadrangles in Indiana were issued early in the 1900's. They 
were of areas in the southwestern part of the State, that section being 
selected because of the coal deposits. The scale was 1 to 62,500. About 
20 maps of this type were published of areas wholly or in part within 
Indiana. The later maps are on a scale of 1 to 24,000, comprise about 
57 square miles each and have 20 or 10-foot contours except in a few 
areas where 5-foot contours are used. Within the last few years more 
uniform progress is being made in the mapping program and to date 
approximately a fourth of the state has been mapped. This has been 
accomplished by an annual appropriation by the State Legislature of 
$50,000 which amount is matched by Federal funds. The maps are 
obtainable from the Division of Water Resources and as many as 300 
have been distributed in one month. They are used extensively by oil 
and gas operators, water well drillers, coal producers, contractors, 
utilities, and sportsmen. 

Florida Pebble Phosphate. Arthur B. Carr, Indianapolis. — Sketch 
of the geologic origin of the great Land Pebble Phosphate of Lime 
deposits of Florida, which state is producing three fourths of the nation's 
output of fertilizer, with conservatively estimated six billion tons of ore 
in sight, and an unbelievable reserve, sufficient at present production to 
last eight thousand years. 

A dramatic picture of a vast, ancient land and marine animal life 
in Florida, the phosphatized bones of which are daily being taken from 
the mines. 

Also, very briefly, the story of the intricate process employed by 
ten great plants in one area, in converting the mined pebbles into soluble 
plant-food for world consumption, the yearly output of one mine alone 
being one and a half million tons. 

"The world must be fed, and phosphate fertilizer seems the answer, 
if wasted lands are to be restored, that world peoples are to survive." 

212 



Geology and Geography 213 

Secondary Recovery by Water Pressure in the Casey (Illinois) Oil 
Field. Robert R. Drummond and Lamont Dehl, Indiana State Teachers 
College. — For some years various experimental processes of secondary 
recovery of crude oil have been carried on by a number of companies. 
This paper concerns itself with a very successful operation in a "nearly 
exhausted" field located near Casey, Illinois. 

Late in 194(5 the Forest Oil Company of Pennsylvania began an 
attempt to adapt methods found successful in Pennsylvania to the old 
Casey Pool. Earlier attempts at pressurizing with air had proved only 
moderately successful and were, subsequently, abandoned. The new 
operation began the first local use of water pressurizing with the 
"Five Spot" method. 

Success over the last two years has truly been spectacular and, as 
a result, an old field has taken on a new lease on life. 

The Ohio Oil Company has watched this small operation with more 
than usual interest and much portends for this successful method. 

Collecting and Utilizing Water Well Records. T. M. Kingsbury, 
Division of Water Resources, Indiana Department of Conservation. — 
About three years ago the Division of Water Resources solicited the 
members of the Indiana Water Well Drillers Assn. at its annual meeting 
to cooperate in the collection of ground water information in Indiana by 
supplying well records, pumping tests, water level measurements and 
other pertinent data. It was explained that the purpose was to learn 
more about the State's ground water resources, the areas and formations 
which were water bearing, the quantities of water that were available, 
etc. To promote this project the Division published pocket-sized booklets 
containing about 100 well record forms in alternate white and yellow 
sheets. These were distributed among drillers who were asked to return 
the well records on the white sheets and keep the yellow sheets in the 
book for their own use. Last year the Division collected more than 1200 
well records through voluntary cooperation. There are no state laws, as 
in the case of oil or gas wells, requiring drillers to furnish the Depart- 
ment with logs of wells. These logs have added materially to the fund of 
information on subsurface conditions, with emphasis on one of our most 
important resources — water. From them more is being learned about 
thickness of glacial drift in areas not drilled for oil or gas and about 
preglacial erosion. 

A Giant Earth Mover. G. David Koch, Indiana State Teachers 
College. — At their Chieftain Mine, No. 20, about four miles south of 
Riley, Indiana, Maumee Colleries have in operation one of the largest 
draglines in the world. This huge earth mover has a boom 215 feet long 
and swings a bucket with a 25 cubic yard capacity. The boom, which 
extends into space at a 42 degree angle, can dig 120 feet below ground 
level and dump earth about 60 feet above that level. 

The dragline is used exclusively for removing an overburden that 
averages 57 feet, 7 inches thick and consists of clay, gravelly clay, 



214 Indiana Academy of Science 

limestone and slate. The coal seam, which is being exposed, averages 
5 feet, 1 inch in thickness. 

The Swallow-holes of Lost River, Orange County, Indiana. Clyde 
A. Malott, Indiana University. — Approximately 45 square miles of the 
area of the upper part of the Lost River system has a normal surface 
drainage down a gentle westerly sloping limestone upland. The gathered 
stream waters from this area discharge onto a sinkhole plain and are 
absorbed in numerous small and several large swallow-holes developed in 
and near the stream channel. The underground stream formed by these 
sinking waters runs through cavernous routes for a distance of 8 miles, 
while a surface dry-bed channel, only infrequently flooded by excessive 
stormwaters, meanders about on its way across the sinkhole plain for 
a distance greater than 20 miles. The dry-bed with its swallow-holes in 
its upper section and its resurgences at its lower end is mapped and its 
features described in some detail. Special attention is given to the large 
Tolliver swallow-hole which may be entered and its route followed 
to underground Lost River which here is 75 to 80 feet below the upland 
sinkhole plain. 

The development of the extensive sinkhole plain and the swallow- 
holes in the dry-bed channel has been dependent upon a lowering of the 
watertable below the level of the upland and the dry-bed channel. 
Upstream from the dry-bed on the same upland limestone plain the 
watertable is close beneath the surface and the stream beds which form 
the headwater section of Lost River. Little or no subterranean drainage 
is developed throughout the 45 square miles of the area. In the region 
of the sinkholes and the swallow-holes of the dry-bed the watertable has 
withdrawn far below the upland plain and the river channel, and the 
surface and stream waters go below and form a great underground 
drainage system. In the lower section of the dry-bed channel and at its 
terminus the valley of Lost River is deeply intrenched and its channel 
approaches and reaches the watertable. Here the resurgences occur and 
normal surface drainage is restored. 

Preliminary Report on the Thickness of Glacial Drift in the Upper 
Wabash Drainage Basin. Preston McGrain, Indiana Flood Control and 
Water Resources Commission. 1 — Great variations in thicknesses of 
glacial drift have been noted in the upper Wabash Basin area. These 
variations are due to a large extent to the presence of a former major 
drainage system which is now buried and hidden from view. The presence 
of morainic masses and the depth of stream dissection are other im- 
portant factors affecting the variability in thickness. Thicknesses from 
nothing to more than 450 feet have been encountered. 

This study was a part of flood control investigations and surveys 
along the upper Wabash River and its major tributaries. It was 
prompted by the need of determining the strength, stability, porosity, 
and permeability of the earth materials at possible dam sites, the 
effectiveness and water-tightness of resulting reservoirs, and the geo- 



1 Published by permission of the Chief Engineer, Indiana Flood Control 
and Water Resources Commission. 



Geology and Geography 215 

logical conditions in the watershed areas. This geological survey covered 
parts of 26 counties. In addition to personal observations the logs of 
more than 3500 wells were collected and studied. These records are on 
file in the offices of the Indiana Flood Control and Water Resources 
Commission in Indianapolis. 

The trunk stream of the buried drainage system is the Teays 
(Kanawha). The valley of this stream occupied a sinuous course across 
Adams, Jay, Blackford, Grant, Wabash, Miami, Cass, White, Carroll, 
Tippecanoe, Warren, and Benton counties in Indiana. Other buried valleys 
which were tributaries to the Teays (Kanawha) were located. Some of 
the latter can be traced for tens of miles. Tributary valleys are 
noticeably more narrow than the main valley. 

Nearly flat or gently rolling limestone uplands characterize most 
of the inter-valley areas. Pennsylvanian and Mississippian sandstones, 
and Mississippian and Devonian shales cap the bedrock sequence in the 
western part of the area studied. 

A variety of materials fill the buried channels. However, it may be 
said that where the former stream flows in a southerly direction coarse 
sands and gravels are generally present in quantities. Where north 
flowing, the valleys are generally filled with fine-grained sediments. 

Character of Sand in the Ohio River Formation, John B. Patton, 
Division of Geology, Indiana Department of Conservation. — The Ohio 
River formation (Tertiary, Pliocene?) occurs in Clark, Floyd, Washing- 
ton, and Harrison counties, Indiana, and is composed of poorly consoli- 
dated sandstone and conglomerate. Sand from the formation was former- 
ly used for manufacturing glass, and a little is still used in finishing 
plaster. An increasing interest in sources of high-silica material accentu- 
ates the need for quantitative information on all such deposits. Chemical, 
spectrographs, and sieve analyses of samples from the most recently 
opened pit in the Ohio River formation are presented. 

Regional Influences upon the Canadian Railway Pattern, Willert 
Rhynsburger, Indiana University. — The railways of Canada, in contrast 
to the situation in the United States, are of pre-eminent significance to 
the national economy. This paper briefly examines the patterns of rail- 
way routes in the settled part of Canada in terms of the major 
physiographic realms. A threefold classification of regional transport 
functions is suggested: (1) the drawing-off of the commodities of 
primary surplus production; (2) the carriage of goods over long distances 
of unproductive territory; (3) the assembling and interchange of goods 
at the great manufacturing and marketing centers. 

In the Cordillera and on the Shield, each with only about 3 miles 
of line per 100 square miles of area, the railways perform primarily a 
transit function. In the Prairie Provinces and in the Maritimes, with 
about 7 miles of line per 100 square miles, the drawing-off of surplus 
production is the principal railway function. In the metropolitan region 
of Canada, the St. Lawrence Lowland, which has almost 15 miles of 
railway line per 100 square miles, the terminal function equals in 
importance the moving of surplus production. 



Some Geographic Recreational Aspects of Unglaciated Indiana 

Thomas Frank Barton, Indiana University 



Because of the great abundance and diversity of landforms, water 
bodies, vegetation, historical landmarks, and land well adapted to 
recreational advantages, Indiana's southland has a great potential in 
recreation. By re-evaluating the recreational opportunities, advertising 
their advantages, and providing adequate facilities, the recreation-travel 
industry of this area could offer wholesome outdoor recreation for 
thousands dwelling in nearby cities and at the same time bring economic 
returns and prestige to an area not well adapted to mechanical 
cultivation. 

For decades the counties in the unglaciated hill lands were relatively 
isolated. For nearly a half century now, highly mechanized methods of 
cultivation, well adjusted to level land, have avoided our hills. Also 
during this same period, we have been largely by-passed by the great 
streams of rail or waterborne freight and traffic moving back and forth 
between the eastern and western, the northern and southern parts of 
our country. Even secondary streams of freight and traffic moving back 
and forth from Indianapolis to Evansville on the west or between 
Indianapolis and Louisville, Kentucky, on the east skirted the rugged 
southern Indiana hills. 

During the same decades, especially to the north but also to the 
south, a highly mechanized form of industrial life mushroomed hamlets 
into villages, villages into cities, and cities into metropolises. Today, 
millions of urban dwellers are seeking outdoor recreation. 

From the standpoint of modern recreational needs, now is an 
opportune time to re-evaluate the resources of unglaciated Indiana and 
make an inventory of our assets better known to the public. Such an 
evaluation will not only show many assets, but it will also point out 
a few deficiencies which need to be corrected. 

Geographic Recreational Assets 

What are some of the geographic recreational assets of the area? 

1. Strategic geographic location. Situated in the heart of the Ohio 
Valley, the unglaciated hill country is strategically located to serve 
millions of people. Many of the principal tourist lanes leading from 
north to the winter vacation lands of the Gulf States and Mexico, or 
from south to the summer resorts in the Lake States and Canada pass 
through southern Indiana. 

Ideally, the greatest tourist migrations from north to south and 
south to north take place in fall and spring — the seasons when people 

216 



Geology and Geography 217 

find Indiana's southland most colorful. The area is highlighted by a 
rich year-around schedule of recreational and cultural activities on the 
Indiana University campus, the Indianapolis automobile races, and the 
Kentucky derby at Louisville. 

From the standpoint of our national population, these hill lands are 
centrally located. The center of population in the United States has 
been in or near this region for six decades, 1890-1940. Bloomington, the 
northern gateway to scenic southern Indiana, was the center of 
population in the United States in 1910. 

In contrast with the seasonal vacation travel enjoyed by thousands 
are the week, weekend, or day (Sunday and holidays) type of recreation. 
All the cities in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee are 
within one day's driving distance from this region. 

This area is also accessible to several million people who live 
within a few hours' drive and who want to relax outdoors for a few 
hours or days in the spring, summer, and fall. Mitchell is near the 
center of this unglaciated area. Within a hundred mile radius of this 
city, some of the largest cities are Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Louisville, 
Terre Haute, Evansville, and Owensboro. These six cities alone have a 
total population of nearly one and one-half million. 

2. Rugged and varied topography. A rugged and varied topography 
is considered an important recreational asset. Our state's most irregular 
terrain is found here. The three most rugged Indiana counties, Perry, 
Crawford, and Brown, are in this area. We also have a great variety of 
landforms with recreational value. There are weirdly sculptured rocks 
such as the Pinnacle and Jug Rock near Shoals. There are picturesque 
bluffs, escarpments and ridges such as McBride's Bluff, Knobstone 
escarpment and Kin Hubbard Ridge. There are numerous steep cliffed- 
lined youthful valleys. There are many nearly inaccessible and isolated 
depressions, ravines, and valleys such as Possum Valley and Cave River 
Valley. Scenic views such as Shoals Lookout and Weedpatch Hill vista 
are abundant. Cliffs, rock-shelters, falls, natural bridges, caves and 
caverns are numerous. Marengo and Wyandotte caves in Crawford 
County are well known in our state but they need to be more widely 
known throughout the Mississippi valley. 

3. Numerous and extensive wooded areas. It is a well known fact 
that wooded areas are more numerous and extensive here. In this area 
are the greatest number and largest state parks and forests. Here we 
also find the greatest acreage of farmland unsuited for agriculture — 
farmland which after a careful survey has been recommended for forest 
land, recreational and residential purposes. This survey revealed that 
over 7 percent of Indiana has farmland unsuited for agriculture and 
recommended that it be used primarily for forests and recreation (1). 
Nearly all of this type of land is in unglaciated Indiana. For example, a 
preliminary survey of Monroe County (the northernmost county in 
which most of the county is in the unglaciated area) shows that 91,863 
acres or 34 per cent of this county is unsuited for farming and is 
recommended for timber use. In adjacent Lawrence County, 39,800 



218 Indiana Academy of Science 

acres have been recommended for forestry purposes. If recommendations 
materialize, here would be over one hundred and thirty thousand acres 
of forests contributing to the recreational potential in only two counties. 

4. Four distinct yet mild seasons. From the recreational standpoint, 
unglaciated Indiana has four distinct yet mild seasons. There are a few 
hot days and a few uncomfortable ones due to exceptionally high 
relative humidity. Statistics show that the average temperature for 
the two hottest months, July and August, is below 78 degrees F. The 
winters are mild and short. According to some psychologists and 
physiologists, the human mind and body function best in a temperature 
of about 57 degrees F. The standard mean temperature of most of this 
area in October is 56 to 60 degrees. 

5. Variety of water features. The variety and novelty of the 
water features add materially to the region's actual and potential 
recreational value. There are artesian, mineral, and "medicinal" springs. 
Although the surface streams and rivers are small, generally somewhere 
along their course are scenic shoals, rapids, falls, and cataracts. Indiana 
does not boast of high waterfalls, but there are many picturesque small 
ones. Associated with the karst topography of this area are many small 
underground streams which have always fascinated people. Perhaps the 
best known of these is Lost River near Orleans in Orange County. 

6. Wildlife and game. Wildlife and game are valuable recreational 
assets. In general, whether young or old, urban or rural, people enjoy 
seeing wild animals in native habitats. And when some forms of wild- 
life are plentiful enough to be used as game, hunters and fishermen will 
flock to an area. Wildlife is now more abundant here than it is in 
other parts of the state. Quail, squirrel, rabbit, "possum", "coon", and 
fox hunting are popular. 

7. Historical places. Since southern Indiana was settled first, 
it is only natural that much of the state's early history took place near 
the Ohio River. If Hoosiers want to study early "on-the-spot" history in 
its remaining geographic setting, they should come to southern Indiana. 
Here archaeologists are busy unraveling the past and writing the 
history of "pre-white" culture. 

Conditions Retarding Growth 

Some factors retarding the more rapid growth of the travel-recrea- 
tion industry are: 

1. Dearth of recreational lakes. Since most of this area is in slope, 
we have few natural lakes and those we do have are small. During the 
past year, organizations in Monroe County have been advocating a 
flood-control lake project in the southern part of the county. The 
Bloomington Daily Herald, July 12, 1949, carried a story entitled "Need 
for Lake, Economic, Industrial, Recreational". The story reported that 
a panel-discussion presented to members of the Junior Chamber of 
Commerce by E. B. Duane, R. W. Sims, George J. Wise, and Thomas F. 
Barton discussed this need. During the spring and summer of the 



Geology and Geography 219 

same year this panel appeared before various organizations in Monroe 
County. 

2. Deterioration- of streams and rivers. Originally our streams were 
spring-fed, permanent water courses, free of silt and impurities. Today, 
many streams have become "ribbons of desolation". Fortunately as we 
restore stream conditions for wildlife by reforesting the watersheds, 
building lakes, and discontinuing using the streams as sewers, we also 
increase the recreational potential of the area. 

3. Inaccessibility. Some of the finest recreational features and 
areas are relatively inaccessible due perhaps to oversight in considering 
adequately recreational potentials in road planning. Because of the lack 
of information, poor roads and inadequate road markers, too many 
people stay on the primary roads and miss these recreational places. 
There is a definite need for tourist booklets, guides and maps for cities, 
counties, and/or the entire hill country. 

4. Lack of comprehensive study. Although a large amount of re- 
search has been conducted and published on some phases of this area, 
a comprehensive regional study of the counties occupied by the unglaci- 
ated hills needs to be made (2). Many facets of the regions' setting and 
life remain unstudied: Published studies are scattered in dozens of 
different magazines and books. People living in or outside this region 
do not have any one adequate source to which they can turn for general 
information and for geographic and historical perspective. A study of 
this region could have as some of its objectives the following: a. present 
the geographic setting, b. give a geographic historical perspective of 
its development to date, c. picture conditions as they are today, 
d. assess the natural resources, e. promote the region's travel-recrea- 
tional industry, f. assist its industrial development, g. crystallize the 
potentialities of the region, and h. in general to make available informa- 
tion at one source where it will be accessible to people thus enabling 
them to work individually, or through community, county, or a regional 
organization to build for a better future. The travel-recreation industry 
is definitely related to and its development should be correlated with 
other industries such as agriculture, forestry, manufacturing, and 
transportation (3). 

Conclusion 

The hills of southern Indiana are endowed with the two most potent 
forces that attract travelers who seek relaxation and recreation — these 
are a favorable physical environment and a rich historical past. Because 
of the nature of the land, much of the area should serve the dual 
purpose of providing forests and recreation. A comprehensive regional 
study needs to be made if this area is to be developed and used wisely. 

Literature Cited 

1. 1944. Indiana: the land and the people. Bull. 496 Agri. Exp. Sta., Purdue 
University. Preliminary land use map of Indiana opposite page 66. 



220 Indiana Academy of Science 

2. 1949. Southern Illinois: resources and potentials of the sixteen southern- 

most counties. University of Illinois Press. A comprehensive regional 
study of that area. 

3. Barton, T. F. October 31, 1949. Problems of the hills. Bloomington Daily 

Herald editorial. 



Distribution Patterns of Sand and Gravel Pits 
in Northwestern Indiana 

C. L. Bieber, DePauw University 



Introduction 

Observations made during* reconnaisance work on sand and gravel 
deposits in eighteen counties in northwestern Indiana in the summer 
of 1949,i indicate that distribution patterns do not follow closely the 
mapped moraines. The present study sets forth principles and attempts 
limited interpretation of the pit pattern. 

The position of the pits on the map represent sand and gravel 
deposits that are under relatively thin overburden. Other deposits 
undoubtedly are present within and below the ground moraines, the 
recessional and end moraines, and the outwash aprons. Much of the 
gravel in the thinly covered upland has been found and exploited. These 
gravel deposits are now mostly worked out and are small compared with 
the deposits scattered along the outwash trains. 

Deposits of sand and gravel associated with glacial sluiceways and 
recessional and ground moraines have been discovered mainly by chance. 
Digging of post holes for fences and power lines, digging and drilling of 
water wells, and construction of drainage ditches and highway grades 
are the common means of discovery. Thus the pit pattern herein pre- 
sented shows the locations of the most easily found deposits. 

General Observations on Patterns 

Large vacant areas on the map do not necessarily mean that gravel 
is absent. Inadequate prospecting, thick overburden, distance from 
population, or a veneer of sand covering the outwash may have con- 
tributed to a scarcity of pits. Such areas are in Newton, Jasper, and 
Pulaski Counties. 

Pits, though associated with end moraines in northwest Indiana, 
generally are not congregated at the outer edges of the moraines, but 
tend to be scattered across and behind the moraines. In the Valparaiso, 
Maxinkuckee, and Packerton moraines, pits are opened on the outwash 
side, within, and on the ground moraine side. This condition is especially 
well exemplified in the vicinity of Plymouth in Marshall County. 

The pits are in widely spaced concentrations along the larger 
moraines. Most of these pit groups are in areas that have many kames 



1 Field project of the Division of Geology, Indiana Department of Con- 
servation. 

221 



222 



Indiana Academy of Science 



and eskers. Many more such districts may be present, but they are 
scattered due to burial by over-riding ice or readvance of later ice. 
A typical example is five miles northeast of Logansport in Cass County. 

The lithology of the underlying rock plays an important part in 
the spacing of the pits. Where end moraines are built from ice moving 
over limestone and dolomite, plentiful gravel aggregates, and thus 
more pits, are present in the outwash. In the eastern part of the area, 
especially in Howard and Miami Counties, the gravels are mainly 
Silurian limestone, dolomite, and chert. Comparison of aggregates with 
rock in place by means of fossils and lithology are definite aids in 
estimating transport of bedrock to gravel pits. The distinctive lithology 
of the thin bedded Kokomo Limestone makes recognition possible in the 
deposits along Wildcat Creek. Transport of the greater percentage of 
the aggregates varies from zero to twenty miles. Shales in the path of 
ice movement furnished an abundance of clay, but only small quantities 
of gravel. Pits associated with the Valparaiso moraine in Porter County 
are in an area of clay drift and are characterized by shaly aggregates. 
The fragments in the aggregate are from the Devonian shales in the 
Lake Michigan Basin. 

Interlobate areas formed large sluiceways that carried gravel far 
out beyond terminal moraines. The coarse gravel was carried at least 



UJ^. 




-\i£±^ 



0»TWASH PMTERH 
drawn from 
GRAVEL PIT KAP 



MRTHWEST INDIANA 



Fig-. 1. Map of outwash pattern for northwest Indiana. 



Geology and Geography 



223 



twenty miles. The fine gravel and sand may have been carried much 
farther. The Kankakee sluiceway had a number of strong tributaries 
entering the main torrent, which main torrent, as indicated by terraces 
and pits, extended southwestward from South Bend in the present 
Kankakee Valley. The pattern of the pits indicates that at least one 
main tributary originated in the vicinity of Culver from Maxinkuckee 
ice, and entered the Kankakee sluiceway via southern Starke County. 
The Wabash Valley was another major sluiceway. However, part of 
the gravel came from reworked outwash of the Packerton ice, and from 
minor sluices flowing westward across Howard, Carroll, and Clinton 
Counties. 




SAMO 8.GRAVEL 
PATTERN 



I l« S*y m * '^-?| .. I NW1NDI/NA 

mK%y & -J . .*• II .6ra„el P,t 

1 '-** X Sand P,t 



$ TTJoralnic ai 



iz mi/es 



Fig-. 2. Map of northwestern Indiana showing- locations of sand and 
gravel pits, and the morainic area. 



224 Indiana Academy of Science 

Undesirable materials in the aggregate such as shale fragments, 
weathered chert, and ocherous clay are deposited along sluiceways for 
distances as much as fifty or more miles. The great volume of water 
and the low specific gravity of the chert, clay, and shale fragments 
account for their dissemination. In the southeastern part of the area, 
Wildcat Creek flows across till and drift that contains cherty limestone. 
Most of the pits scattered along Wildcat Creek in Clinton and Tippecanoe 
Counties contain a small percentage of weathered chert. These cherts 
were carried down the Wabash sluice for fifty or more miles. 

The pattern formed by all pits, active, inactive, and abandoned, 
shows several definite outwash areas. (Fig. 1). The lines of outwash 
generally simulate the present drainage pattern, but exceptions are found 
when locations of old glacial channels are interpreted from the positions 
of the pits on the map. One outstanding example is a line of pits 
across southern Starke County in the Kankakee Basin. 

Conclusions 

Gravel pits in northwest Indiana follow the present drainage 
pattern rather than the morainic pattern. Though more pits have been 
operated in morainic districts, the largest pits are located in front of the 
moraines along the outwash trains. Maps, such as Fig. 2, showing the 
location of all pits, active, inactive, and abandoned, are tools for studying 
patterns of outwash. 



The Grand Portage Fur Traders Route and 
Indian Reservation 

Erwin J. Buls, Valparaiso University 



Extending- southwest and west from the point where the Interna- 
tional Boundary touches Lake Superior at the mouth of the Pigeon River 
between Minnesota and Ontario is a sparsely populated and isolated 
region of relatively little economic importance. This condition stands 
in sharp contrast to the situation that prevailed here in the eighteenth 
century and reflects dynamic relations to the physical and cultural 
setting both within the region as well as outside of it, operating within 
a framework of national and international interests. 

This region, extending along what is now the International Boundary, 
was of major significance as long as the fur trade flourished in this part 
of North America, since it offered a canoe route that extends more 
directly and farther westward than does any similar route from the 
edge of Lake Superior. 

Penetration of the continent by the explorer and fur trader who 
came by way of the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes had been fairly 
easy as far as the western edge of Lake Superior. At this point, how- 
ever, the Laurentian Upland stretches southward and westward between 
the Lake Superior basin and the prairies and constitutes a barrier to 
transportation. 

The eastern edge of this region, where streams descend from the 
upland level to that of Lake Superior, has been made particularly 
lugged by the interaction of erosive forces on irregularly distributed 
rocks of varying resistance. Long, even-crested ridges, rather irregu- 
larly distributed, rise steeply to a height of as much as 600 feet above 
valley bottoms. Few stream valleys extend more than a few miles inland, 
most of them contain only shallow, bowlder filled streams and nearly 
all of them consist of narrow gorges while the river courses themselves 
are marked by falls and rapids. 

Farther inland the relief is less, but irregularly distributed lake 
filled depressions made the development of satisfactory transportation 
routes no less difficult. 

However, from a point near the center of the northwestern shore 
of Lake Superior a series of short, but deeper and wider rivers con- 
necting a chain of lakes, stretches almost directly westward to the Lake 
of the Woods on the western edge of the upland. This route not only 
provided access to this region, but was the shortest route through it 
for canoe transportation and in addition provided access to the head- 

225 



226 Indiana Academy of Science 

water region of the Mississippi and to drainage basins leading to Hudson 
Bay and to the Arctic. 

Although this route was direct, falls and rapids nevertheless made 
many portages necessary, thirty-six to be exact. The longest of these 
was the Grand Portage that extended from a point several miles south 
of the mouth of Pigeon River westward about nine miles to the river 
to avoid a series of falls and rapids in the lower course of the stream. 

Used intermittently by French fur traders after 1731 it became the 
usual route for English fur traders after 1760. However, it was the 
Northwest Fur Company, organized in the late 1770's that made the 
route famous. 

This company established a trading post at the Lake Superior 
end of the Grand Portage to which the name Grand Portage was given. 
A supply depot and fort, called Fort Charlotte, was established at the 
Pigeon River end of the portage. A number of other way stations, 
depots, and forts were set up along the entire route. A fort and 
trading post of major importance was Fort Frances at the outlet of 
Rainy Lake, since it was here that furs from the south, west, and north 
were assembled before being shipped to Grand Portage. 

Grand Portage became the great fur trading post of the Northwest 
Company, at which furs were assembled from the entire tributary area 
in the early summer. The fur trade in this region also attracted traders 
from the American Fur Company and the Hudson's Bay Company and 
competition became keen and sometimes bitter. However, the strongly 
entrenched Northwest Company was easily able to maintain its position 
in the region. 

With the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 a new problem faced the 
Northwest Company. The government of the United States began 
negotiations with Great Britain for the establishment of a boundary. 
Although the boundary was not fixed until 1842, the United States so 
strongly claimed this region that the Northwest Company, fearing 
intervention by American Customs officers, transferred its main base 
of operations to Ft. William in 1803 and Grand Portage ceased to be 
a great focal point in the region. The American Fur Company later 
established a trading post here but Grand Portage never again regained 
its former importance. 

Fixing of the International Boundary at the line of the Pigeon 
River and the Border Lakes in 1842 divided the region, and the process 
of slowly drawing each of the parts into a framework of separate 
national interests was begun. 

That part of the region that lies south of the boundary held few 
attractions for private development after the fur trade had declined, 
and in 1854 the eastern part of this region was established as a reserva- 
tion for the Chippewa Indians, occupying, as it does, a part of 
original tribal hunting grounds. 

The discovery of iron in the Vermillion and Mesabi ranges and 
the techniques for using those ores was followed by rapid and intensive 



Geology and Geography 227 

development to the south of the older fur route. Rail lines were built 
to connect the iron mines with Lake Superior ports at Two Harbors 
and Duluth. With connections to the south and east already established, 
Duluth became the new gateway to the west and northwest; agriculture, 
industry, and mining offered greater returns at the margins of the 
region than within it, and this once great focus of transportation became 
an isolated outlying region. Effectively cut off from the principal routes 
of land travel in the United States by the southwestward trend of Lake 
Superior and with no good connections with those routes this region 
became a remote cul-de-sac. 

When lumbering began in the upper Great Lakes region, about 
1895, this region had a period of short-lived importance as a source of 
good quality white pine. White pine forests were the natural vegetation 
while the lakes and rivers provided a means of transportation to Lake 
Superior ports for shipment out of the region. The forests were 
removed also from the reservation by lumber companies that either 
purchased the land or acquired timber rights. 

The focus within the region during the lumbering period was 
the mouth of the Pigeon River. Not only was the assembly of logs at 
this point simplified by the large number of lakes to which tributary 
streams are joined, but the mouth of the stream is sufficiently deep 
to serve as a harbor which opens into a large protected bay. A small 
lowland at the mouth of the river provided a good site for lumber camp, 
sawmill, and storage yard at the harbor's edge. 

Nevertheless, the region during the lumbering period never achieved 
so prominent a position as a focus for transportation lines as had been 
true in the earlier period. Lumbering operations were carried on at 
the mouths of other streams entering the Great Lakes so that this was 
only one of many similar developments. 

A large part of the original reservation passed into private owner- 
ship during and immediately after the lumbering period through sale 
and homestead privilege. There has been an attempt to consolidate the 
reservation in recent years, reflecting a change in government policy 
and resulting in the purchase of privately owned land within the limits 
of the reservation as it becomes available. This has been aided by the 
abandonment of many homesteads within the region. Of the 60,000 
acres of land within the reservation only about 6,000 are still privately 
owned, although mineral rights have in some cases been retained by 
earlier owners. 

It has been estimated that about 300 Indians live on the reservation. 
Most of these live along the road that extends from Mineral Center to 
Grand Portage, along roads that branch out from Grand Portage, or at 
Grand Portage itself. 

Grand Portage is the center for the reservation. It consists of a 
trading post, a post office, church, school, community house, several 
cabins for tourists, and a stockade and lodge built in 1941 on the site 
of the original trading post, the lodge now serving as a restaurant. 

A few of the Indians have found full-time employment in forestry 
and commercial fishing, others have part-time employment as caretakers 



228 Indiana Academy of Science 

of the few summer homes on the reservation, in carpentry, or the 
manufacture of handicraft articles, while nearly all supplement a 
meager income by trapping and hunting. 

Very little agriculture is carried on. Most of the area included 
within the reservation consists of birch and poplar covered hills and 
valleys. Occasional clearings in the forest are in many cases the 
remains of agricultural settlements established by German and Irish 
immigrants in the early part of the present century. However, agricul- 
ture was never very successful here, and by 1938 nearly all of the farmers 
had gone elsewhere. 

The Indians raise potatoes and cabbage and a few other vegetables. 
There are no cattle on the reservation and only one family was found 
that had any poultry. 

The soil derived from the slate which underlies nearly this entire 
region is poor and in most places thin. The growing season is short. 
A large part of the region has slopes which are too steep or too rocky 
for cultivation. Nevertheless the lack of interest in agriculture reflects 
not only the restrictions imposed on farming in the local area, but 
reflects a way of living that appears more desirable to the Indian than 
the routine involved in agricultural production. 

Forestry does not support the Indians here. Although nearly all of 
the reservation land is forested, a large part consists of birch and poplar 
too small even for pulp wood. Furthermore, the Federal Government 
has designated this as a Wilderness Area, thereby prohibiting commercial 
lumbering without special permission. 

Hunting and fishing provide part of the food supply. Trapping 
contributes somewhat to the income but beaver, the most valuable of the 
fur bearing animals in this region, were almost depleted. The colony is 
growing at present and with trapping regulated by the tribe in such 
a way that only a certain proportion of the estimated beaver population 
may be taken in any one year, there is hope that this activity will 
make a greater contribution to Indian support in the future. 

The tourist trade provides only a relatively small source of income. 
Fishing and boating on Lake Superior are at present almost the only 
attractions to tourists outside of the beautiful setting. Furthermore, 
since Grand Portage lies several miles off the highway and is connected 
with it only by a gravel road, only a small fraction of the passing 
tourists have been sufficiently interested to turn off the highway and 
investigate its attractions. 

There is hope among some of the Indians that a contemplated 
relocation of Highway 61 to bring it through Grand Portage will increase 
the tourist traffic. If such a relocation takes place, intelligent catering 
to tourist needs may indeed be of benefit to the Indians, but up to the 
present little initiative in this direction has been shown. 

There is much of scenic beauty and historic interest within the 
limits of the reservation. The Grand Portage, the site of Ft. Charlotte, 
and the site of the trading post at Grand Portage are all of historic 



Geology and Geography 229 

significance, yet following the Grand Portage route to Ft. Charlotte and 
returning on foot through the forest probably has little appeal to the 
average tourist. 

The hills, overlooking the village of Grand Portage offer a splendid 
view of the surrounding region and can be climbed with little difficulty. 
Middle Falls and High Falls in the Pigeon River at the edge of the 
reservation are likewise of scenic interest. At present neither is acces- 
sible from the American side although both have not only been made 
accessible from the Canadian side but provided with facilities for tourists 
as well. 

Handicraft articles are of interest to tourists, yet few such items 
are available within the reservation, none that reflect particular tribal 
skills or culture. 

The Indians on this reservation have not become self-supporting. 
This is indicated by the fact that 85 per cent of the county relief funds 
are reported to be used for their support. This condition does not 
permit a fair appraisal of the ability or resourcefulness of the Chippewa 
Indians since reservation development is related in part to government 
policy and in part to the fact that a large part of the capable and 
ambitious younger men and women have been attracted by better 
opportunities elsewhere. This is reflected in the fact that a large part 
of the resident population is either above 60 or below 18 years of age. 

Mineral Center is the site of an abandoned non-Indian agricultural 
settlement. At present only one Indian family lives there. 

Hovland, just outside the reservation has almost no commercial 
contact with the Indians. Grand Marais serves as the commercial and 
governmental center of the region. Here are the county offices, courts, 
and high school as well as the center for the border patrol. 

Within the limits of the reservation is one other center, namely at 
Pigeon River which functions as a port of entry and a small tourist 
center. These two activities form the basis for the entire local settle- 
ment. 

The highway crossing into Canada st this point extends from Duluth 
to Fort William and is the only land route joining these adjacent regions 
between Lake Superior and International Falls. This highway is the only 
means of access to this region by land from either the American or 
Canadian side and provides the only connection that this region has with 
American or Canadian transportation lines. 

Customs and immigration officers on opposite sides of the river here 
reflect separate national interests along a stream that at one time 
served to unite the entire region. The highway likewise emphasizes a 
difference in the region, not only with respect to the change from water 
to land transportation, but also with respect to the change in the direc- 
tion of movement since the trend of the highway is dominantly north 
and south in contrast to the earlier east and west movement. 

These contrasts reflect the changing relations of a dynamic culture 
to the physical setting; relations that have brought about a decline in 
the relative importance of the region and may continue to do so or that 
may at any moment again reverse the trend. 



The Trade Area of Terre Haute, Indiana 

James Lee Guernsey, Indiana State Teachers College 



Introduction 

Within the last few decades, increasing use of machinery in indus- 
tries, together with improved methods of transportation, have located 
most business functions at the points most favorable to raw materials, 
power, labor and markets. At the points most favorable, where the 
greatest number and most valuable resources can be assembled at the 
lowest cost, our largest cities have developed. At less favored locations 
the urban centers have been smaller. These urban areas largely supply 
the demand for necessary consumption goods, for to produce such goods 
elsewhere would be less profitable. 

With this growth and expansion of urban areas many problems 
have arisen, and in order to eliminate wasteful procedures, the need for 
careful, scientific studies is arising to an increasing degree. One specific 
problem (of which present published materials are discouragingly mea- 
ger) is the establishment of an urban center's trade area. 1 

The major objective of this study is to limit the extent and to 
establish the boundary of the trade area of Terre Haute. Theoretically, 
the city's trade area is circular in outline, but in detail it revealed several 
irregularities. These irregularities are a result of a variety of factors, 
among which are the location of other urban centers, the location and 
condition of roads, personal preferences, the character of the products 
marketed, and the means of transportation possessed by individual 
families. 

Location, Size, and Position 

Terre Haute, located at 39°28' North Latitude and 87°25' West 
Longitude is the county seat of Vigo County, and at the 1940 census 
was the sixth largest city in Indiana with 62,693 people or 1.97% of 
Indiana's population. 

When the factors which have contributed to the city's growth and 
development are examined, no difficulty is found in explaining its size. 
Specific factors which have contributed to its growth are (1) the central 
location with respect to other urban centers. (2) The location in the 
heart of Indiana's bituminous coal industries. (3) The favorable trans- 
portation facilities with United States highways 40 and 41 converging 
in the city, along with State Highways 42, 46, and 63. Also four railroad 



1 Trade area is that geographical area in which an urban trading center 
exercises the dominant commercial influence. 

230 



Geology and Geography 



231 



systems form a total of eleven railroad lines radiating from the city. 
These specific factors, along with numerous general favorable factors 
have contributed to the city's growth and extensive trade area. 

Newspaper Trade Area 

The role of the newspaper seems to be one of the best "measuring 
sticks" for determining the extent of the city's trade area. Modern means 
of transportation and communication have greatly widened the trade 
area and the newspaper has superseded the town crier as a publicity 
agent. For throughout the circulation area of the city's newspapers, 
most prospective customers for Terre Haute merchants can be reached. 
Local as well as international news is reported in the newspapers; there- 
fore satisfying the needs of the surrounding area and creating a medium 
for advertisements by the local merchants which reaches the majority 
of their prospective customers. 

The Terre Haute Star and The Terre Haute Tribune are the city's 
only daily newspapers. The Star is a morning paper while the Tribune 
appears every week-day evening. Their total average net paid circula- 



Newport. 






PUTNAM 




BloofiMeld 



FIGURE I 



NEWSPAPER TRADE AREA 

RADIO TRADE AREA 

RETAIL TRADE AREA 

SERVICE TRADE AREA 



29 *4"-ES 



Fig. 1. The trade area of Terre Haute, Indiana. 



232 



Indiana Academy of Science 



tion in 1948 was 26,900 for the Star and 28,594 for the Tribune giving 
a total of 55,494 for the combined morning and evening newspapers. On 
Sunday the two papers combine their efforts and publish The Terre 
Haute Tribune-Star which average 38,251 copies each week. Of the 
55,494 copies of the daily newspapers sold, 20,020 copies were sold to 
people living outside the city limits. 

In figure 1 is shown the geographical area in which either The Terre 
Haute Star or The Terre Haute Tribune leads in circulation over other 
newspapers. This is one indicator as to the extent of Terre Haute's 
trade area. 

Retail Trade Area 

Terre Haute can be conveniently reached by United States highways 
40, 41, and 150 and Indiana highways 42, 46, and 63. These hard surface 
roads, which radiate out in all directions, have enabled the city to build 
up a large retail trade. 

United* States Highway 40 (the National Road) is the most used 
thoroughfare through the city. The main retail center of the city is 
along Wabash Avenue as it is the street on which the National Road 
extends through the city. This retail zone extends from the Wabash 
River east to about 17th Street along Wabash Avenue. There has been 
a slight tendency to build retail stores a block or two away from 
this east-west traffic artery, but most of the larger retail stores have 
their frontage on Wabash Avenue. Smaller retail stores farther from 
the central business district usually serve only limited trade areas. 

Table I. Retail Statistics 



Town 
Evansville 
Hammond 
Muncie 
South Bend 
Terre Haute 



Popula- 
tion 
97,062 
70,184 
49,720 
101,268 
62,693 



People 

per 
Store 

63.8 

81. 

64. 

67.4 

53.7 



Number 

of 

Stores 

1521 

867 

778 

1502 

1167 



Total 
Sales 
(000) 
$45,234 
31,858 
23,511 
47,996 
33,668 



Sales 
po- 
Store 
$29,740 
36,740 
30,220 
31,955 
28,850 



pei- 
Sales 
Person 
$466 
453 
470 
17 1 
539 



The retail statistics as gathered from the 16th census of the United 
States, which are indicated in Table I, were calculated in terms of 
dollars per inhabitant per year for Terre Haute and the four other 
Indiana cities of similar population and size. The sales per person is 
higher for Terre Haute than for any of the four other cities. This is 
indicative of the wide area which is dependent upon Terre Haute as a 
trade center for the per capita effective buying income of Terre Haute 
citizens is not unusually high. 

The total retail sales for the 1,167 retail stores of the city amounted 
to $33,668,000 in 1939.2 i n comparison with all other cities of Indiana in 



2 Sales Management figures reveal that the total retail sales during 
1947 amounted to $83,379,000 as contrasted to $33,668,000 in 1939. Sales 
Management, The Magazine of Marketing. May 10, 1948. 



Geology and Geography 233 

1939, Terre Haute ranked fourth in total retail sales. The population of 
Terre Haute made up 1.97 per cent of the State's total population, yet 
3.2 per cent of the state's total retail sales took place within the city. 
This fact is indicative of the dependence that the surrounding- population 
have upon Terre Haute as a retail trade center. 

The fewer people per store (as found by dividing the city's popula- 
tion by the number of retail stores in the city) further substantiates 
the assumption that Terre Haute has a "greater than average" trade 
area. The above average number of stores per 1,000 people again points 
out the dependence of the retailers upon customers who reside outside 
the city limits. 

However, the sales per store are less than the other four cities 
revealing the greater number of retail stores per 1,000 people. The 
average sales per store in Indiana cities of similar size was $31,000 as 
compared to only $28,850 in Terre Haute. This is partly the result of 
the large number of groceries, meat markets, fruit stands, eating and 
drinking places, and filling stations whose sales are below the State 
average. 

Table II lists the nine counties to which the $83,379,000 of retail 
products were sold in 1947. Figure 1 indicates the estimated retail area 
of the city based upon those 1947 total retail sales figures. 

Table II 

Indiana County 1947 Total Retail Sales 

(000 omitted) 

Vigo (Terre Haute) $39,981 

Clay 6,335 

Greene 6,653 

Parke 3,753 

Sullivan 5,257 

Vermillion 5,256 

Illinois County 

Crawford 5,916 

Clark 3,076 

Edgar 7,152 

Total Market $83,379 

Terre Haute 36,600 

Balance of Trade Area $46,779 

Radio Trade Area 

The area reached by the two Terre Haute radio stations is another 
means by which the extent of the city's trade area can be scientifically 
estimated. Unfortunately the daily broadcast reception is not the same 
since it varies with atmospheric conditions. The station's coverage also 
varies in reception range from day to night. Therefore, the number of 
listening families within an area varies with the reception received. 



2;M 



Indiana Academy of Science 



In 1946, The Broadcast Measurement Bureau made a study of the 
extent of the daytime and nightime listening audiences of Radio Station 
WBOW. Table III indicates the result of this survey with the blank 
spaces denoting- listening audiences of less than ten per cent of the total 
radio families in the county. Table IV, according to 1946 Sales Manage- 
ment Figures, indicates the breakdown of the total population and 
radio families which make up WTHI's listening audience. 









TABLE Ill 












Radio 


Daytime 


Audience 


Nighttime 


Audience 


State 


County 


Families 


Families 


Per Cent 


Families 


Per Cent 


Illinois 


Clark 


4,340 


1,000 


23 


720 


16 


Illinois 


Edgar 


6,550 


1,440 


22 


920 


14 


Indiana 


Clay 


5,630 


3,380 


60 


2,130 


37 


Indiana 


Greene 


7,000 


1,580 


22 






Indiana 


Owen 


2,470 


330 


13 






Indiana 


Parke 


3,840 


930 


24 






Indiana 


Sullivan 


5,490 


2,020 


36 






Indiana 


Vigo 


26,450 


20,240 


76 


20,540 


77 


Indiana 


Vermillion 
)W's Total 


4,870 


1,930 


39 


1,370 


28 


WB( 


33,850 


25,680 










Table IV 








County 


State 




Total Population Total Radio Families 


Vigo 


Indiana 




97,400 




26,450 




Sullivan 


Indiana 




22,500 




5,490 




Clay 


Indiana 




22,600 




5,630 




Parke 


Indiana 




15,300 




3,840 




Greene 


Indiana 




27,700 




7,000 




Clark 


Illinois 




16,200 




4,340 




Edgar 


Illinois 




23,100 




6,550 






Total Population within coverage 


of WTHI 


224,800 






Total Radio Families 






59,000 





From Tables III and IV an approximate radio trade area can be 
determined. This generalized radio trade area is shown by figure 1. 



Service Trade Area 

Since the attraction to the consumer market is the ruling force in 
the location of the service industries it seems that service trade areas 
may be used as a bases for establishing a city's trade area. So another 
source used for attempting to establish the extent of Terre Haute's trade 
area is the service companies and service departments of some of the 
larger retail stores. 

Questionnaires were sent out to service companies and some were 
personally visited by the writer. Several service companies had a trade 



Geology and Geography 235 

area that included only Vigo County and due to the politically determined 
trade area their data remained unused. Detailed information was avail- 
able at the service departments of some of the larger retail stores as 
they maintain daily service routes. These routes usually extend about 
thirty-five miles from Terre Haute, with the distance depending primarily 
upon the location of other company stores. The questionnaire returns 
revealed the total average radius of the service trade areas to be 37.5 
miles. Figure 1 indicates the city's service trade area as determined from 
this data. 

Conclusions 

This is an attempt to determine the extent of the trade area of 
Terre Haute, the area in which farmers ordinarily market their products, 
and upon which they in turn depend for goods and services which 
they need. The boundaries of the newspaper, retail, radio, and service 
trade areas are shown as overlapping. It is recognized that their limits 
can not be drawn with mathematical precision, although it is believed 
that they represent to some degree the actual functioning parts of 
Terre Haute's internal commerce. 

Internal free trade has permitted the structure of the city's trade 
area to develop without any relationship to political areas. Still, sales 
plans and records, in most cases, are broken down by major political 
divisions, although they fully realize the trade area is of more importance 
to them. Yet the policy of collecting population and other statistics is 
carried on by conforming with political boundaries due to custom and 
convenience. 

The trade areas seem to bear but little direct relation to physio- 
graphic features. The rivers and the moraine areas have had no traces 
of "adjustment" to the trade areas. What seems to have affected the 
areal pattern of the Terre Haute trade area is not so much the political 
divisions or the topography but mainly the location of other urban areas, 
the distribution and density of population, the layout of transportation 
routes, and trade traditions inherited from the past. 



Ground- water Levels in Indiana 1 

Fred H. Klaer, Jr. ,2 U. S. Geological Survey 



Introduction 

Water has always been recognized as one of the necessities of life, 
and water from underground sources obtained through wells and springs 
has played a major part in the development of our modern world. The 
existence of the early nomads mentioned in the Bible was controlled 
largely by the sources of water supply and by the locations of existing 
wells and springs. In our modern world, however, because of the seeming 
ease with which the average citizen is supplied with water, with little 
or no effort on his part, the difficulties in obtaining adequate water 
supplies are often overlooked. 

In 1935 the Indiana Department of Conservation, realizing the 
importance of ground-water supplies in the agricultural and industrial 
development of the State, began an observation-well program in cooper- 
ation with the United States Geological Survey. A number of wells were 
selected for observation and measurements of water level in the wells 
were made at regular intervals. This program has continued to date. 
Also, a small-scale study was made of the ground-water conditions in 
the heavily pumped Indianapolis area (5). In 1943 the Indiana State 
Legislature appropriated funds for expanding the cooperative water- 
resources investigations of the Department of Conservation and the 
U. S. Geological Survey. The observation-well program was enlarged 
and now includes 170 wells throughout the State. 

Importance of Water Levels 

The rocks and other surficial materials of the earth's crust nearly 
everywhere contain openings of one sort or another, in which water is 
stored. The type and size of these openings vary within wide limits, 
and therefore the rocks containing them vary widely in their capacities 
to store and to yield ground water. The zone in the earth's crust in 
which the openings in the rocks are filled with water is called the zone 
of saturation. The top of this zone, except where the top is formed by 
an impermeable formation, is the water table and its position is shown 
in a general way by the water levels in wells. In formations where the 
top of the zone of saturation is formed by an impermeable cover, the 
water levels in wells generally will rise above the bottom of the im- 
permeable cover and the water in the formation is said to be under 

' Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
-District geologist, Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 

236 



Geology and Geography 237 

artesian pressure. Under artesian conditions, the surface represented 
by the water levels in wells is the pressure-indicating or piezometric 
surface. 

The rock formations of the earth's crust are large underground 
reservoirs which are replenished by water from precipitation and, where 
the water table is below the level of lakes and streams, by seepage from 
those bodies. Water is removed from the reservoir by natural drainage 
through springs and into streams, by evaporation and transpiration or 
plant use, and by withdrawal from pumped or flowing wells. The stage 
to which the reservoir is full, under water-table conditions, is indicated 
by the water levels in wells. 

The ways in which rainfall is dissipated is shown by the hydrologic 
cycle or water cycle. Water falls on the earth as rain, snow, or hail. 
Part of it evaporates as it falls, part is intercepted by plants and trees 
before it reaches the earth, and the remainder reaches the land surface. 
In turn, part runs off as surface flow into streams and lakes, part is 
evaporated from the land surface, and another part seeps into the 
ground. Of the portion that seeps into the ground, part is used by 
plants and is returned to the atmosphere, and part eventually reaches the 
zone of saturation, from which it drains naturally into surface streams 
and lakes or is recovered by wells. It is estimated that, of the total 
precipitation in Indiana, an average of 65 to 72 percent is lost through 
evaporation and transpiration, 8 to 20 percent runs off directly as surface 
runoff, and 10 to 20 percent is recharged to the ground-water reservoir, 
from which it is later discharged naturally or through wells. 

Observation-well Program 

The observation-well program which was started in 1935 included 46 
wells, mainly in the northern half of the State. These wells were meas- 
ured by personnel of the Indiana Department of Conservation, the 
Civilian Conservation Corps, the Soil Conservation Service, and various 
municipalities. The program has been expanded to include 170 wells at 
present, the majority of which are measured at weekly intervals and 
35 of which are equipped with automatic recorders that give a con- 
tinuous record of water-level changes. The locations of these wells are 
shown in figure 1. 

The wells selected for observation purposes are unused wells that 
have been abandoned for one reason or another. They include wells of 
all types. They have been selected mainly on the basis of geographic 
distribution, considering, however, local geologic and topographic con- 
ditions. The main purpose of the observation-well program has been to 
determine the seasonal variations and general long-time trends in 
ground-water levels and to study the relation between rainfall and 
ground-water levels in different parts of the State. 

Water-level Fluctuations 

The water level in a well is nearly always changing in response to 
the effects of natural and artificial influences. It is affected by rainfall, 



238 



Indiana Academy of Science 




FIGURE I. OBSERVATION WELLS IN INDIANA - 1948 



Geology and Geography 



239 



and individual storms of several inches of precipitation may cause water 
levels to rise several feet in some wells. The relation between precipi- 
tation and ground-water levels in Indiana is much closer than is gen- 
erally realized, and trends in ground-water levels follow closely the 
trends in precipitation. 

Water levels in wells are also affected by recharge from nearby 
lakes and streams; by losses due to evaporation and transpiration, pump- 
ing from wells, and natural drainage into surface streams; and by minor 
factors such as changes in barometric pressure, passage of railroad 
trains, earthquakes, ocean tides, and earth tides. The potential effects 
of these various factors must be considered in the comparison of water 
levels measured at different times and in different wells. 

In order to determine trends in precipitation for comparison with 
trends in water levels,. a graph of the cumulative departure from normal 
precipitation was plotted, using the average annual precipitation data 
for the State as determined by the U. S. Weather Bureau. When pre- 
cipitation is above normal the curve rises, and when precipitation is 
below normal the curve falls. The excesses and deficiencies in precipi- 
tation are added algebraically, giving the curve shown in figure 2. 




Figure 2. Cumulative departure from normal precipitation in Indiana. 



In the 62 years of record, the general trend in precipitation was 
downward from 1893 through 1903, predominantly upward from 1904 
through 1929, generally downward from 1930 through 1944, and has 
been somewhat upward since 1944. It is interesting to note that the 
cumulative deficiency in precipitation was greater in 1904 than in 1944. 
It should be noted also that the cumulative-departure curve from 1929 
through 1944 dropped from an excess of 19.48 inches to a deficiency of 
11.40 inches, a total of 30.88 inches, nearly 80 percent of a year's pre- 
cipitation. 



240 Indiana Academy of Science 

General Trends in Ground- Water Levels 

Before discussing in detail the trends in ground-water levels in 
Indiana, seveial general facts must be considered. When water is 
pumped from a well, the water level in the well must be lowered in 
order to cause additional water to move into the wells to replace that 
which is pumped out. The water level in the formation around the well 
is also lowered, causing a depression in the water table that is shaped 
more or less like an inverted cone. This lowering is called the cone of 
depression. When many wells in a given area are pumped, the individual 
cones of depression often merge and a regional cone of depression is 
developed. The size and shape of the regional cone of depression are 
determined by many factors, the most important of which are the thick- 
ness, permeability, and storage capacity of the water-bearing material 
and the quantity of water being pumped. The cone of depression normally 
will continue to expand until the quantity of recharge occurring within 
it is equal to the quantity of water being pumped. In most areas, both 
the recharge and the pumpage vary from day to day, and thus the cone 
of depression seldom remains constant in size or shape. A decline in 
ground-water levels does not necessarily indicate overdevelopment of the 
available ground-water supplies of a given area, but may indicate merely 
the normal expansion of the cone of depression necessary to cause the 
required quantities of water to flow to the wells from which it is pumped. 

The increased efficiency of pumps and the widespread use of elec- 
tricity have greatly increased the use of water. Because it is easier to 
pump larger quantities of water now than it was 20 years ago, many new 
uses have been found for water and the average requirements for water 
have been steadily increasing. The increased use of water for industrial 
processes and for air conditioning and cooling, and the increasingly 
widespread use of water in rural areas for sanitary plumbing facilities, 
washing, and cooling, have placed a much greater demand on our sources 
of water. It has been estimated that an average of about 20 billion 
gallons of ground water a day was pumped in the United States during 
1945, nearly twice the quantity pumped during 1935 (2). 

The increased use of water is something that many people fail to 
appreciate. It is easy to turn on a faucet or press a button to turn on 
a pump, and as long as the water is there, why worry about it ? Yet, 
many of the wells supplying these increased demands were never orig- 
inally developed to yield as much water as they do now. A well that 
supplied 10 gallons a minute 15 years ago may have provided all the 
water that could be used, particularly if it was pumped by hand, and 
there is no reason why it should be expected to produce 25 or 50 gallons 
per minute at the present time after 15 years of use. 

Water levels throughout the State fluctuate seasonally, and the 
amount of seasonal change is greater than many people realize. Ground- 
water levels generally reach their highest stage in the spring, usually 
decline through the summer months, and reach a low stage sometime 
between October and January. During the late winter and spring, they 
usually rise again. The seasonal variations in ground-water levels in 



Geology and Geography 241 

Indiana are as much as 20 or 30 feet in some wells. The comparison of 
a water level measured at one season of the year with that measured 
during a different season of an earlier year often gives misleading results. 
In 1912, W. J. McGee (4), of the United States Bureau of Soils, 
obtained information on changes in ground-water levels on a nation- 
wide basis by sending out questionnaires. The records of nearly 29,000 
wells throughout the United States were tabulated by counties. On the 
basis of his study he found that "the total lowering (in ground-water 
levels), since settlement . . . was 14 feet or over in Indiana . . ." This 
statement has often been used in discussion of general trends of ground- 
water levels. The validity of McGee's conclusion has been questioned by 
O. E. Meinzer (6), late Chief of the Ground Water Division (now 
Ground Water Branch) of the U. S. Geological Survey, on the basis that 
McGee's detailed facts do not support his major conclusion, that his 
questionnaires were sent out and were returned largely in September, a 
month in which water levels are normally at a low stage, and that 1910 
was an unusually dry year throughout the United States. Although in 
Indiana the rainfall during 1910 was only 2.58 inches below the average, 
the water levels were probably lower than normal because of deficient 
precipitation during the spring months when recharge usually occurs. 

In Indiana, where the period of detailed water-level records is short, 
generally not exceeding 14 years, it has not been possible to estimate the 
average change in the State since settlement began. In 1907 a field 
investigation of the ground-water resources of north-central Indiana 
was made by F. G. Clapp and S. R. Capps (1). During the investigation 
water levels were measured in many wells, some of which have been 
measured again in recent years, particularly in the Indianapolis and 
South Bend areas. Although little is known about the wells measured 
in 1907, and point from which the well was measured, aird whether 
nearby wells were being pumped, a comparison of water levels in 1907 
with those measured in recent years will show that water levels have 
declined to some extent, mainly in the areas of heavy ground-water 
pumping. 

In the Indianapolis area, McGuinness (5, p. 43), has shown that "in 
11 wells in limestone, mostly outside the downtown district, the declines 
in water level from 1907 to 1940 ranged from less than 1 foot to about 
35 feet and averaged about 15 feet. Two wells in limestone showed net 
rises during the same period, largely because of decreased pumpage from 
limestone in 1940. In one gravel well in the north-central part of the 
city, the water level in 1941 was 9 feet lower than that in 1907 and in 
another gravel well in the southern part of the city, the water level was 
about the same in 1940 as in 1907. According to these and other avail- 
able data, the decline in water levels that has accompanied the develop- 
ment of the ground-water resources of the Indianapolis area has ranged 
in different parts of the area from a few feet to more than 50 feet. The 
largest declines have occurred in the downtown district where during the 
summer of 1941 the water levels in wells in both gravel and limestone 
were more than 50 feet lower than the reported original levels." Similar 



242 



Indiana Academy of Science 



declines are reported in other industrial districts within the Indianapolis 
area. 

Fragmentary information on water levels in South Bend indicates 
that water levels have declined an average of about half a foot per year 
over a period of nearly 50 years (6). It is concluded that this decline has 
been necessary in order to develop the ground-water resources of the 
South Bend area. Other industrial areas in the State where records 
show that water levels have apparently declined include Frankfort, 
Lebanon, and Marion, and similar declines have doubtless occurred in 
many others, for which information is not now available. 

The graphs of three wells in different parts of Indiana have been 
plotted for the period of record to show typical examples of natural 
water-level fluctuations (Fig. 3). Well Steuben 1 is in the northeastern 
corner of the State, in an area of glacial moraines of rolling topography. 



Q | STE U BEN I. NEAR ANGOLA 
2 



^V 5 ^^ 



^5Sffi 



a 4 



2 8 

■ 10 



.MONTGOMERY I. AT WAVELAND 



«i£§l^ 




53 



m 




<24 
*26 

1935 | 1936 1 1937 | 1999 | 1939 | 1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 , 1944 | 1945 | 1946 1 1947 | 1946 

FIGURE 3. GRAPHS OF WATER LEVELS IN OBSERVATION WELLS 
IN INDIANA. 

Figure 3. Graphs of water level in Steuben 1, Montgomery 1, and Clark 1, 
Indiana. 



The seasonal fluctuation is about 4 feet and no serious decline in water 
level has occurred during the past 10 years. Well Montgomery 1 is in 
west-central Indiana in an area of gently rolling topography. The sea- 
sonal variation in water level is 8 to 10 feet and the general trend since 
1940 appears to be upward. Well Clark 1 is in the southern part of the 
State in a wooded area of gently rolling topography. The seasonal 
fluctuation in water level is 20 to 24 feet and the general trend has been 
slightly upward since 1941. None of these wells are affected by pumping 
and the water-level fluctuations are rather typical of those in wells in 
rural areas where a relatively small quantity of water is pumped from 
the ground. The main causes for the differences in seasonal range are 



Geology and Geography 



243 



differences in precipitation and in storage capacity of the water-bearing 
materials. 

Graphs of water level in areas of heavy pumping from wells show 
similar seasonal changes, although the changes are usually greater and 
occur at a slightly different time in the year, largely because of seasonal 
pumping. These water levels generally start to rise at or shortly after 
the end of the air-conditioning or cooling season and reach their highest 
stage in March or April. 

The graphs of water levels in downtown Indianapolis show typical 
seasonal changes in ground-water levels in areas of heavy commercial 
and industrial pumpage (Fig. 4). Well Marion 2 is a gravel well near 
the center of the downtown area, and Marion 10 is a limestone well 
somewhat farther from the center of pumping. The sharply declining 
trend prior to 1941 was caused largely by deficient precipitation and 
relatively high rates of pumping. The rising trend since 1941 is doubt- 
less due to normal precipitation and to somewhat decreased industrial 
pumping. 




£»o 




i 1 1 1 r 

MARION 10- INDIANAPOLIS 




935 1936 



1937 



938 1939 1940 



FIGURE 4. GRAPHS OF WATER LEVELS IN OBSERVATION WELLS IN 
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA. 

Figure 4. Graphs of water levels in Marion 2 and Marion 10, Indianapolis, 
Indiana. 

Conclusions 

It has been shown that ground-water levels are affected by many 
factors, the most important of which are precipitation and pumping from 
wells. The seasonal change in water levels generally exceeds the change 
from year to year, and comparison of water levels in a well at different 
seasons of the year may lead to erroneous conclusions. The use of water 
from wells has increased tremendously, much more than is generally 
realized, and a large increase in pumpage must necessarily result in a 
lowering of water levels. 



244 Indiana Academy of Science 

We have often been asked "Have the ground-water levels in Indiana 
fallen seriously?" The answer to this question must be qualified. Since 
settlement of the State began, ground-water levels doubtless have been 
lowered in many areas, especially where large quantities of water are 
pumped from wells. In rural areas, generally speaking, the water levels 
have also declined to some degree because of land drainage, but the 
decline does not appear to be nearly as great except where formations 
have been drained by mining or quarrying operations. Where no artifi- 
cial drainage has been done and where little or no water is pumped, there 
is no reason to expect that the ground-water levels are any lower now 
than in the past. Some decline in ground-water levels may be beneficial, 
as natural losses from ground-water storage through drainage into 
streams and by evaporation and transpiration are diminished. 

In urban and industrial areas, where large quantities of water are 
pumped from wells, the decline in water levels has been more pro- 
nounced, although it is now serious in few places, if any. In the South 
Bend area, where water levels have declined from 10 to 25 feet during 
the past 50 years, wells still flow in certain parts of this city. 

During the period 1930 through 1944, rainfall in Indiana was gen- 
erally below normal and ground-water levels declined to probably their 
lowest stage in history. There has been a general rise in water levels 
from 1945 to the present time, but when another prolonged period of 
deficient rainfall occurs, ground-water levels will fall to the low stages 
once more. It is essential, therefore, to continue our records of water 
levels in order to be forewarned of possible overdevelopment in areas 
of heavy pumping or areas of generally scanty supplies. 

Studies to date indicate that the ground-water resources of Indiana 
in general are not being exhausted and additional ground-water supplies 
may be developed in many areas. Over-all replenishment of the ground- 
water reservoir is believed to be greater than the withdrawals of water 
from wells, and large quantities of water are draining naturally into 
streams. Some of the natural drainage could be salvaged by properly 
spaced wells. 

In heavily developed areas much of the apparent shortage of 
ground-water supplies is due to the close spacing of wells and their 
mutual interference, and to incrustation of well screens and of the 
formations surrounding wells. 

The demand for water will continue to increase and ground water 
will become increasingly important in our daily lives. The inventory of 
the ground-water resources of the State must be continued to prevent 
over-development of our present sources and to assist in the development 
of new sources of supply. 

Literature Cited 

1. Capps, S. R. 1910. The underground waters of north-central Indiana. U. S. 

Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 254, 279 pp. 

2. Guyton, W. F. 1945. Industrial use of ground water in the United States 

(unpublished paper presented before Geol. Soc. Washington, Washington, 
D. C.). 



Geology and Geography 245 

Klaer. F. H., Jit., and R. W. Stallman. 1948. Ground-water resources of 

St. Joseph County, part 1, South Bend area. Indiana l>ept. Cutis., Div. 

Water Resources Bull. 3, pp. 40-46. 
McCkk, \Y. J. 1912. Subsoil water of central Hinted States. U. S. Dept. 

Agr. Yearbook for 1011, pp. 479-490. 
McGutnness. C. L. 1943. Ground-water resources of the [ndianapolis area, 

Marion County, Indiana. Indiana Dept. Cons., Div. Geology, 49 pp. 
Meinzer, O. E. 1936. Review of the work of W. J. McGee on ground-water 

levels. Am. Geophys. Union Trans., 1936, pp. 386-390. 



A New Species of Atrypa from the Devonian of Montana 

Frank E. Kottlowski, Indiana University 



The Upper Devonian limestones in the Rocky Mountains contain a 
species of small brachiopods which has been called Atrypa missouriensis. 
This western species is not A. missouriensis Miller as described by 
Miller (1894, p. 315), Fenton and Fenton (2, p. 15), and Greger (1936, 
p. 43). G. Arthur Cooper noted (personal communication to Charles 
Deiss) that "this species of Atrypa is not A. missouriensis that one can 
identify by examining D. K. Greger's description of that species. The 
specimens are very likely a new species which is abundant in the 
Devonian of Wyoming and Montana." The purpose of this paper, there- 
fore, is to describe the western A. aff. missouriensis, differentiate it from 
the true A. missouriensis, and to name the species A. multicostellata 
sp. nov. after the numerous small costellae on the shell. 

Atrypa multicostellata sp. nov. 

Plate I, figures 1-7. 
1877. Atrypa reticularis, Meek in King's Rept. U. S. Geol. Expl. 40th 

Par., vol. IV, p. 38, pi. Ill, fig. 6a, in Nevada Is fr White Pine, 

Nevada. 
1884. Atrypa desquamata, Walcott, U. S. Geol. Survey Mon. VIII, p. 

150, pi. XIV, figs. 4-4a, lower horizon of the Devonian Is fr Atrypa 

Peak, Nevada. 
1899. Atrypa missouriensis, Girty, U. S. Geol. Survey Mon. 32, pt. 2, 

p. 502-504, pi. LXVI, figs. 2a-2c. fr. Devonian in Yellowstone Nat. 

Park. 
1908. Atrypa missouriensis, Kindle, Bull. Am. Palenthology, vol. 4, 

no 20, p. 29, pi. 1, figs. 7-7b, in Jefferson limestone near Princeton, 

Montana. 
1940. Atrypa cf. missouriensis, Merriam, Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Paper 

no. 25, pi. 7, figs. 15-16, in upper Nevada limestone, Nevada. 
1947. Atrypa missouriensis, Laird, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 21, no. 5, 

p. 457, pi. 64, figs. 19-22, in lower part of Jefferson limestone in 

northwestern Montana. 
1894. not Atrypa missouriensis, Miller, Geol. Survey Indiana, 18th 

Ann. Rept., p. 315, pi. 9, figs. 19-21, in Callaway limestone near 

Otterville, Missouri. 

Holotype — Indiana University Paleontological Collections, no. 5096. 
Paratypes: no. 5097, 5098, 5099. 

246 



Geology and Geography 247 

Description — The shell is small, circular to subcircular, with the 
pedicle beak protruded; the length is slightly greater than or equal to 
the width. The hinge line is 14° to 35° less than a straight angle and is 
80 percent of the maximum width which is at the middle of the shell. 
The shell is biconvex, its maximum thickness at the umbos; the pedicle 
valve is larger than the brachial valve and is thickest at the umbo from 
which the valve slopes gently to the anterior margin but steeply to the 
lateral margins. The brachial valve is a flat even convex arc although 
the umbonal region is thick in some specimens. 

The pedicle beak protrudes IV2 mm. but is not incurved. The 
brachial beak is small, slightly incurved, and minutely protruded. The 
cardinal area is apsacline with respect to the plane of commissure. The 
pedicle valve cardinal area is small, triangular, 5 mm. wide, 1V 2 mm. 
high, and is bounded by minute ventral ridges; the delthyrium is a 
small triangle under the pedicle beak and is connected to the hinge 
margin by the pseudodeltidium, which is a small irregular ridge. The 
brachial cardinal area is minute. 

The surface of the valves is covered by 30 to 75 fine costellae 
which increase by bifurcation anteriorly from the middle of the valves. 
The costellae average 19 in 5 mm. Growth lines are indistinct and few, 
or are absent. There is a shallow small medial sinus on the brachial 
valve posterior to, and on the umbo. On the pedicle valve in the umbonal 
region there is a small sharp medial fold. A few specimens have 2 to 5 
evenly-spaced growth lines, and a wide minute medial sinus on the 
anterior margin of the pedicle valve. 

Dimensions— Length 6 to 16% mm., average (26 specimens) 10.6 
mm.; width 6 to 16 Vk mm., average 10.3 mm.; thickness 3 to 9% mm., 
average (21 specimens) 5.6 mm.; commissure arc averages 254°. 

Occurrence— All 42 specimens were collected by Edward D. McKay, 
Dick S. Horton and the writer in the lower part of the Jefferson lime- 
stone (Kcttlowski, 4, p. 16, unit 11), 6 miles south of Red Lodge, Mon- 
tana, in sec. 16, T. 20 N., R. 8 S., Carbon County. The shells were filled 
in by calcite, most of the internal structures destroyed, and only the 
prismatic layer, or casts and molds of that layer, preserved. The speci- 
mens occurred at all angles to the bedding in a light brown, fine-grained 
limestone matrix. Fragments and specimens of A. multicostellata are 
abundant in these beds, associated with only a few Spinrifer fragments. 

Comparisons — Miller's figures and descriptions of A. missouriensis 
(1894, p. 315, pi. 9, figs. 19-21) are so general that some writers con- 
sider the species unrecognizable. The original specimens, however, were 
redescribed by Fenton and Fenton (2, p. 15-17) and further collec- 
tions and a description were made by Greger (3, p. 43-44). The descrip- 
tions and figures of Kindle, Merriam, and Laird are of A. multicostellata. 
A. multicostellata has smaller and more abundant costellae, 19 in 5 mm. 
as compared with the 7 to 11 in 5 mm. of A. missouriensis. A. multi- 
costellata is smaller than A missouriensis whose measurements are 
(Greger 3, p. 44): "length 28 mm. — breadth 33 mm. — thickness 19 mm.". 
It is not likely that A. multicostellata is an immature specimen of A. mis- 



248 



Indiana Academy of Science 



sourieyisis as no larger specimens are recorded in the literature than the 
largest specimens collected near Red Lodge. The Red Lodge collections 
were made from several localities and not even fragments of larger 
specimens were observed. A. missouriensis has a flatter hinge line that 
approaches a straight angle; it has stronger and more abundant growth 
lines ; and its width is greater than its length especially for the larger 
specimens. A. multicostellata lacks a wide anterior sinus on the pedicle 
valve but has a small medial sinus on the umbonal region of its brachial 
valve; also the pedicle beak of A. multicostellata protrudes proportionally 
further, and is more pointed than the pedicle beak of A. missouriensis. 

Comparison of Greger's figures (PI. II, figs. 1-12) of A. missouri- 
ensis against the figures of Merriam (PI. I, figs. 8-11), Laird (PL I, 
figs. 12-13) and the specimens from Red Lodge (PI. I, figs. 1-7) indicate 
the differences between A. missowiensis and A. multicostellata. 

Stratigraphy — A. multicostellata is abundant in the lower part of the 
Jefferson limestone in south central Montana and northwestern Wyom- 
ing. Laird (1947, p. 453) found the brachiopod in northwestern Montana 
in his unit Db which he correlates with the lower Jefferson limestone. 
A. multicostellata apparently occurs in the Spirifer jasperensis fauna 
below the middle of the Minnewanka formation in Alberta (Warren 8, 
p. 133). The Jefferson limestone is considered by Cooper (1, PL I) to be 
of the upper part of the Finger Lakes stage which is lower Upper 
Devonian (Fig. 1). A. missouriensis, however, occurs in the Callaway 
limestone of Missouri which is of the middle upper part of the Taghanic 
stage of upper Middle Devonian. Thus A. missouriensis appears to occur 



CEJJTRAL and 
NORTHEAST 
MISSOURI 



WESTERN WYOMINC 

and SOUTHWEST 

MONTANA 



EUREKA 
district 

NEVADA 



Laird's 

NORTl {WESTERN 
MONTANA 



GRASS! CREEK 



BRADFORD IAN 
(in part) 



FINGER LAKES 



TIOUGHNIOGA 



mm fcREEk 



Bg CAlL^ATT? 



MINEOLA Is. 



COOPER Is. 



JEFFERSON Is, 



I! 



DEVILS 
GATE 
Is. 



Upper part 
NEVADA Is. 



Dai 

Da 2 



missouriensis present ^J Atrypa multicostellata abundant §^ A. multicostellata present 
FIGURE 1. - Stratigraphic horizons of Atrypa multicostellata and Atrypa missouriensis . 
(In part after Cooper, 1942, and Laird, 1947) 



Geology and Geography 249 

only in the midwest and is slightly older than A. multicostellata of Mon- 
tana. Merriam (1940, p. 83), however, found A. multicostellata most 
abundant in the upper part of the Nevada limestone in the Heliolites 
horizon which is correlated by Cooper (1, PL I) with the Cazenovia 
stage of lower Middle Devonian. A. multicostellata does persist in 
Nevada into the Devil's Gate formation which is Upper Devonian. On 
the basis of A. multicostellata the upper part of the Nevada limestone 
may be Upper Devonian. 

Lovering (5, p. 28) noted that the fauna of the Jefferson limestone 
in the Cooke City district, Montana, is characterized by A. missouriensis 
(A. multicostellata ?) and Spirifer engelmanni. Stipp (6, p. 278) col- 
lected Atrypa aff. A. missouriensis (A. multicostellata ?) from the 
Jefferson limestone in Shoshone Canyon, Wyoming. Tomlinson (7, p. 128) 
found A. missouriensis (A. multicostellata ?) in the Jefferson limestone 
in western Wyoming and southwest Montana. 

Acknowledgments — Professor J. J. Galloway, Indiana University, 
critically read the paper. George Ringer, Indiana University, photo- 
graphed the specimens. G. Arthur Cooper, U. S. National Museum, 
identified the specimens as "a species of Atrypa . . . probably a new 
species which is abundant in the Devonian of Wyoming and Montana." 

Additional Literature Cited 

1. Cooper, G. Arthur and others. 1942. Correlation of the Devonian sedi- 

mentary formations of North America. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 53:1729-1794. 

2. Fenton, C. L.., and M. A. Fenton. 1930. Studies of the genus Atrypa. Am. 

Midland Naturalist 12:1-18. 

3. Greger, D. K. 1936. Atrypae of the central Missouri Devonian. Trans. Acad. 

Sci. St. Louis 29:45-53. 

4. Kottlowski, P. E. 194 9. Structure and stratigraphy of Towne Point fault 

block, Carbon County, Montana. Unpublished thesis, Indiana University 
library. 

5. Lovering, T. S. 1929. The New World or Cooke City mining district, Park 

County, Montana. U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 811a:l-87. 

6. Stipp, T. F. 1947. Paleozoic formations near Cody, Park County, Wyoming. 

Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 31:274-281. 

7. Tomlinson, C. W. 1917. The Middle Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Central 

Rocky Mountain region. Jour. Geol. 25:112-134, 244-257. 

8. Warren, P. S. 1942. The Spirifer argentarius fauna in the Canadian Rockies. 

Royal Soc. Canada Trans. 3rd Ser., 36:sec. 4, 129-136. 

Plate I. — ATRYPA MULTICOSTELLATA SP. NOV. 

Figure 
1- 7. Lower part of Jefferson limestone, near Red Lodge, Montana. 

1. Pedicle view of large specimen. 

2. & 4. Pedicle views. 

3. Pedicle view of holotype. 

5. Pedicle view of small specimen. 

6. Lateral view of holotype. 

7. Posterior view of holotype. 



250 Indiana Academy of Science 

8-11. Devonian unit Db, Pentagon Mountain, Montana (Laird, 1947, pi. 
64, figs. 19-22). 

8 & 10. Brachial views. 

9 & 11. Pedicle views. 

12-13. Upper Nevada limestone, Heliolites horizon, Roberts Mountain, 
Nevada. (Merriam, 1940, pi. 7, figs. 15-16). 

12. Pedicle view. 

13. Anterior view. 

Plate II. — ATRYPA MISSOURIENSIS MILLER 

Figure 
1- 6. Callaway limestone, east of Otterville, Cooper County, Missouri, 
on the La Mine River (Greger, 1936, pi. II, figs. 1-6). 
1-3. Views of three pedicle valves. 
4-6. Anterior views of these individuals. 
7-12. Callaway limestone, Spirifer annae zone, near Bellama Springs, 
Callaway County, Missouri (Greger, 1936, pi. I, figs. 1, 4, 6, 
7, 9, 10.). All pedicle views. 










I CM. 








J>: 




13 



CM. 



I CM 



PLATE I 














10 





12 



! CM 



PLATE II 



Commerce of Ireland 

E. A. Stoneman, Dept. of Geography, Indiana University 



The location of Ireland and its economic dependence on Great 
Britain did not eliminate the nationalistic feeling of many of the Irish 
people, nor did it produce unity within Ireland so that eventually parti- 
tion divided the island into two political units. Created as a diplomatic 
compromise in 1920 the Republic of Ireland-Northern Ireland boundary 
separated the six northeast counties of the historical province of Ulster 
from the remaining counties of Ireland that desired home rule. 

Partition has been a subject of dispute since its establishment and 
political factions in the Republic have been insistent that the boundary 
be abolished and support their contention by pointing out that the 
industrial counties of the north would complement the agricultural 
counties of the south and thus strengthen the economy of the entire 
island. However, they have been unsuccessful in convincing the 
majority of the northern people as shown by the 1949 Northern Ireland 
parliamentary election which voted in favor of partition by a two to one 
majority. 

The boundary has now been in operation for approximately 30 years 
so that significant trends are now apparent in the internal economy and 
foreign trade of the two countries. At the time of partition Northern 
Ireland was considerably more industrialized than the rest of Ireland, a 
position which she has maintained and increased with the establishment 
of 157 new industries between 1932 and 1948. Southern Ireland at the 
time of partition possessed a number of local industries mainly for 
food processing, while distilleries and breweries provided important 
exports. Now in an effort for self-sufficiency a number of new industries 
have been established in the Republic to supply consumer products for 
the home market. The slogan of "Irish goods for Irishmen," however, is 
limited by the availability of raw materials making unfeasible the pro- 
duction of many items unless protected by a high tariff, while at the 
same time technological and engineering skills are not developed to any 
great extent in several fields. Thus the Republic today remains dependent 
on imports for many manufactured goods from Great Britain whereas 
Northern Ireland exports a large amount of her manufactured products 
to foreign countries. 

Although Northern Ireland is much more industrialized than the 
Republic, agriculture is the dominant occupation in both countries. 
Northern Ireland's agricultural production is usually at a maximum 
because of a large local market close at hand as approximately 50% 
of her population is urban and access to the British market is impeded 
only by a narrow body of water. During World War II crop acreage 
was increased to augment food supplies in the United Kingdom, made 

251 



252 Indiana Academy of Science 

necessary by the reduction of food imports. The intensification of 
agricultural production in Northern Ireland was possible due to avail- 
ability of fertilizers, crop subsidies, and productive labor. A normal 
surplus of agricultural products over local consumption is shipped mainly 
to Great Britain which tends to diversify the exports of Northern Ireland. 
Much of the Republic's soil, depleted during the war by compulsory 
tillage with insufficient fertilizers, must be rebuilt in order to achieve a 
higher agricultural production. The shortage of feedstuffs during the 
war resulted in the reduction of livestock on the farms, but with imported 
foodstuffs again available their numbers are increasing. 

At the end of World War II the Republic looked forward to in- 
creased agricultural production, which would make more goods available 
for export and the expansion of industry by utilizing the sterling 
balances accumulated during the war to obtain needed materials. Al- 
though there has been slight improvement in output and exports since 
1945, the British economic crisis and world shortages have slowed 
progress along these lines. A program to drain or rehabilitate large 
areas of land suitable for crop production is now under way and should 
ultimately add considerably to export totals. 

Most of the trade between the Republic and Northern Ireland crosses 
the land boundary, with usually less than 5% seaborne. All railway 
lines crossing the border are approved for the importation and exporta- 
tion of merchandise while only sixteen roads of major importance or 
utility to serve a particular location are designated as approved to serve 
a border of 228 miles. Local trade across the boundary is apparently 
declining, although smuggling, the natural result of price differentials 
between two countries, has been especially prevalent during and since 
World War II. 

Previous to the official establishment earlier this year of the 
Republic of Ireland, independent of Great Britain, goods entering 
Northern Ireland from the Republic were subject to the same customs 
duties as goods arriving from any part of the British Empire and were 
entitled to preferential treatment. Under the new British trade agree- 
ment certain items will retain special consideration and duty rates. 
Perishable goods from the Republic are not given, on entry into Northern 
Ireland, any special consideration not accorded similar goods imported 
from any other country. 

Most of the trade between the Republic and Northern Ireland 
crosses the land boundary, and the peak year according to value for the 
movement of goods in both directions was in 1924 while from 1933 to 
1937 during the Irish Free State-British economic war there was a 
general decline to almost one-third of the previous total. Imports into 
Northern Ireland from the Republic were at a high of £9,717,000 in 
1924, gradually decreased to a low of £2,711,000 in 1933 followed by a 
general increase to £9,294,000 in 1947. i Likewise the goods entering the 
Republic were also at an all-time high in 1924 with values at £7,394,000. 



1 All statistics have been supplied by the Republic of Ireland and Northern 
Ireland governments. 



Geology and Geography 253 

From 1924 until 1943 these values took a downward trend, with varia- 
tions, and then started to increase again until reaching £4,236,000 in 1947. 

The flow of goods from the Republic to Northern Ireland is always 
greater than from Northern Ireland to the Republic, sometimes seven 
and eight times as great. This was especially true during the war years 
when exports to the Republic declined from the high of 11% of Northern 
Ireland's total export trade in 1924 to only 1% in 1943. However, since 
the end of the war these exports by 1947 had increased to 3% of the 
total export trade between the Republic and Northern Ireland. Likewise, 
imports from the Republic have declined from the high of 14% of the 
total import trade in 1924 to 7% in 1933 and although increasing in 
value from that year have actually decreased to 5% of Northern 
Ireland's total import trade in 1947. The Republic's imports from 
Northern Ireland amounted in 1947 to 1.7% of her total trade value; 
her export trade has increased from 10.6% in 1941 to 19.1% in 1947. 

Livestock has consistently been one of the chief commodities sent 
from the Republic to Northern Ireland, generally amounting to about 
50% of the entire total for that one item alone. Food, drink and tobacco 
formerly were major items but have recently declined considerably. 
Goods from Northern Ireland to the Republic consist mainly of articles 
wholly or mainly manufactured. 

The value of Northern Ireland's total trade with the Republic 
although increasing from £10,744,000 in 1944 to £14,179,000 in 1947 has 
been consistently lower than direct trade with other countries, exclusive 
of Great Britain, which in the latter year received 86% of Northern 
Ireland's trade as compared to the Republic's receiving only 5%. Like- 
wise, the Republic in 1947 imported 40% of her goods from Great Britain, 
a decrease of 30% from 1941, and exported 70% to that country, a 
decrease of 17% from 1941. The value of total trade in 1947 for Northern 
Ireland was £302,527,000, 57% greater than the Republic's. 

Despite the economic differences in the two countries, both units 
are dependent upon Great Britain — Northern Ireland for industrial raw 
materials such as iron, steel and coal, and the Republic for agricultural 
markets. The value of goods imported by Northern Ireland from and 
through Great Britain has always been greater than that imported 
direct from all places outside the United Kingdom and has increased in 
recent years. Also Northern Ireland's goods exported to Great Britain 
and other countries via Great Britain are greater than those exported 
direct to all places outside the United Kingdom. In Northern Ireland 
the main group of exports were articles wholly or partially manu- 
factured such as linen and rayon goods, cotton goods and machinery. 
The largest single class of imports into Northern Ireland consists of 
wholly or mainly manufactured articles, which in the order of their 
importance for 1946 were machinery, cotton goods, motor cars, woolen 
goods, papers, etc., amounting to 58% of all materials entering the 
country. 

Except for the recent war period, the Republic's imports are 
generally much higher than exports, the import surplus being covered 



254 Indiana Academy of Science 

by payments of interest on investments held abroad. Irish Sweepstakes 
receipts, emigrants' remittances, tourist expenditures, and pensions 
payable by the British government to persons living in the Republic. 
The Republic's economy is dependent on foreign trade, and the value 
of its commerce has increased considerably in recent years. Great 
Britain ordinarily takes over % of the Republic's exports and supplies 
more than half of her imports. In the prewar decade the Republic 
purchased from the United Kingdom such items as coal, tobacco, textiles, 
and other manufactured goods. Recently the United States has supplied 
substantial amounts of coal and cereals which normally come from other 
sources although it is not expected that this will be more than temporary. 
It is also anticipated that when normal trade with Great Britain is 
resumed, amounts will be comparable to prewar figures. 

Normally almost 70% of the Republic's imports are composed of 
raw materials and manufactured goods, and approximately 30% of 
live animals, food, drink and tobacco. The export of live animals in 
the Republic, except for the year 1941 when they were restricted 
because of the hoof and mouth disease, leads in total value — almost % 
of the total exports of 1947 and slightly over half of those of 1939. 

At the present time the removal of partition would probably not 
increase appreciably the total trade between the six counties and 
the rest of Ireland except in local areas and for a limited number of 
items. Without the use of protective tariffs for the whole island, which 
would increase the cost of the items, British and other foreign competi- 
tion would be too keen. Some manufactured goods would enter the Re- 
public from Northern Ireland but many products would still originate in 
Britain, and the market for all of Ireland would not support some types 
of heavy and machine tool industries. The Republic is dependent upon 
Great Britain for an agricultural market and lacks the diversification 
characteristic of Northern Ireland's exports. Both the Republic and 
Northern Ireland depend upon Great Britain for their coal while the 
latter must also obtain iron and steel supplies to maintain her large 
ship-building industries; therefore, the principal trade of both countries 
would still be oriented to Great Britain. 

Thus irrespective of the Republic's attempt to become politically and 
economically independent, her economy and that of Northern Ireland 
are tied closely to that of Great Britain and apparently will remain so 
in the immediate predictable future. 



Indiana Thunderstorms 

Stephen S. Visher, Indiana University 



Thunderstorms occur during about 50 days annually in each part 
of central Indiana, in about 45 days in northeastern Indiana and in 
about 55 days in the State's southwestern corner. During the summer, 
each locality normally has thunderstorms in about two days per week. 
In about ten days per year, mostly in summer, two thunderstorms occur, 
one in the afternoon and one at night. Lightning from distant storms, 
too far away to have appreciable local significance, may be visible on 
one or two additional nights per week in summer. Most thunderstorms 
cover only about one-fourth of the state and many of them cover less 
than a sixth of it. Hence it is probable that fully 200 individual 
thunderstorms occur per average year in Indiana. 

Thunderstorms are such a significant environmental influence in 
Indiana that it is highly desirable that more of the State's leaders be 
well informed about them. Increased knowledge facilitates, of course, 
greater appreciation and wiser adjustments. 

Thunderstorms are significant in several respects. They form a 
major source of rainfall, cause a sharp drop in temperature, commonly 
have at least a little strong wind; their most distinctive feature is 
thunder, induced by lightning. Their cloud effects are noteworthy, 
some of the most imposingly beautiful seen anywhere. They often yield 
hail as well as rain. Altogether they are perhaps the most impressive 
atmospheric phenomenon commonly seen, highly useful in the aggregate, 
but locally often seriously harmful. The good they do, aside from the 
rain they bring, which often is highly welcome, includes the invigorating 
drop in temperature, the awe-inspiring display of cloud, lightning and 
wind, and the generally stimulating effect of the dramatic change of 
weather. The harm they do includes the squall wind, generally just 
before the rain commences. This gust often is violent enough to do 
considerable damage. The annual average property loss from thunder- 
storm squall winds in Indiana is officially estimated at about $400,000. 
Rain often falls torrentially, with the result that a large share of that 
which falls upon sloping ground runs away. Much of the soil erosion 
of our fields is due to thunderstorm rain. "Cloudbursts" not only cause 
erosion but they sometimes produce locally harmful floods. The light- 
ning incidental to thunderstorms affords a spectacular display of 
usually harmless fireworks but also often does damage. Each average 
year seven people are killed by lightning in Indiana. Many thousand 
livestock are also killed, apparently an average of more than 4000 hogs 
and 1000 cattle and numerous horses. Fires started by lightning 

255 



256 Indiana Academy of Science 

annually destroy buildings worth about a half million dollars in Indiana, 
and some crops. The lightning of thunderstorms does good as well 
as harm. Every flash combines some atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen 
to form ammonia, which when carried into the soil by rain adds fertility. 
This is an important source of increased fertility. At the few stations 
in northeastern United States where prolonged studies of this subject 
have been made, six to eight pounds per acre per year are added thus. 
Lightning flashes also create ozone, an unstable form of three oxygen 
atoms (0 3 ). Ozone has a pungent odor; some evidence indicates that it 
has a stimulating influence upon mental activity. 

Lightning is most dangerous at the beginning of the storm, just 
after the squall wind, when many lightning flashes travel downward. 
Later, lightning commonly is between parts of the storm or even upward 
from the ground. 

Hail which falls in many thunderstorms is a convincing proof that 
the air is cold overhead even in hot weather. It also proves that the 
updrafts of air which make the imposing thunderhead are strong. Hail 
does considerable damage in Indiana, where there are an average of 
-about 5 "heavy" hailstorms each season and a like number of 
"moderately heavy" hailstorms. Indiana's hailstorms cause an estimated 
average damage to crops and glass somewhat in excess of $1,000,000 
per year. 

The average thunderstorm in Indiana yields somewhat more than a 
half inch of rain, but many yield an inch and some yield more than 
three inches. Indeed, rarely, a "cloudburst" may yield more than 5 
inches. Rainfalls of more than 2 inches in an hour are almost sure to 
cause considerable local flooding in Indiana, and serious soil erosion on 
cultivated slopes. 

The value of the rainfall yielded by thunderstorms depends, of 
course, on when it comes. If, as frequently happens, it comes when it 
is badly needed, a single thunderstorm may locally increase the yield of 
corn to the extent of several thousand dollars per square mile. For 
example, in late August, 1947, when this paper was being completed, 
the drouth in Indiana was reducing each day the prospective corn 
crop an estimated million bushels. A "good" thunderstorm in the 
critical period of corn growth, following a prolonged dry, hot spell, 
increases the average per acre yield in its area at least several bushels 
per acre, and therefore is worth more than $1,000,000. 

About half of Indiana's summer thunderstorms occur in the after- 
noon (noon to 6 P.M. local time). Afternoon thunderstorms are 
somewhat more characteristic of southeastern Indiana than of north- 
western. 

About one-fourth of Indiana's summer thunderstorms occur between 
6 P.M. and midnight, local time. Evening thunderstorms are somewhat 
more characteristic of northwestern Indiana than of southeastern. 

The half-day, midnight to noon, has somewhat less than one 
quarter of the thunderstorms in Indiana. Very few occur in the forenoon, 
more occur shortly before dawn. 



Geology and Geography 257 

June is the month of most thunderstorms in the western half of 
Indiana while July has most in the eastern half. Thus in central 
Indiana the last week in June or the first week in July are those of most 
thunderstorms. 

Hail always occurs in thunderstorms in Indiana, hut only about 
one-tenth of the thunderstorms yield damaging amounts of hail. Hail 
storms are most frequent, however, somewhat earlier than the month 
of most thunderstorms. May has had most hailstorms in most of Indiana 
but along the eastern margin of the State, hail is somewhat more 
frequent in April than in May. 

Tornadoes are also always associated with thunderstorms. Like 
hailstorms, they are most numerous, however, before the month of most 
thunderstorms. In Indiana, May has most tornadoes except at the 
extreme south, where March or April has more tornadoes than May. 

(Additional data on Indiana's lightning, hail, tornadoes and squalls 
may be found in "Climate of Indiana" but this article notably supple- 
ments the discussion in that volume of thunderstorms.) 

Summary and Conclusions 

Indiana has thunderstorms on about 50 days per average year, of 
which about ten days have two. As most of the thunderstorms cover 
only about a fourth of the State, about 200 individual thunderstorms per 
average year occur in Indiana. About half of them occur in the after- 
noon and a quarter between 6 p.m. and midnight. About half of the 
year's total occur in summer, when each locality normally has two or 
three per normal week. Thunderstorms are the major source of summer 
rain and are significant in several additional respects. They cause an 
often welcome cooling, and impressively beautiful displays of cloud and 
lightning. They also often cause considerable damage by their lightning, 
hail, squalls and "cloudbursts". In an average year the lightning kills 
7 people in Indiana, burns buildings and crops and kills farm animals 
worth an aggregate of about $500,000; the hail causes an estimated 
annual million dollars of damage to crops and glass; the squall winds 
damage buildings to the extent of an annual average of $400,000. The 
erosion of cultivated slopes and the occasional local flooding also cause 
sizeable losses. But the good that the rain does generally much more 
than offsets the damage caused in these other ways. If proper care is 
taken as to lightning rods and hillside land use, the losses can be much 
reduced. Following hot dry spells, a single thunderstorm may increase 
crop yields by more than a million dollars. Without thunderstorms, 
Indiana would necessarily be a third rate agricultural state despite its 
several other advantages, and would also be much less desirable for 
industry in various other respects. Therefore it behooves us to 
appreciate them and make appropriate adjustments. 



A Karst Valley in Western Monroe County, Indiana 

William J. Wayne, Indiana University 



The name karst has been applied to regions which are underlain 
by limestone, and which possess a topography due to underground 
solution by meteoric waters and diversion of surface drainage through 
these underground channels. The term is taken from a plateau in 
Jugoslavia bordering the Adriatic Sea, upon which a vast number 
of solution features have been studied. This area is underlain principally 
by limestone beds of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. The entire plateau 
possesses rather high relief, and has undergone considerable folding and 
faulting, which in itself can cause a region to have unique topography. 
Solutional activity in such an area can cause landforms to occur which 
may not necessarily be characteristic of karst in other regions possessing 
lower relief and structure. 

The physiographic forms discussed in this presentation are typical of 
relatively flat limestone regions such as those found in the Mississippi 
valley. 

A karst plain or sinkhole plain is a region underlain by limestone in 
which all the drainage is underground, and sinkholes form the principal 
relief, taking up much of the upland area. Seldom do any but large 
streams succeed in crossing karst plains without sinking underground. 

A karst valley is a valley in which karst features have developed in 
a valley floor to such an extent that the stream no longer carries surface 
drainage except in periods of excessive rainfall. Only the valley floor 
exhibits karst features however; the slopes and uplands are usually 
capped by clastic sediments in which solution is of little importance. 

As a stream erodes through elastics and uncovers a limestone bed, 
some of the water is diverted downward through the joint system of the 
limestone, and solution of the calcium carbonate starts. As the openings 
along the joints and bedding planes increase in size, they are capable 
of diverting more and more of the surface drainage into underground 
channels. When swallow-holes along the course of a stream are able 
to take the entire volume of runoff, the stream channel becomes a 
dry-bed, carrying only stormwaters. This condition is a common 
occurrence at the top of the upper Mississippian limestones, along the 
western edge of the outcrop of upper Mississippian rocks in Indiana and 
Kentucky. (Malott, 3). 

It is the purpose of this paper to describe a karst valley located 
in western Monroe County, Indiana, about 7 miles southwest of Bloom- 
ington, Indiana (Fig. 1). This particular region has been referred to 
by Beede (1), who noted the case of subterranean piracy of the head- 
waters of Indian Creek by Richland and Clear Creeks. 

258 



Geology and Geography 



25'J 



R. 2 W. 



18 N. 




18 N. 



R. Z W. 

MAP OF KARST VALLEY 
MONROE COUNTY, INDIANA 
Swallo* holes • N 

Caves ° 

Former drainage ~~ 

ScaJe of mrjcs 

I O I 

bsc ■ i » 

Dase fror* U.S. Oeoloqical Survey 
topographic map 



*V. *'.*•. /••/« 



Fig. 1. Map of the karst valley south of Blanche, showing the probable 
restored drainage and with the major dry-beds and swallow-holes indicated. 
(Base from the U. S. Geological Survey topographic map of the Bloomington, 
Indiana quadrangle.) 



In the stratigraphic setting of the area under discussion, the Ste. 
Genevieve formation, a dense, jointed limestone of middle Mississippian 



2(50 



Indiana Academy of Science 



age immediately underlies the mantle rock in the western part of the 
Mitchell Plain. The majority of the sinkholes in the bottom of the valley 
are found in this formation. Overlying it are the members of the lower 
part of the Chester series. The lowest of these is the Aux Vases 
sandstone, a bed about one foot thick here, which is seldom exposed. 
Above it is the Paoli limestone, a somewhat oolitic limestone about 15 
to 20 feet thick. Karst features show extensive development in this 
limestone, and continue downward into the thicker Ste. Genevieve forma- 
tion. The first of the Chester elastics of any thickness is the Mooretown 
sandstone and shale, which caps many of the lower hills. It is about 
20 feet in thickness. Overlying the Mooretown sandstone and shale is 
a thin limestone generally about 15 feet in thickness called the Beaver 
Bend limestone. Occasionally a few sinkholes are found on its outcrop, 
but it is not sufficiently thick for extensive underground drainage to 



w 

Surface drainaq* 



Karst drainage 



Surface drainoq* 




GENERALIZED SECTION ACROSS KARST VALLEY 
FROM NE*SEC17 TO NE*SEC.I6 SHOWING 
RELATION TO STRATIGRAPHY AND DIP 



Scale of feet 

William J. Wayne 
1949 



Figure 2. Generalized east-west section across the karst valley at a place 
about 1 mile south of Blanche, showing relationships of the karsted area to the 
underlying rock and the regional dip. 



Geology and Geography 261 

develop. The Sample shale and sandstone, overlain by the Elwren sand- 
stone caps the higher hills of the region. In only a few places can the 
Reelsville limestone be found between the two, since in many places it 
has been removed completely by solution. Figure 2 shows the relation- 
ships of the karst valley to its stratigraphic setting. 

Much of the former headwater region of Indian Creek, in T. 8 N., 
R. 2 W. is now drained by subterranean streams rather than by surface 
runoff. The Mitchell Plain west of Bloomington is pock-marked by 
numerous sinkholes. Some of the water entering the ground in this 
area emerges in springs west of the Chester escarpment. One of the 
largest of these is Blair Spring, northeast of Blair School, in the S. W. 
quarter of sec. 17, T. 8 N., R. 2 W. When the streams flowing across the 
clastic rocks of the upland encounter the jointed dense limestone beds 
that characterize the karst plain they become pirated by subterranean 
drainage. As more and more of the drainage goes underground, the 
stream ceases to carry any water over its course except during storms. 
Such is the case of the small southward tributary of Indian Creek 
heading at Blanche. 

The valley south of Blanche was developed along the strike of the 
westward dipping rocks of the Crawford Upland, probably sometime 
previous to the late Tertiary peneplanation of the region, and was 
eroded downward until it reached the limestones of the lower Chester 
and upper Meremec series. The downcutting may have reached the 
soluble limestone prior to peneplanation or afterward, but shortly 
after the region was rejuvenated, the runoff waters from the surrounding 
hillsides began to disappear into swallow-holes along the stream channel 
until the entire normal volume of the stream had been pirated by 
subterranean channels. As the disruption of the normal surface 
drainage began near where the valley enters that of Indian Creek, 
the solution action has had more time to operate there than further 
upstream, and the former stream channel has been entirely obliterated. 
By careful examination of topographic maps, the former surface drain- 
age system of the area can be approximated (Malott, 2, pp. 199-200). 

The lower part of the karst valley in the vicinity of the Illinois 
Central Railroad is about one-half mile wide, and the floor of the 
valley appears nearly level. It is pock-marked with sinkholes, many of 
them compound. Sinkholes of both simple solution and collapse types 
are present, although the latter are few in number. Frequently sinkhole 
outlets are so tightly silted shut that the depressions hold water. 

Upstream a ridge crosses the valley transversely in the S. half of 
N. W. quarter of sec 16, T. 8 N., R. 2 W. This ridge appears to have been 
a portion of the valley floor at the time of sinking, but undoubtedly 
has been lowered somewhat by solution. On the north side of this 
ridge there are several large swallow-holes, two of which have visible 
openings in the bottom. One of these is a deep conical depression with 
a hole in the bottom into which stormwaters pour. A raft of tree limbs 
usually fills the bottom of the pit. The opening apparently takes a great 
volume of water quite rapidly, as no flooding of the pit has been observed 
due to choking of the subterranean channels. 



262 Indiana Academy of Science 

In the blind valley which ends at this point, the flood waters course 
over a dry bed incised 10 to 15 feet below the surrounding valley. 
There are several small swallow-holes present along the dry bed, each of 
which takes up some of the stormwaters. During a heavy rain, muddy 
water as much as three feet deep rushes along the stream. Each 
opening takes some of the water, but most of it pours into the large 
terminal swallow-hole. A few hours following a rain, the dry bed is 
completely drained. 

The portion of the valley in sec. 9, T. 8 N., R. 2 W. is completely 
dismembered, but it has been so recently karsted that the former channel 
can be followed along a series of sinkholes. There is little surface 
drainage, and no dry bed is present, but a long shallow depression 
with a swampy area in the middle takes the water coming off the gullies 
on the sides of the valley. A large swallow-hole a short distance north 
of a gravel road along the south edge of sec. 9 intercepts the drainage 
down two westward flowing ravines before it reaches the center of the 
valley. A similar sinkhole, although frequently much smaller, is found 
at the end of every gully running down the side of the valley. 

The area in the center of the section one-half mile southeast of 
Blanche shows the last stages of recognizable surface drainage before 
complete disappearance of the former channel. The valley is a chain 
of funnel-shaped sinkholes strung together by a shallow dry bed that is 
completely overgrown with vegetation. A small dry bed coming from 
the west at this place loses itself completely into a shallow swallow-hole 
just before reaching the center of the karsted valley. 

A small gully heading at Blanche tumbles as an intermittent stream 
over sandstone and shale until entering the limestone outcrop. About 
500 yards below its head the creek enters a large flat-bottomed sinkhole 
into which it disappears. Over the alluviated floor of the sink at least 
five deep conical holes swallow stormwaters. The floor of the sink is 
littered with rafted debris and a mat of tree branches covers each of the 
holes. 

Surface drainage on the sides of the karsted valley is quite evident 
in many places, as gullying has occurred since the land was cleared. 
Badland topography has not formed to the extent found farther 
westward, but at several places gullies 3 to 4 feet deep expose weathered 
shale. 

It would be interesting to explore the subterranean route followed 
by the waters diverted downward into enlarged passages along the joints 
and bedding planes of the limestone. Several openings are present in 
the valley large enough to admit a man, but only one of these has been 
entered and explored by the writer. This one is a small cavern in the 
N. E. quarter of sec. 17, T. 8 N., R. 2 W. Other holes that appear to 
be possible entrances to a portion of the hidden cavern system are one 
in the bottom of the main swallow-hole in the N. W. quarter of sec. 
16, and a nearly vertical tubular channel about two feet in diameter 
in a small sinkhole southwest of Blanche, in the N. W. of the S. E. 
quarter of sec. 9. 



Geology and Geography 263 

The entrance of the cave which was in part explored is in an 
insignificant looking sinkhole perched on the side of the valley. A 
vertical hole in the ground about 10 feet deep enters on a narrow leaf- 
strewn platform. This platform is about 10 feet above the floor of a 
cavernous room. The size of this chamber, as well as the opening to 
the surface appear to be due in great part to collapse and stoping. The 
floor of the room is partially alluviated, and during a storm carries the 
water from the surrounding sinkholes. 

Two openings, both about 2 feet high and 6 to 8 feet wide lead out 
from the first room. One of these, toward the southeast, appeared to 
get smaller and was not followed. The other has a dry silt floor, and 
after about 50 feet opens into a cavern through which one can easily 
walk erect. Dripstone features in this portion of the cavern are quite 
abundant, and collapse is taking place along the cavern roof. Pebbles 
in several pools into which water drips are coated with calcium carbon- 
ate. A hole is present in the cave floor in which one can obtain a glimpse 
of a more active section of the cave. 

The caverns which carry the underground streams at the present 
time are undoubtedly quite youthful. Only a few opportunities have 
presented themselves to view much of this cavern system. Those portions 
no longer used by the phreatic waters have begun to collapse, but 
beneath them are many tubes through which the unseen subterranean 
streams course. 

This valley shows the first stages in the encroachment of a karst 
terrane upon a non-soluble upland. Above the limestone floor of the 
karsted valley, gullies tributary to the former drainage end in sinkholes. 
Many of the forms typical of a karst region are already well under 
way in their development. Erosion will eventually lower the divide on 
the eastern side of the valley, and the escarpment separating the two 
physiographic areas will be farther west. 

Literature Cited 

1. Beede_, J. W. 1911. The cycle of subterranean drainage as illustrated in the 

Bloomington, Indiana, quadrangle, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 20:81-111. 

2. Malott, C. A. 1922. The Physiography of Indiana, Part 2 of Handbook of 

Indiana Geology, pp. 197-203. 

3. . 1939. Karst Valleys, (Abstract), Geological Society of 

America Bulletin Vol. 50, p. 1984. 



MATHEMATICS 
Chairman: Paul Overman, Purdue University 



W. H. Carnahan, Purdue University, was elected chairman for 1950. 

ABSTRACTS 
Sampling Distribution for Medians from a certain general Popula- 
tion. I. W. Burr, Purdue University. — Given the cumulative frequency 
function F(x)=l — 1/(1 + X c ) k , the exact sampling distribution of the 
medians, Z, for a sample of N = 2n + 1 cases is: 

N! T 1 1 ? ckZc-i 



(n!)2 |_ (1+Z<0k (l +z c)nk + k + l 

Moments are readily obtained and it is possible to compare the efficiency 
of the mean and median for strongly skewed and J -shaped frequency 
curves as well as more "normal" ones. 

Einstein's proof of the equivalence of mass and energy. Walter 
H. Carnahan, Purdue University. — Making use of two well-known laws 
from elementary physics and high school algebra Einstein established 
the formula E=mc :i as the equivalence relation between mass and 
energy. The paper reviewed the steps in Einstein's development, giving 
full details so that any person with only a good high school education 
could follow the reasoning. 

Note on the solution of the special case of the non-homogeneous first 
order and first degree differential equation by means of an integrating 
factor. Will E. Edington, DePauw University. — The solution of the 
special case of the non-homogeneous first order and first degree 
differential equation by means of an integrating factor is of interest 
pedagogically because this equation is no longer considered as an 
exceptional case requiring special methods of solution- 
Solution of 

d 2 y dy 

X2 -J-KX ■+ (X2— n 2)y = 

dx 2 dx 

in terms of Bessel 

functions. Robert R. Hare, Indiana University.- — The solution of the 

differential equation 

d 2 y dy 

X 2 — — +KX h (X 2 — n 2 )y=0, 

dx 2 dx 

264 



Mathematics 2G5 

k and n being constant real values, may be expressed in terms of Bessel 
functions as 

y=X(I-K)/2[C 1 J q (X)+CJ^(X)] 

when q is not an integer, and 

y=X(i-K)/2[C 1 J q (X)+C 3 Y q (X) 
when q is an integer, q is denned as V (K — I)-+4n 2 /2; J q (X), J_„(X), 
and Y ( , (X) are Bessel Functions; &, C 2 , and C, are arbitrary constants. 
The differential equation is transformed into the Bessel equation 

d-u du 

X^ hX +(X2— q2) u = 

dx 2 dx 

by means of the substitution y = ux( I - K )/ 2 , where q is denned as above. 

Mathematics in present day Europe. Dr. J. Korevaar, Purdue Uni- 
versity. — The War has given a great impetus to the study of Applied 
Mathematics in Europe. Governments are eager to subsidize research in 
this particular field. This paper perhaps deals more with the situation in 
Holland than is consistent with Holland's significance, but on the other 
hand the development in Holland since the war is typical for many coun- 
tries in Europe. 

An Experiment in Sampling from a Pearson Type III Distribution. 

Lois Jean Niemann. — Samples of four were taken from a Pearson 
Type III population of a 8 =l.l. Distributions of the means, medians, 
standard deviations, mean deviations, and ranges of the samples were 
compared with those from a normal population. Also calculated were 
eight correlations between the above mentioned statistics. 

The Epistemic Correlation. J. Crawford Polley, Wabash College. — 
A discussion of mathematical induction and the total differential equation 
as illustrative of F. C. S. Northrop's theory on knowledge. The author 
shows how the two mathematical theories may be so interpreted as to 
satisfy the conditions relative to what Northrop calls the "aesthetic 
component" and the "theoretic component" of knowledge, and the 
"epistemic correlation" which connects them. 

The History of Calculus. Arthur Rosenthal, Purdue University. — 
This lecture discusses the development of the ideas leading to Calculus, 
from Archimedes to Newton and Leibniz, and in particular the role of 
the predecessors of Newton and Leibniz. 



PHYSICS 

Chairman: A. R. Thomas, Valparaiso University 



D. Roller, Wabash College, was elected chairman for 1950- 

ABSTRACTS 

An Electronic Hydrogen Detector. L. W. Auckerman, Purdue Uni- 
versity. — In designing the Purdue cryogenic laboratory one room was 
reserved for experiments using liquid hydrogen. Though every feasible 
safety precaution was taken, it was considered desirable to construct a 
dependable device for giving a continuous indication of the air hydrogen 
content and which would set off an alarm if the concentration should rise 
above a certain predetermined level. 

For this purpose a wheatstone bridge in conjunction with suitable 
electronic circuits is utilized in such a way as to detect an increase in 
thermal conductivity of the air. An increase of hydrogen content will 
increase the thermal conductivity of the air and will consequently produce 
and unbalance of the bridge. The output of the bridge is amplified, 
rectified, and, if above the critical value, is used to trigger an electronic 
circuit which in turn excites a relay. This relay then turns on a warning 
device. 

The circuit also employs a meter which is calibrated directly in 
percentage of hydrogen. The point at which the triggering mechanism 
excites the relay is adjustable: two per cent hydrogen by volume is 
considered a satisfactory setting since four per cent is the explosive 
limit. This particular circuit is capable of detecting as low as one per 
cent hydrogen; however, it is quite probable that with greater design 
precautions one could go as low as 0.1 per cent. 

Beta Spectrum of Pri43. J. A. Bruner, L. M. Langer, D. Moffat, 
Indiana University. — The beta spectrum of Pr 14 3 (13.8 d) has been 
studied in the 40 cm. radius of curvature shaped magnetic field spectrom- 
eter and also in a smaller version employing a 15 cm. radius of curvature. 
Although the comparative half life (ft ^ 4.5x 10 7 ) indicates that the 
transition is once forbidden, the spectrum was found to have the allowed 
shape. This suggests that the spin change must be less than 2. In order 
to satisfy these conditions it is necessary that, in this case, the 2d 52 and 
lg; ■> states be inverted in the nuclear shell model of M. G. Mayer. i The 
end point was found to be 0.922±0.003 Mev. 



M. G. Mayer, Phys. Rev. 75, 1969, 1949. 

266 



Physics 267 

Shape of the interference fringes obtained with the Michelson- 
Williams reflection echelon. Delmar 0. Davis and K. W. Meissner, 
Purdue University. — The shape of the interference patterns which one 
has to expect when a Michelson-Williams reflection echelon is equipped 
with a long- collimator slit, has previously been derived and discussed by 
K. W. Meissner. In order to check these results the reflection echelon 
of Purdue University was set up in an autocollimation arrangement. By 
employing a long slit, illuminated with the green krypton line 5570A, 
several photographs were obtained which exhibit the special features to 
be expected according to the calculations mentioned above. 

A method for determining short time stress-rupture characteristics 
of various steels. W. E. Fontaine, J. E. Brock, and Samuel Tarson, 
Purdue University. — A method is described by which small specimens of 
steel may be stressed in an atmosphere of steam at 1200 °F until rupture 
occurs. Stresses are chosen so that rupture occurs in less than 100 
hours. Short time stress-rupture curves are shown for three different 
types of steel. 

The Photoelectric Light Curve of the Eclipsing Star YY Canis 
Minoris. H. Harold Hartzler, Goshen College. — Two hundred and 
forty one photometric observations were made of this star at the Steward 
Observatory of the University of Arizona from February 21, 1949, to 
April 24, 1949. Each observation consisted of a two minute observation 
on a comparison star, then a four minute observation on the star being 
measured and a final two minute observation on the comparison star. The 
light from the star was concentrated by a thirty six inch telescope on a 
photoelectric cell and then, after suitable amplification, automatically 
recorded by a Leeds and Northrup micrimax recorder. Five times of 
primary minimum were observed and a new period of 1.0940232 days was 
computed. The magnitude of this star changes from 8.5 to 9.4 in a 
periodic manner. Its spectral type is F5. The light curve of the star 
will be shown. 



The stopping of fast deuterons in semiconductors. Z. H. Heller 
and D. J. Tendam, Purdue University. — Measurements of the stopping 
power of Ge and Si, as proposed by K. Lark-Horovitz, have been made 
for use in evaluating experiments on the nuclear bombardment of semi- 
conductors, and to obtain information about the stopping process in these 
materials. 

The reduction in range, due to the absorber samples, of the deuteron 
beam from the cyclotron (9-10 MeV) was measured using a system of 
two ionization chambers, one fixed and one movable, and a suitable 
detecting circuit. Curves for the conversion of extrapolated ionization 
ranges (which were measured) to mean number ranges were com- 
puted for large straggling parameters. 



268 Indiana Academy of Science 

The stopping powers found were: 
2.18 mg/cm- Ge = 1 cm air 
1.50 mg/cm'i Si = 1 cm air 
The stopping power of Ge showed negligible velocity dependence when 
the incident beam energy was reduced. 

Curves of range reduction vs. absorber thickness were measured for 
Al, Ni, Cu, Zr, Rh, Ag, Sn, and Au in order to compare the semi-con- 
ductor stopping powers with those of the metals. No significant difference 
was found. The figures for the metals also showed that the stopping 
powers in Table XLIX of the Livingston and Bethe 1 article need modi- 
fication, the velocity dependence being accurate but the values some 
3-6% too low. 

Electrical Behavior of Semi-conductors at Very Low Temperatures. 

C. S. Hung, P. H. Keesom, and K. Lark-Horovitz, Purdue University. — 
Using special cryostats to measure the electrical resistivity and Hall 
effect through the temperature range from room temperature to liquid 
helium temperature, Germanium, Silicon and Tellurium semi-conductors 
have been investigated. For some Germanium and Silicon semi-conduc- 
tors with a large number of impurity centers so as to give the degenerate 
behavior as predicted by the theory of Johnson and Lark-Horovitz, theory 
and experiment agree. Some Silicon samples show a behavior which 
indicates, as has already been found at higher temperatures, that the 
resistance is due in part only to impurity scattering and lattice scattering 
and is due in a large extent to grain-boundary scatterings. Purest 
Germanium single crystals show anomalous behavior in the low tempera- 
ture range, indicating, perhaps, inhomogenieties which are not detectable 
at room temperature. For these samples the assumptions usually made 
in the derivation of the Hall effect are not fulfilled. A similar effect is 
also observed in Tellurium; whereas at ordinary temperature Tellurium 
does not show any measurable dependence of Hall effect on magnetic 
field, such a dependence can be observed in the low temperature range. 

Crystallization of Rubber. Hubert M. James, Purdue University. — 
The freezing of rubber is a relatively complex phenomenon. Rubber 
freezes slowly at temperatures between — 50°C and + 15°C, most rapidly 
at about — 25C The melting point is also variable, depending on the 
temperature of freezing and on the length of time the material has 
remained frozen. Rapid freezing can be brought about by stretching the 
rubber, even at temperatures above 100° C; again the behavior of the 
frozen rubber depends on the conditions under which it was frozen. 
These peculiarities of rubber arise from its structure as a molecular 
network. The rate of freezing depends, as with any material, on the 
rate of formation and growth of crystal nuclei; in rubber, however, there 
is the added factor that growth of any single crystallite is limited by the 
network structure. The molecules in rubber crystals are not equivalent, 
as in ordinary crystals, but are subject to differing constraints due to 



iM. S. Livingston and II. A. Bethe, Rev. Mod. Phys. !>, 261 (1937). 



Physics 269 

their different positions in the network. The melting point of the crystals 
depends on the disruption forces exerted on them by the network; these 
are greater the more rapidly the crystals are formed. Stretching rubber 
favors crystallization by aligning the molecular segments and decreasing 
the entropy change on freezing; it also favors the formation of crystals 
which, in the unstretched material, will be subject to large disruptive 
forces. 

Theory of the Hall effect at very low temperatures. V. A. Johnson 
and K. Lark-Horovitz, Purdue University. — In the study of semi-con- 
ductors, one obtains information about n, the number of free electrons 
(or holes) per unit volume in a sample, by measuring the Hall coefficient 
R. As long as current carriers of only one sign are present in the sample, 
R and n are taken to be related by the equation: R=3W(8ne). Recent 
studies at Purdue show that there is good basis for doubting the validity 
of this equation at very low temperatures, especially in the range 
1°K.-40°K. One important source of error lies in an assumption made 
in deriving the equation, i.e., that the mean free path of a free electron 
does not depend upon the energy of an electron but only upon the 
temperature of the sample. It has been found that this assumption is 
not valid at low temperatures and produces a 10% error at 50°K, a 40% 
error at 15°K, and still greater errors at lower temperatures. A second 
source of error appears whenever the mean-free-path is comparable in 
magnitude with the radius of curvature of the electron path in the mag- 
netic field. Since the mean-free-path increases at 1/T as the temperature 
drops, while the radius decreases as T 1/2 , the two distances approach 
equality at very low temperatures instead of the radius being about 100 
times larger, as is the case in near room temperature. 

The performance of the Purdue linear electron accelerator. John 
W. MacKay, Purdue University. — The accelerator consists of a cylin- 
drical resonant cavity 1 meter long, excited by a 1 megawatt 10 cm. 
pulsed magnetron. Pulses of electrons are injected with an initial energy 
of 300 Kev. The output of the accelerator is analyzed with a magnetic 
spectrograph. Pulse techniques are used to observe the output current. 
Numerical integration of the electron orbits through the accelerator 
indicates that the energy spectrum should contain three peaks between 
1.0 and 1.4 Mev. According to theory the electrons making up one of 
these peaks should suffer large radial forces in the accelerator and be 
widely spread in cross section. A second peak should be somewhat 
defocussed and the third only slightly defocussed. Analysis of the 
emergent beam shows two of these peaks and their distribution in the 
cross section of the beam. The electrons forming the other peak are 
apparently too widely spread to be detected. 

Influence of irradiation on the voltage-current characteristic of a 
glow discharge through rare gases. K. W. Meissner and R. M. Pierson, 
Purdue University. — When the positive column of a gaseous discharge 
through a very pure rare gas is irradiated with light from another dis- 



270 Indiana Academy of Science 

charge tube containing the same rare gas one observes a distinct change 
of the current and of the voltage across the irradiated discharge tube. 
Experiments were carried out with neon and helium discharge tubes at 
various pressures. These experiments establish the fact that the voltage- 
current characteristics of these discharges are raised by irradiation. 
This effect can be understood by considering the role of metastable 
atoms in discharges through rare gases and that their number can be 
appreciably decreased by irradiation of light of proper wave length. 

Some characteristics of the scintillation counter. Maurice M. 
Miller, and Waldo Rall, Indiana University. — Two 1P28 photomulti- 
plier tubes were used in coincidence as a scintillation counter 'with low 
noise background. The performance of this counter as a proportional 
beta counter was investigated. A commercial electron gun, mounted in 
a vacuum system, was used to accelerate electrons up to 5600 volts. The 
gun was operated to give a beam current ranging between 10- 10 and 
10- 12 amperes. The phototubes were operated at — 600 volts. Integral 
bias curves were obtained which are logarithmic over three orders of 
magnitude. Curves will be shown giving pulse height distribution and 
efficiencies from 500 to 5600 volts. The relative efficiency of the scin- 
tillation counter as a gamma detector is now being investigated by means 
of coincidence and absorption methods. 

Low energy beta ray spectra: Pmi47, S 35 . H. C. Price, Jr., J. Motz 
and L. M. Langer,i Indiana University. — The beta spectra of S 3 -5 and 
eiPm 14 ? have been measured in an attempt to study further the nature 
of the low energy deviation from the Fermi theory previously re- 
ported. 2. 3 Measurements were made with thinner sources and improved 
techniques in both the 40. cm radius of curvature spectrometer and also 
in a small 180 degree focussing Helmholtz coil spectrometer designed 
specifically for low energy spectra. The excess of particles at low 
energies was found to be a function of source thickness. The thinnest 
sources used were less than 10 micrograms /cm 2 . Both S 35 which is 
allowed and Pm 14 ^ which is probably once forbidden were found to 
have spectra of the allowed shape. Using counter windows of 3 micro- 
grams /cm 2 and also a windowless counter technique, Fermi plots were 
obtained which, for Pmi^, were straight down to 8. kev. The end point 
of Pmi47 W as found to be 223.2 ± 0.5 kev. On the basis of an improved 
calibration of the instrument, the present results for S ;; 5 yield an end 
point of 167.0 ± 0.5 kev. 

The disintegration energy of A1 2< J. L. Seidlitz, E. Bleuler, and 
D. J. Tendam, Purdue University. — Shell structure models of the nucleus 



1 Assisted by a grant from the Frederick Gardner Cottrell Fund of the 
Research Corp. and by the joint program of the ONR and AEC. 

2 C. S. Cook, L, M. Langer and H. C. Price Jr., Phys. Rev. 74, 548 (1948). 
3 H". D. Albert and C. S. Wu, Phys. Rev. 74, 847 (1948). 



Physics 271 

as proposed by Wigner 1 , Feenberg and Hammack 2 and Nordheim?', 
provide for no shell closures between Ne 20 and Ca 4() . The measured mass 
difference between Al- S and Si 28 , however, is higher than expected from 
calculations based upon the above hypothesis indicating an especially 
stable structure for Si 28 . A strong spin-orbit coupling, as proposed by 
Haxel, Jensen and Suess 4 and Mayer" 1 , could lead to a closed shell at 
Z (or N) = 14. If the Al 2 « — Si 2s anomaly is due to such a closure, 
then a similar result might be expected for the transition Al 2 ^ — Si 29 . 
Al 29 was produced by bombarding Mg with the a -particles of the 
Purdue cyclotron. The half -life was found to be 6.56 ± .06 m. Absorption 
and coincidence measurements show a complex /3-spectrum of two com- 
ponents, each decay leading to an excited state of the residual nucleus. 
The two ^-components have upper limits of 2.5 ± .1 MeV (70%) and 
1.4 ± .2 MeV (30%) while coupled 7-rays have energies of 1.25 ± .20 
MeV and 2.35 ± .10 MeV respectively. The total disintegration energy 
of 3.75 ± .25 MeV is approximately 1.7 MeV too high when compared 
with neighboring nuclei of the same symmetry (Ne 23 4.3, Na 2 ~> 3.7, Mg 27 
2.64, Al 29 3.75, Si»i 1.8, P33, S35 0.167 MeV). This appears to confirm 
the evidence for a highly stable structure for Si 2S . 

On the design of iris-loaded waveguides. Leo M. Silber, Purdue 
University. — The microwave linear electron accelerator utilizes a wave- 
guide which will propagate a wave with a component of the electric field 
intensity in the direction of propagation, and a phase velocity less than 
the velocity of light. Ordinary waveguide is unsuitable because the 
phase velocity is greater than that of light. However, a circular wave- 
guide loaded with circular irises can be designed to have the required 
properties. The present work is connected with the design of a standing- 
wave linear accelerator. An empirical relation was found between the 
geometry of the waveguide and the phase velocity of the wave. Using 
this relation an accelerator was designed to accelerate electrons from 
300 KV to 1.2 MeV, or from a phase velocity of 0.77 c to 0.95 c. The 
experimental results have also been compared to the theory of electro- 
magnetic waves in iris-loaded waveguides. 

An experiment on the arrival angle of 3.2 cm microwaves. C. M. 

Zieman, Wabash College. — To measure small variations in the arrival 
angle of microwaves, caused by changes in the vertical structure of the 
atmosphere, a transmitter, radiating at a frequency of 9520 megacycles, 
was placed on the observatory grounds at Mt. Wilson, California. 

The radiated energy was focused by a metallic lens located at the 
California Institute of Technology about 7.2 miles away. 



!E. Wigner, Physical Review, 51. 947, (1937). 

a E. Feenberg- and K. C. Hammack, Physical Review, 75, 1877 (1949). 

3 L. W. Nordheim, Physical Review, 75, 1894, (1949). 

4 O. Haxel, J. H. D. Jensen and H. E. Suess, Physical Review, 75, 1766 
(1949). 

5 M. G. Mayer, Physical Review, 75, 1969, (1949). 



272 Indiana Academy of Science 

The shift of the diffraction pattern, as measured in the focal plane 
of the lens, was taken as a measure of change in arrival angle. 

Variations of the order of one tenth of a degree were noted. Such 
variations seem larger than can be accounted for by calculations based 
on ray theory. 



Preliminary Theory of an Electrical Computer 
for Mean Deviations 

Ronald L. Ives, Indiana University 



Abstract 

Computation of mean deviations can be expedited by use of an 
electrical device, in which mean values are attained by paralleling con- 
densers upon which the initial value is proportional to the initial datum; 
and deviations are arrayed in correct arithmetical sign for subsequent 
meaning by use of diode bridge rectifiers. Standard electrical components, 
available for all major functions, permit relatively easy construction and 
maintenance. 

Introduction 

The laborious nature of the computation of a mean deviation, either 
"by hand," or on standard office computing machines, has inhibited the 
employment of this indicative statistic in many types of climatic work, 
as well as in other fields of investigation. 

Because this computation, as normally performed, requires the 
rehandling of each primary datum, chances for arithmetical error are 
rather great. Repeated changes of operational procedure, during the 
computation of a single mean deviation, are confusing to all but the 
most skilled and alert computers, so that, even with a standard com- 
puting machine, errors tend to be numerous, requiring extensive recom- 
putations, and raising the cost of the computation. 

Within the last two decades, a part of the labor and proneness to 
error has been removed from this computation by the use of punch- 
card machines, notably those developed by International Business Ma- 
chines Corp. By use of such machines, rehandling of a datum consists 
only of replacing the card in the machine, and, if the card is correctly 
punched initially, "transfer error" is virtually eliminated. 

Despite this very real improvement, however, the computation of 
mean deviations remains a problem, for which an electrical computer 
offers a possible solution. This electrical computer, as here outlined, is 
about midway in complexity between a standard adding machine and the 
Bell Laboratories' relay computer. Because all fallible components are 
used in an "all or nothing" capacity, and are so connected that they 
either function or do not function, the problem of tube failure, so 
serious in some of the modern electrical computers, is minimized. By 
judicious use of suitable test problems, trouble, when it occurs, can be 
localized in a matter of a few seconds; and by employment of "plug in" 
units, trouble, when detected, can be corrected in a matter of a few 
minutes, usually as simply as a burned-out lamp bulb is replaced. 

273 



274 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mathematical Processes 

To determine a mean deviation, as the process is normally per- 
formed, the following steps are necessary: 

1. Sum the initial data. 

2. Divide this sum by the number of items summed. This is the 
arithmetical mean. 

3. Determine the absolute value of the difference between the 
arithmetic mean and each individual datum. These differences are the 
absolute individual deviations. 

4. Sum the absolute individual deviations. 

5. Divide the sum of the absolute individual deviations by the 
number of deviations summed. The result is the mean deviation. 

This operational breakdown shows plainly the relatively large num- 
ber of operations involved in the computation of a mean deviation. As 
the number of errors increases at a rate approximating the square of 
the number of items (figures) concerned, it is obvious that an oper- 
ational simplification is much to be desired. 

Formulas commonly used in computation of a mean deviation are 
presented in Fig. 1. 

FORMULAE 

Individual values = X 

(I="the sum of") 
Number of values = N 

Arithmetic mean = X = ^p- 
N 

Individual deviations = x =|X-X| = |X-^p| 

Mean deviation = MD=^-^=^^ 

„ rlv I(X)| 
v • L-I-* j MD L l x N • 

Variability index =-y- = — ^mT — 

Fig'. 1. Formulae used in computing" mean deviation by conventional 
methods. 



ELECTRICAL MEANING 

Introduction 

Determination of mean value can be made without adding and then 
dividing by a number of mechanical, hydrostatic, and electrical devices, 
most of which are both inordinately bulky and quite slow in operation. 
Several electrical devices, however, show definite promise, in that they 
are small, inexpensive, not prone to variation, and "instantaneous" in 
their operation. The best of these devices is a condenser bank, which 
performs automatically, in microseconds, a mathematical process requir- 
ing from several seconds to several days by more familiar methods. 



Physics 275 

Fundamental Theory 

A condenser is an electrical storage device, consisting of two plates 
separated by a dielectric. When the potential difference (volts) between 
the plates of a condenser of known capacity (farads) is also known, the 
energy stored (coulombs) is shown by the formula: 

Q 

Q = CE or E = — 
C 
In which: 

Q = charge on condenser (coulombs) 

C = capacity of condenser (farads) 

E = potential across condenser (volts). 

When several condensers, charged to voltages Ei, E 2 , E 3 . . . . E„, re- 
spectively, are connected in parallel, their capacities add directly, and 
the total charge is the sum of the individual charges, or: 

$C = & + C. + C» Cn 

and: 

XQ = Qi + Q, + Q :t Q„ = C1E1 + C,E, + C 3 E 3 C„E„ 

Q 

Now, as E = — , the resultant voltage, E,, across the condenser bank, is: 
C 

2Q ClEi + C 2 E 2 + CnE 3 CnEn 

%C Cl + C. + C, C„ 

and, if all capacities are the same (and all equal to G), then: 

Ci (Ei + E 2 + E 8 E n ) SE 

Er = = 

NCi N 

which is the mean of the individual voltages. Additional details and 
fuller derivations may be found in any standard physics text, such as 
Smith (3). 

Thus, by charging a group of identical condensers to voltages pro- 
portional to the various items, and then connecting the condensers in 
parallel, the mean of the various items may be determined from the 
voltage across the condenser bank. 

Practical Application 

One method of "putting this theory to work" is shown in Fig. 2. 
Here, the meaning device consists of a voltage source, a group of 
identical condensers, and a voltage measuring device. 

In operation, the condensers are charged, one by one, from the 
voltage source, the applied voltage being proportional to the numerical 
datum concerned. When all condensers have been charged (or eliminated 

from the circuit by means of disconnectors — Di, D 2 , D :! D n -i), they 

are all connected in parallel, by closing of the meaning switch, and the 
voltage across the condenser bank is measured ("drainless" V.T.V.M.). 
This voltage is the arithmetical mean of the initial charging voltages. 

When the meaning switch is opened, all condensers have and retain 
the same voltage, which is the arithmetical mean voltage determined 



276 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Pig. 2. Summary diagram of an electrical device for determining 
a mean value. 

above. The meaning process is used twice in determining mean deviation: 
once to determine mean value, as outlined above; and a second time, with 
different components, to determine the mean value of the individual 
deviations. 



ELECTRICAL MEMORY 

Introduction 

Determination of mean deviations requires that the individual data 
be compared with the mean of those same data, and that the absolute 
value of the difference, if any, be isolated and retained for further 
arithmetical treatment. 

Various electrical and electromechanical devices can be made to 
retain a position, charge, or type of oscillation. Among those in common 
use are a ratchet-type stepping switch, a simple condenser, and a crystal- 
controlled mercury tank. 

The simplest possible electrical memory — a condenser — is most 
suitable for use in this device. 



Physics 



277 



Fundamental Theory 

If two identical condensers are charged to a voltage proportional 
to each datum; and only one of these is connected into the meaning 
circuit, the other meanwhile being electrically isolated; the charge on 
the first, or meaning, condenser, after the meaning operation, will be 
the mean of all the data concerned; while the charge on the second 
condenser will remain unchanged. 

Practical Applications 

One method of retaining a charge electrically, or "remembering" a 
datum, is shown in Fig. 3, in which two identical condensers are charged 
simultaneously from each charging position. One of these condensers, 
Cm, is subsequently connected into the meaning circuit: the other, Ch, 
not so connected, is the "memory" element. 




™j 





ixzs 



VOLTAGE 
SOURCE 




LY^T 



>-> 



3-> 



y& 



1CM1 



ODi 



ICH2 



OD2 



OD3 



ODn- 



ICMn 




MULTIPLIER 



Fig-. 3. Summary diagram showing one method of "memorizing" a 
datum while at the same time finding the mean value of a group of data. 



278 Indiana Academy of Science 

Charging of both condensers in each pair is accomplished through a 
dual diode, which functions as an electrical check valve, to prevent circuit 
interaction. Were it not that the diode has an additional function, to be 
outlined later, the same operation could be performed more economically 
by a dual contactor on the charging switch. 

DETERMINATION OF DEVIATION 

Introduction 

At this stage in the description, electrical methods of determining 
the mean value have been outlined, as well as a means of "remembering" 
the original individual data. After the meaning switch of Fig. 3 has 
been closed and reopened, the voltage across all the condensers desig- 
nated Cm will be the same, and will be the arithmetical mean of the 
values to which they were initially charged. Voltages across the con- 
densers designated Ch remain the voltages to which they were initially 
charged. The difference between these voltages is the deviation in each 
case, but, as some of the individual items are larger than the mean, and 
others are smaller, the absolute value of this difference, which is the 
desired figure, must be determined. 

Because arithmetical sign of the difference between the mean value 
and the individual value is shown by the electrical polarity of the charge 
between the outer terminals (left-diode cathodes — Fig. 3) of the two 
condensers in each pair, determination of the mean of the absolute values 
of these differences, which numerically equivalent to the individual 
deviations from the mean, requires that they all be arranged in the 
same polarity, regardless of the polarity of the difference charge 
share by Cm and Ch. 

Fundamental Theory 

When two identical charged condensers are connected "back to 
back" (i. e. negative terminals together) as in Fig. 3 (Cmi and Chi, 
for example), the voltage across the free terminals (left, Fig. 3) will 
be the difference between their terminal voltages, with the polarity 
positive at the terminal of the condenser charged to the highest value. 

In ordinary machine computation, the absolute value of the 
deviation is determined by the operator, who subtracts the lesser value 
from the greater in each case, so that the result is always positive. It 
is, of course, possible to perform a similar process electrically, by means 
of a polarized relay, for example. A simpler means, however, is to 
transfer a portion of this charge, representing the deviation, to another 
condenser, of known capacity, by use of a conventional bridge rectifier 
(1, p. 549 or 4, 479-480) which automatically polarizes the transferred 
charge. 

When two charged condensers are connected in series opposition, 
or "back to back", the charge available for transfer is the difference 
between the charges, and, if the condensers are of like capacity, the 



Physics 279 

charge is C(Ei — E 2 ). When this capacitative pair is connected to a third 
condenser, by means of a bridge circuit, the condenser having the 
numerically greater charge will discharge into the third condenser, 
through the rectifier, until the terminal voltages on both sides of the 
rectifier are equal, or: — 

Ci(Ei— E a )— C 8 E«=C : ,E, 
and, as the charge divides according to the capacities of the con- 
densers: — 

Cx(Er-E,) 

C3E3 = 

Ca + C :i 

and: — 

CMEr— E 2 ) 



C 3 (Ci+C 3 ) 
This permits a rather wide range of condenser values. If, for con- 
venience in construction and computation, Ci=C 3 , then: — 

Er— E 2 

E 3 = 



Practical Application 

One of several workable methods of isolating a charge corresponding 
to each individual deviation from the mean value, of arraying these 
deviations in correct polarity, and of preserving the charges for following 
operations, is shown in Fig. 4. Here, the individual condensers having 
been charged, and the meaning process performed, all of the condensers 
designated Cm are charged to the mean value, which has been measured 
and recorded (if desired), and the holding condensers, designated Ch, 
retain the charges representing the original individual data. 

When the switch arms connected to the deviation condensers, desig- 
nated Cd, are moved from "center" to "down" position, the bridge recti- 
fier circuits are completed, so that a known portion of the charge 
difference between condensers Cm and Ch is transferred to Cd. Although 
this transfer is theoretically instantaneous, it actually requires a few 
microseconds, because the diode circuit is resistive. 

When the switch arms are again centered, charges on the individual 
deviation condensers (Cd) are proportional to the individual deviations 
from the mean value, the exact proportion being a function of the 
various capacities involved, as previously outlined. 

Meaning of Deviations 

Mean deviation is determined in the same manner as mean value, 
but is found by connecting all of the deviation condensers in parallel, and 
then measuring the voltage across the bank. This process is performed 
by moving all of the switch arms connected to the deviation condensers 
(Cd) to "up" position, and then measuring the voltage across the bank 
by means of the "drainless" V.T.V.M. By use of a second instrument 
multiplier ("Multiplier 2", Fig. 4), the mean deviation, as indicated 



280 



Indiana Academy of Science 




oi, 



XM1 



H I 




B=t 



/nJ 



VOLTAGE 
SOURCE 



ODi 



IDENTICAL INTERVENING UNITS NOT SHOWN 



CDi 



ODn- 




CHn 



,CMn 




7 



I I3I2U 



MEANING' 
SWITCH 



-vWvV 




DRAINLESS' 
V.T.V.M. 



WWr 



MULTIPLIER 



MULTIPLIER 2 



CDN 



GANGED 



Fig-. 4. Circuit for transferring- deviation charges from mean and 
holding condensers to deviation condensers. 

by the instrument, can be in the same terms as the mean value previously 
determined, thereby eliminating an additional computation (multiplica- 
tion of the measured mean deviation voltage by a constant factor). 



Clearing of Machine 

After a computation is completed, it is necessary to clear the 
machine before a new sequence is started. This process is analogous to 
erasing a blackboard, and is done by "dumping" all of the charges 
residual upon the various condensers. Most convenient method of doing 
this is to short-circuit all of the condensers, which can be done, with the 
circuit of Fig. 4, by grounding the common of the meaning switch to 
battery — for the condensers Cm; commoning and grounding the upper 
cathodes of the left diodes for the condensers Ch; and, with the switch 
arms in "up" position, connecting switch arm at "multiplier 2" to 
battery — for the condensers Cd. 

Several other charge dumping methods are possible. Choice of 
the exact method is unimportant, and depends largely upon the type of 
switching mechanism used. 



Physics 281 

Voltage Supply 

Sources of potential for this computer, and for others of similar 
design, must be very stable, and not subject to either slow drift, or 
"poltergeist" variations in output potential. At the time of this writing 
(spring, 1949), several supplies having an output of 250 volts, with an 
accuracy of plus or minus one millivolt, are available (2, p. 258). 
Greater accuracy is attainable, but is quite costly at the time of this 
writing. The simplest way of converting output of a stabilized supply 
into the various voltages needed to represent individual data is by use 
of a decade voltage divider connection, which is ideally suited for key- 
punch operation. 

Voltage Measurement 

Measurement of the voltage across the condenser banks after 
the various meaning processes is best performed by use of a vacuum 
tube voltmeter, which can be designed to remove an entirely negligible 
portion of the charge during the measuring process. Various commercial 
types, of high accuracy, are available; some being designed to make 
a printed record of the measurements, on familiar "adding machine tape". 

With some instruments, the power supply for the V.T.V.M. can be 
taken from the charging supply in such a manner that long-term voltage 
drifts are "cancelled out". When this is done, the exact output voltage 
of the supply need no longer be known, and the inserted and measured 
charges will be in approximate volts, rather than in standard volts. 

It is also possible, by means of a vacuum tube bridge device, to 
determine the voltage across the condenser bank in terms of the supply 
voltage (or any known fraction of it); and several printing voltage com- 
parators, of high accuracy and dependability, are now (1949) commer- 
cially available. 

Adjunct Equipment 

Various other items of equipment called for by the theoretical 
design here presented are all available commercially. The condensers 
can be standard low-leakage elements. Some now available have a loss 
of less than 0.1 percent of charge per hour, at full rating. As the 
time required for a single mean deviation computation is usually less 
than two seconds per unit, losses due to condenser leakage are negligible 
in most work. 

Switching equipment of phenomenal dependability has been made 
for the communications industry for several decades, and is ideally 
suited for use in computing mechanism. Stepping switches and similar 
devices of this manufacture will commonly operate from 100,000 to more 
than 5,000,000 times without a failure. This equipment is very costly, 
compared to the items which perform similar functions in pinball 
machines and juke boxes, but, on a per operation basis, it is quite 
inexpensive. 

Rectifiers used in the bridge circuit are standard dual diodes, of 
which the 6H6 is a familiar example. These have a nominal life of 



282 Indiana Academy of Science 

about 1,000 hours; and an actual life, in some instances, of more than 
30,000 hours. 

Economic Factors 

A device of this general type, designed with 32 positions and an 
accuracy of five significant figures, such as is needed for meteorological 
and climatic computations, costs somewhere between $5,000 and $10,000, 
initially. Maintenance cost per operation, at least theoretically, is about 
the same as for a standard mechanical computing machine. Operator 
time required for computing each mean deviation is, or can be made, 
about one third that required for standard methods, and chances for 
operator error are about quartered. 

In consequence, construction of a device of this type will be worth 
considering only when a very large number of computations must be 
made each year; or where speed of computation is essential. 

Although use of "plug-in" units expedites repairs and maintenance, 
an electrical computer is usually not very satisfactory in locations where 
a competent maintainer is not available. Thus, although this electrical 
computer will theoretically expedite the computation of mean deviations, 
its construction is inadvisable unless and until it can be used on a full 
time basis in some location where dependable maintenance (and un- 
failing power supply) is available. 

Summary and Conclusions 

The foregoing theoretical outline shows that many troublesome 
computations can be expedited by use of electrical computing mechan- 
isms. Determination of arithmetical means, and of mean deviations, 
can be performed electrically by straightforward application of well- 
known principles, employing standard mass-produced components. 

Economically, however, use of electrical computers, even though they 
shorten work time and reduce chances of error, will probably and should 
be restricted to large computing centers, where the machines are operated 
nearly full time, and where adequate stable power supplies and skilled 
maintenance are available at all times. 

Literature Cited 

1. Cruft Electronics Staff. 1048. Electronic circuits and tubes. New York. 

McGraw-Hill. 

2. Markus, John, and Vin Zeluff. 1948. Handbook of industrial electronic 

circuits. New York. 

3. Smith, A. W. 1938. The elements of physics. New York. McGraw-Hill. 

4. Term an, F. E. 1937. Radio engineering. New York. McGraw-Hill. 



PSYCHOLOGY 

Chairman: E. J. Asher, Purdue University 
R. W. Bruce, Wabash College, was elected chairman for 1950. 



ABSTRACTS 

Two Components of a Social Attitude. Emanuel K. Beller, Indiana 
University. — Problem: Sherif has stated that social attitudes are in- 
teriorized social norms. A modification is here suggested: One can 
distinguish two verbalizable components of a social attitude: (1) The 
interiorized norm (an internal response), which reflects a source that 
impels the individual to react in a positive, negative, or neutral way 
toward the relevant value object, (2) a behavioral disposition, which 
reflects other sources of instigation (including incompatible interiorized 
norms) and which is more likely to be in accordance with actual overt 
responses of the individual to the same value object. 

Population and Procedure: A test was conducted to measure two 
components of the attitude toward prejudiced conduct in boys. These 
were the interiorized norms of and the behavioral disposition toward 
prejudice against Negroes. The test was given to thirteen groups 
(totaling 513 boys), in which age (9, 12, 15) and environment (institu- 
tionalized and non-institutionalized) were the independent variables. 

These groups were compared with respect to their (1) verbalized 
behavioral disposition, (2) verbalized interiorized norm, (3) discrepancies 
between interiorized norm and behavioral disposition, and (4) degree 
of interiorization of norms of prejudiced conduct. 

Results and Conclusions : 

Comparisons between these groups showed that: 

1. The measures of the two components yielded essentially different 
results for the 9 and 12 year old groups but not for the 15 year olds. 

2. Behavioral Disposition. Prejudice increased with age in the non- 
institutionalized groups of boys. This trend was reversed in the insti- 
tutionalized groups (the older boys were less prejudiced). 

3. Interiorized Norms: Prejudice decreased from 9 to 12- and 
increased from 12 to 15 year old non-institutionalized boys. No trend 
with increasing age was found in institutionalized boys. 

4. Interiorization of Prejudice: The 9 year old boys were more 
prejudiced in their 'interiorized norms' than in their "behavioral disposi- 
tion". This relationship was completely reversed in the 12 year old boys. 
The difference of the relative position of the two components of prejudice 
disappeared in the 15 year old boys. (The orphan boys deviated from 
all the other subjects.) 

283 



284 Indiana Academy of Science 

Some further conditions of transfer of training. Robert W. Bruce, 
Wabash College. — This is a further study of some of the conditions of 
transfer of training. We seek to answer these questions: What is the 
relation of the following conditions of learning to transfer: (1) Learning 
to make successive new responses to an old stimulus? (ab, ac, ad, ae, af ) ; 
(2) Learning to make an old response to successive new stimuli? (ba, 
ca, da, ea, fa) ; (3) Learning to make successive new responses to 
successive new stimuli? (ab, cd, ef, gh, ij). 

In general, the experimenters Hunter, Pearce, Wylie, Bair, Kline, 
and Bruce have found that (1) learning to make an old response to a 
new stimulus results in a marked degree of positive transfer; that 
(2) learning to make a new response to a new stimulus results in a 
slight degree of positive transfer; and that (3) learning to make a 
new response to an old stimulus results in very little transfer at all. 

We have sought to extend this finding, — to carry these sequences 
further. Also, we offer a theoretical explanation for the phenomena 
disclosed. 

We found that learning to make the same response to successive 
new stimuli, Condition II, results in such marked positive transfer 
(100, 56, 45, 36, 30) as to suggest, that the type of learning involved, 
in reality shifts from a retained members type of learning, to a recog- 
nition type of learning. 

The considerable degree of positive transfer which occurs in learning 
to make successive new responses to successive new stimuli, Condition 
III, (100, 95, 89, 84, 80) suggests that successive learning as such, 
typically gives a small to fair degree of positive transfer. 

The negligible degree of positive transfer which occurs in learning 
to make successive new responses to an old stimulus, Condition I, (100, 
97, 97, 95, 95), suggests that the mere experience of learning these sylla- 
bles undoubtedly aids, as is shown in the condition II results. On the 
other hand, a negative factor is undoubtedly present here, which more or 
less neutralizes the total final effect. In fact, several investigators in- 
cluding Kline have reported a very slight degree of negative transfer 
in the learning involved in making new responses to an old stimulus. 

Two interpretations of concept formation. Arnold H. Buss, Indiana 
University. — An experiment on concept formation was performed in 
order to compare the effectiveness with which two interpretations 
would handle the data. In traditional terms the purpose of the experi- 
ment was to study concept formation as a function of the proportion of 
positive and negative instances in the learning series. In learning terms 
the purpose was to discover the functional relationship between the 
tendency to make a particular response to stimuli with certain properties 
and the number of reinforcements of the response in the presence of 
these stimuli. The stimuli were blocks which varied in height, color and 
surface area; the top and bottom surfaces were triangular. There were 
five learning series, each having a different proportion of tall blocks 
(positive instances) and short blocks (negative instances). The subjects, 



Psychology 285 

100 college students of both sexes, were divided into five groups of 20 
each. Each group had one of the five learning series followed by a 
criterion series which was the same for all groups. The blocks were 
presented singly for five seconds, and the subject released one of two 
telegraph keys to indicate his choice. The subject was told "Right" or 
"Wrong" after each response in the learning series but not in the 
criterion series. The number "correct" and the frequency of responses 
were recorded. 

The results indicated that the number "correct" is primarily a func- 
tion of the kind of blocks in the criterion series rather than the propor- 
tion of positive and negative instances in the learning series. The 
frequency measures were found to be functionally related to (1) rein- 
forcement of a particular response in the presence of tall blocks; and 
(2) nonreinforcement of this response in the presence of stimuli other 
than tall blocks. 

Analysis of the Problem of Validation of the Rorschach Technique. 

B. D. Cohen, Indiana University. — Rorschach interpretation involves 
more complex behavior on the part of the psychologist than does the 
interpretation of more formally standardized test procedures for which 
precise tables of norms are available. With the Rorschach test, the 
individual interpreter is a more influential component of the instrumental 
procedure. Consequently, the problem of validation of the method is a 
particularly difficult one. 

Clinical validation methods have established the Rorschach test as 
a working clinical instrument and have provided many provocative 
hypotheses. Many of these hypotheses can and should be subject to 
direct experimental verification procedures. 

An analysis of the typical method whereby inferences are drawn 
from Rorschach data reveals a functional classification of validation 
procedures. Evaluation of these procedures indicates the most promising 
technique to be the prediction of behavior in specially constructed 
situations designed to test specific Rorschach hypotheses. 

The interaction of responses to step function stimuli. David Craig, 
Indiana University. — Research reported here was designed to provide 
information on the linearity of operator performance in a direct tracking- 
situation by determining the extent to which the responses of the 
operator-apparatus combination to superimposed inputs conform to the 
responses of a linear system to such inputs. 

Subjects tracked a spot which made step-function movements away 
from and back to a center position. Four different amplitudes of 
displacement were used. The time interval between members of each 
pair of opposed steps was varied so that both uncomplicated responses 
to single steps and overlapped responses were obtained. 

Results indicate that the mean response of the operator-apparatus 
combination to a pair of opposed step inputs conforms to the require- 
ments of a linear system for all amplitudes tested. However, the 



286 Indiana Academy of Science 

relationship between mean responses to single steps of different ampli- 
tudes does not fulfill the requirements of linearity. Information concern- 
ing the nature of this non-linearity will require further research. 

The psychology of esthetics: a challenge. Robert E. Dreher, 
Wabash College. — It would be the writer's contention that the vast 
majority of studies catalogued under the classification of the psychology 
of esthetics might better be classified as the "psychology of esthetic 
elements" — Tonpsychologie, the psychology of line, color, et cetera. It 
has been safer (and easier) to continue in the Fechnerian tradition of 
esthetics "from below", apparently, than to attempt analyses of behavior 
to whole esthetic objects in an esthetic milieu. Some of the fairly 
obvious reasons for this state of affairs are considered. 

It has been only in relatively recent years that psychologists have 
approached esthetic objects as proper stimuli for behavioral events with 
the same methods, techniques, and principles which have characterized 
"objective" psychology in other areas of experimentation. While the 
number of experimental studies which havt been executed with this 
orientation to the psychology of esthetics is limited, several are cited 
to illustrate the efficacy of this "new" approach. 

Progress in this field, we believe, depends upon the ingenuity and 
skill of future experimenters to devise more adequate techniques for 
the control and observation of esthetic behaviors as complex behaviors 
and to reject the atomistic and piecemeal approach which has dominated 
the orientation of workers in this type of research. 

A preliminary report on the effects of glutamic acid on test scores. 

P. R. Fuller, D. G. Ellson, and R. Urmston, Indiana University. — In 
order to supplement previous experiments on the effect of glutamic acid 
on the psychometric test scores of mental defectives, an experiment of 
nine months' duration was performed at the Muscatatuck State School 
for the mentally retarded by members of the Indiana University Psy- 
chology Department. Thirty pairs of subjects, ranging in age from 
eight to seventeen years and in Stanford-Binet IQ from sixteen to 
seventy-four, were matched on the basis of age and IQ. The experimental 
group received glutamic acid in doses which were increased gradually 
from 4 to 30 grams per day; the control group received a placebo. 

Five tests, the 1937 revision of the Stanford-Binet, the Cornell-Coxe, 
a rate of tapping test, a digit span test, and a coordination test in which 
both time and errors were recorded, were administered just before the 
experiment began. After 4y 2 months and after 9 months the tests were 
again administered. The testers did not know which subjects were 
receiving glutamic acid and which ones were receiving the placebo. 

The experimental (glutamic acid) group made a greater increase 
in Stanford-Binet IQ and in the rate of tapping than did the control 
(placebo) group. On the other hand, the mean Cornell-Coxe score and 
digit span of the control group increased more than did those of the 
experimental group. None of these four differences was statistically 



Psychology 287 

significant. However, the control group showed significantly greater 
decrease in errors on the coordination test while the experimental group 
showed a greater decrease in the time required to perform the coordina- 
tion test. 

In this experiment, supranormal amounts of glutamic acid were 
not shown to result in significant improvement in psychometric test 



The effect of a verbal stimulus as a reinforcement. Joel Greenspoon, 
Indiana University. — The purpose of this research was to determine 
the effect of a verbal reinforcement introduced immediately following 
a plural noun response on the frequency of plural noun responses. 
Twelve college students were randomly assigned to the experimental and 
control groups. The experiment was conducted in a soundproof room 
and was recorded on a wire recorder. A chronoscope was used to record 
the time. 

The subjects were instructed to say all the words that they could 
think of, but were not to use sentences, phrases, or to count. In the 
case of the experimental group, immediately after each plural noun 
response the verbal reinforcement, "Mmm-hmm", was introduced by the 
experimenter. No reinforcement was introduced for the control group. 
The subjects responded for a period of twenty-five minutes. At the end 
of the experimental session each subject was asked if he knew what had 
been transpiring in order to determine if he could verbalize any changes 
that may have occurred in his behavior. 

The results were computed on the basis of five minute periods. The 
percentage of plural noun responses to the total number of responses was 
computed for each period and for the total experimental session. It was 
found that the experimental group gave a significantly larger number 
of plural nouns than the control group. None of the experimental sub- 
jects was able to verbalize any changes in his behavior. 

It can be concluded that "Mmm-hmm" is a reinforcement in this 
type of training and changes in verbal behavior can occur without the 
subjects' being able to verbalize them. 

Indirect extinction of a conditioned response. Norman Guttman 
and William K. Estes, Indiana University. — Can a conditioned instru- 
mental response be extinguished without actual elicitation? We have 
attempted to answer this question by analyzing the sequence of move- 
ments comprising a bar-pressing habit into its component S-R correla- 
tions and then eliminating the final member of the sequence before 
beginning experimental extinction. 

Two groups of four albino rats were first conditioned to press a 
bar for water reinforcement in a Skinner-type apparatus. After both 
groups had received 500 reinforcements, the experimental group was 
given six daily 30-minute periods of "indirect extinction." During these 
periods, the bars were removed from the apparatus. The animal was 
free to move about in the box during the entire period, and at intervals 



288 Indiana Academy of Science 

of about 90 seconds was stimulated by operation of the empty magazine. 
At first all animals approached the magazine whenever the motor 
sounded, but during the six periods this behavior extinguished. Finally, 
both groups were given experimental extinction of the bar-pressing 
response. During a 30-minute period, the animal was confined in the 
apparatus with the bar available but disconnected from the magazine. 
All bar-pressing responses were recorded. 

Extinction curves for the bar-pressing response revealed marked 
differences in form. The experimental group started at a higher rate, 
but extinguished much more rapidly. The higher initial rate is pre- 
sumably due to the previous separate extinction of the final component 
of the response, which reduces the minimum time required for execution 
of a response. The more rapid extinction may be attributed to the 
elimination of secondary reinforcement. 

In summary, it appears that a conditioned instrumental response may 
be weakened, but not completely extinguished, by separate extinction of 
its final component. 

An application of the operant conditioning paradigm to human 
studies. E. J. Hovorka, Indiana University. — Purpose: (A) To measure 
stimulus generalization. (B) To test the applicability of the operant 
conditioning procedure to human studies. 

Population: 62 students of elementary psychology. 

Procedure : After an initial test on 12 mathematical problems, each 
subject was placed in a semi-darkened room and told that he would be 
re-tested in an hour and could play with a machine in the room if he 
wished. 

Three neon lights, mounted on the machine flickered at a rate 
determined by the experimenter. If the subject pressed a foot-pedal on 
the machine, a cartoon illuminated by a 30 watt light dropped into 
view for twelve seconds. In this situation, the cartoon is specified as 
the reinforcing stimulus for the pedal-pressing response. 

Each subject was allowed to present himself in this manner with 16 
cartoons while the neon lights flickered at a rate of 2 flashes per second. 
Following the 16th reinforcement, subjects were distributed among 
seven extinction groups. The difference between the seven groups was 
the rate of flicker of the neon lights which assumed one of the values; 
X A, V2, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 flashes per second. Under these conditions no 
further reinforcements were available and extinction curves were 
collected. 

Results and Conclusions: The length of time and number of re- 
sponses made to a criterion of 15 minutes of no responding were com- 
puted for each of the 7 groups. Although a double-winged stimulus 
generalization gradient is suggested, the differences between groups are 
not statistically significant. The mean extinction curve presented closely 
resembles the extinction curves produced by pigeons and rats in compar- 
able situations. 



Psychology 289 

A follow-up analysis of an apprentice selection program. E. J. 

McCormick, and J. R. Moretti, Purdue University. — The purpose of 
this investigation was to ascertain the relative effectiveness of a battery 
of tests that had previously been used in the selection of apprentice 
applicants for a training program in the car and locomotive repair shop 
of an operating railroad. 

In the original testing 83 applicants were given the following tests: 

1. Purdue Adaptability Test 

2. Purdue Mechanical Adaptability Test 

3. Purdue Industrial Mathematics Test 

4. Industrial Training Classification Test 

5. Can You Read a Working Drawing? 

Thirty-six of these subjects were selected for training. 13 of this group 
were separated for various reasons, leaving the group of 23 trainees. 
Results of this study are based upon 19 trainees. 

Intercorrelations between test scores and three criteria were com- 
puted. The Wherry-Doolittle Test Selection Method was worked against 
each of the three criteria with the following results: 

1. School performance. The Purdue Mechanical Adaptability Test, 
the Industrial Training Classification, the Adaptability Test and Can 
You Read a Working Drawing? were found to give the optimum 
predictability of school performance, with a shrunken multiple correla- 
tion of .643. The Adaptability Test and Can You Read a Working 
Drawing? entered into this prediction with negative weights; while they 
gave the "symptoms" of operating as "suppression" tests to the other 
two, it is probable that such results were due to chance factors such as 
the small number of cases. 

2. Shop performance. The Purdue Mechanical Adaptability Test 
was found by itself to give the optimum degree predictability of shop 
performance. 

3. Criterion of combined performance. The Purdue Mechanical 
Adaptability Test and Can You Read a Working Drawing? were found 
to result in the optimum degree of predictability of combined school 
and shop performance, with a shrunken multiple correlation of .610. 
While Can You Read a Working Drawing ? entered into this prediction 
with a negative weight, and appeared to operate as a "suppression" 
test, it is probable that such results were due to chance factors. 

Eye reaction as an indicator of emotion. Robert Stanley Ort, 
Wabash College. — A research study in the field of experimental psy- 
chology on the validity of involuntary eye movement as an indicator of 
emotion. Thirty-two female subjects were given a word association test 
consisting of 5 presumably non-loaded words and 5 presumably loaded 
words, during which time their eye-movements were being recorded by 
an American Optical Company Opthalmograph. The response, reaction- 
time, and any other visible indicators of emotion such as a laugh were 
recorded. 



290 Indiana Academy of Science 

The number of eye reactions were then compared with the number 
of other complex indicators for the presumably non-loaded words. The 
same procedure was followed for the presumably loaded words. The 
words were then listed in the order of presentation, and the number 
of times each word elicited one or more of the known complex indicators 
was recorded. In addition the number of times each word was ac- 
companied by eye reaction, was recorded. 

The results show that a greater number of words are accompanied 
by eye-reaction, in either the non-loaded or the loaded words, than by all 
other indicators combined. The words indicated to be loaded, by any 
one or more of the known indicators, were found to be accompanied by 
eye-reaction in 79.74% of the cases. It appears that involuntary eye- 
movement is a more sensitive indicator of emotion than any of the 
customarily used complex indicators. 

The relationship between an individual's role in a homogenous group 
and his awareness of that role. Homer G. Wood, Purdue University. — 
A sociometric questionnaire covering nine social areas was administered 
to a fraternity group consisting of thirty-four members, all of whom 
had lived at the fraternity house for a period of at least one year prior 
to the administration of the test. Each member of the group was 
asked to name those individuals in the house with whom he would most 
like to participate in each of the nine functions, and, also, to name those 
individuals with whom he would least like to participate. In addition, 
each man was asked to name those individuals in the house whom he 
thought would either choose or reject him in any of the categories. 
An analysis was made of the relationship between the number of socio- 
metric votes, choice or rejection, received by an individual and his 
ability to estimate which individuals had actually chosen or rejected him. 



ZOOLOGY 

Chairman: M. R. Garner, Earlham College 



S. Crowell, Indiana University, was elected chairman for 1950. 

ABSTRACTS 
Lateral loop chromosomes and the theory of the gene. Edward 0. 
Dodson, University of Notre Dame. — Because of the facts of position 
effect, many geneticists have proposed modifications of the gene theory, 
with Goldschmidt proposing that the theory of the corpuscular gene 
must be abandoned, and substituting for it the theory that the chromo- 
some is a continuum in which overlapping segments of varying lengths 
are the functional units. Observations on the lateral loop chromosomes 
of amphibian oocytes suggest that segments of the chromosomes far 
larger than estimated sizes for genes do function as a unit in the 
synthesis of lateral loops and nucleoli. While these facts do not prove 
Goldschmidt's theory, they are more easily interpreted in terms of it 
than they are in terms of the theory of the corpuscular gene. 

The problems of making ecological observations in a tropical rain 
forest. Clarence J. Goodnight, Purdue University. — During this past 
summer an attempt was made to investigate the ecology of a tropical 
rain forest near Palenque, Chiapas. Studies were made of the soil fauna 
and of the various layers of the area. These studies indicated that the 
fauna of the tropical area had a greater variety of species than temper- 
ate areas; but without numerous individuals of any one species. Since 
the whole area presented equally good habitats, it was difficult to find 
any particular concentration of species. 

The comparative toxicity of chloral hydrate and chloral alcoholate. 

Phillip V. Hammond, Donald E. Stullken and William A. Hiestand, 
Purdue University. — According to popular belief the mixing of chloral 
hydrate with an alcoholic beverage results in the formation of chloral 
alcoholate, a substance supposedly having greater hypnotic property 
than the hydrate, the mixture being popularly known as a "Mickey Finn". 
Chloral hydrate is used clinically as a somnifacient and anticonvulsant 
and to a greater degree in veterinary medicine as a narcotic. For this 
reason a comparative study of the toxicities of the two substances based 
on their LD 50 values was undertaken. 

Wistar rats and mice of the Hygienic and Swiss strains were used 
in the non-fasted state. Both sexes were employed and the animals 
standardized as much as possible by controlling weight, diet, and housing 

291 



292 Indiana Academy of Science 

conditions. All animals that survived the trial dosage were discarded 
and not used again to prevent any cumulative effect of the substances. 
The mice received injections subcutaneously while the rats were injected 
intraperitoneally. All dosages were computed on accurate weights of 
the animals. 

In terms of grams per kilogram dosage in both rats and mice the 
toxicity of chloral hydrate proved greater than that of chloral alcoholate. 
Ihe LD.-„, of chloral hydrate for rats by intraperitoneal injection was 
0.628 g. per kilo; of chloral alcoholate 0.756 g. per kilo. The LD i0 of 
chloral hydrate for mice by subcutaneous injection was 0.909 g. per 
kilo; of chloral alcoholate 0.945 g. per kilo. 

Thus the hydrate is more toxic than the alcoholate. 

Reactions of two closely related species of salamanders to certain 
environmental factors: A study in comparative behavior. C. P. Hickman 
and F. John Vernberg, DePauw University and Purdue University. 1 — 
In order to understand better a few of the environmental factors that 
determine an animal's choice of habitat, reactions to certain gradients 
were studied and compared in two species of salamanders, Plethodon 
glutinosus glutinosus and Plethodon cinereus cinereus. These factors 
were: reactions to light; reactions to soil-moisture gradient; reactions 
to hydrogen-ion concentration of soil, and the oxygen consumption of 
the two species. 

Eight gradients of white light and colored light were used for their 
light reactions. Results showed that both salamanders were negatively 
phototropic. An increased intensity of white light excited P. g. glutinosus 
more than P. c. cinereus. Red and green lights stimulated P. c. cinereus 
more than blue light; in contrast blue light stimulated P. g. glutinosus 
more than the other two. P. c. cinereus avoided green light more than 
red or white light of one foot-candle. P. g. glutinosus preferred soil with 
a higher moisture content than did P. c. cinereus. Both species avoided 
soil of pH 5.8 but chose soil having a pH range from 6.2 to 7.2. The 
oxygen consumption of P. g. glutinosus, averaging 5.33 grams in weight, 
was 124.29 cubic millimeters of oxygen per gram per hour. P. C. 
cinereus, averaging .73 grams, consumed 149.92 cubic millimeters of 
oxygen per gram per hour. Results indicate that P. c. cinereus was 
the more active form. 

Evaluation of criteria used for generic separation of North American 
freshwater Tetraonchinae. Benedict J. Jaskoski. — Nine genera of 
North American Tetraonchinae which were proposed by Mueller- were 



1 Work completed at DePauw University. 

2 Mueller, Justus F. 1934. Parasites of Oneida Lake fishes. Part 4. Addi- 
tional notes on parasites of Oneida Lake fishes, including - descriptions of new 
species. Roosevelt Wild Life Annals 3:335-404. 

— . 1936. Studies on North American Gyrodaetyloidea. Trans. 
Amer. Micros. Soc. 55:335-373. 

. 1937. Further studies on North American Gyrodactyloidea. 

Amer. Midi. Nat. 18:207-219. 



Zoology 293 

reduced to three in number by Mizelle and Hughes 1 on the basis of 
insufficient morphological differences considered necessary for generic 
distinction. Since the discovery of additional specios which possess the 
principal character for each of the old genera Pterocleidus and Haplo- 
clidus, it is thought timely to reconsider these as natural groups which 
may warrant subgeneric standing. Haplocleidus which was based princi- 
pally on a discrepancy in size of the haptoral anchors, was found invalid 
by Seamster- since Cleidodiscus pricei belonging to a different genus was 
found to possess size variations in the anchors, equivalent to those in 
Haplocleidus species. This presently invalid genus if used as a subgenus 
should be redescribed on a morphological basis rather than on a size 
difference of structures. 

Ecological observations on the helminths of some Wyoming voles 

(Microtus spp.). Merle L. Kuns, Purdue University. — During the 
summer of 1948, eleven species of helminths were recovered from one 
hundred and three voles collected in the Jackson Hole region of 
Wyoming. Two parasites are reported for the first time from North 
America, viz., Hymenolepis horrida (Linstow, 1900) and Heligmosomum 
costellatum (Dujardin, 1845) and one of nematodes, Nematospiroides 
sp., is apparently new. 

In the Jackson Hole area, six rather well-defined habitats were 
studied. These ranged from the dry sage fiats of the valley floor to 
the sub-alpine meadows at 11,000 feet altitude. A direct relationship 
between host density and incidences of infection is evident from the 
data obtained. No indications of host preference were noted for the 
parasites studied. 

Only two parasites were generally distributed: these were Parano- 
plocephala infrequens and Syphacia obvelata, which occurred in all 
habitats except the sage flats. The trematode, Quinqueserialis hassalli, 
was limited to wet meadows at low altitudes, presumably because of the 
localized distribution of its molluscan intermediate host. One cestode 
and three nematode species were recovered only in highland habitats 
(above 9,200 feet altitude). Since an intermediate host is not known to 
be required for any of these species, an adequate explanation of their 
limited distribution is apparently lacking. 

The effects of Veratrum viride on the blood sugar level of the albino 
rat. David E. Mann, Jr., Arthur G. Zupko, Phillip V. Hammond, 
William T. Rockhold and William A. Hiestand, Purdue University. — 
Veratrum viride acts as a cardiac depressant by stimulating the vagal 
centers of the medulla resulting in decreased pulse rate and blood 
pressure. Once used clinically to relieve hypertension, it has now been 
largely supplanted by drugs of lesser toxicity. Despite this fact, the 
pharmacology of V.v. is still being investigated. 



1 Mizelle, John D. and R. Chester Hughes. 1938. The North American 
freshwater Tetraonchinae. Amer. Midi. Nat. 20:341-353. 

2 Seamster, A. P. 1938. Studies on gill trematodes from Oklahoma fishes: 
Ibid. 20:603-612. 



294 Indiana Academy of Science 

The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effects, if any, 
of this drug on the blood sugar level of the albino rat. Twenty mature 
rats of both sexes were fasted for 12 hours prior to the withdrawal of 
blood from the tails. The 10 animals in Group I, ranging in weight from 
169 to 340 grams, were injected intraperitoneal^ (immediately after the 
initial withdrawal) with a 0.1 mg/kg dose of a freshly prepared aqueous 
solution of V.v. (1 mg/cc). Twenty minutes after each injection, a second 
blood sample was obtained by decapitation. The 10 animals in Group 2 
(247 to 390 grams) underwent the same procedure with the exception 
that they were injected ip. with an aqueous solution of V.v. that had 
been refrigerated for 3 days. Blood sugar determinations were made 
by the Folin-Wu micro method. 

Freshly prepared aqueous solutions of V.v. caused hypoglycemia 
within 20 minutes in mature rats which had fasted for 12 hours. The 
average blood sugar decrease was 30.6mg%. Aqueous solutions of V.v. 
which had been refrigerated for 3 days caused hyperglycemia with an 
average blood sugar increase of 41.8mg%. 

The use of monogenetic trematode parasites as an aid in the identifi- 
cation of fishes. John D. Mizelle. — Studies during the past ten years 
have shown that specificity between North American freshwater 
Tetraonchinae and their fish hosts is so marked in many cases that 
unmistakable identification of the host can be made on the basis of the 
parasites present. In several instances a single species of parasite occurs 
only on one species of fish. In other cases the same species of parasites 
may be common to two or moi^e fish hosts but usually additional para- 
sitic species occur, making taxonomic distinction clear. In several cases, 
notably in the Centrarchidae, differentiation between hosts cannot be 
made on the basis of Tetraonchinae present because the apparent host 
specificity is too broad, or the parasites harbored are too plastic to 
effect a taxonomic separation. 

Experiments with muscle contraction. John Paul Ovens. — The 
purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of various 
cations and anions on the irritability of a nerve muscle preparation. The 
preparations were immersed for thirty seconds in the solution to be 
tested and then arranged in the conventional manner of a nerve muscle 
preparation utilizing non-polarizable zinc electrodes. Solutions tested 
were distilled water, amphibian Ringer's solution, amphibian Ringer's 
with an excess of calcium, amphibian Ringer's with an excess of potas- 
sium, chlorides of sodium, potassium, calcium, barium, and magnesium, 
Anions tested were carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate. Two decalcifying 
acids, oxalic and citric, were also tested. 

The intensity of the stimulation was governed by use of a dual range 
voltage divider and millivoltmeter. 

The results of these experiments show that cations have a more 
marked effect on irritability than do the anions. With an excess of 
potassium or calcium in Ringer's solution there is a slight decrease in 



Zoology 295 

the irritability, but when these are present as chlorides the decrease is 
much greater. 

Magnesium slightly decreased irritability but the effect was peculiar 
insofar as the break contractions persisted for 150 millivolts and then 
disappeared for 100 millivolts and later reappeared. 

Sodium decreased the irritability but to a lesser extent than did 
potassium. 

Barium had no drastic effect on irritability but did alter the nature 
of the contraction insofar as the rate of relaxation was slower while 
the circuit remained closed. 

Oxalic acid greatly reduced the irritability of the preparations while 
citric acid inhibited any response whatsoever. 

The effect of carbonate ions was similar to that obtained with 
sodium chloride. It was concluded that the carbonate ion had little or no 
effect on irritability and that the effects shown were due to the presence 
of the sodium cations. 

Phosphate ions increased the irritability considerably. 

Sulfate caused peculiar reactions but by comparing its results with 
those obtained with sodium chloride, its effect is one of decreasing 
irritability. 

Ecological observations on the spring and winter rotifer populations 
of a pond in west central Indiana. Francis A. Pray, Purdue Uni- 
versity. — A study was made of the spring and winter rotifer populations 
of a fresh water pond located near Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Indiana. Collections and observations were made weekly over a sixteen 
week period, beginning January 8, and ending April 30. 

At the same time that the rotifer collections were made, chemical 
and physical data were also recorded. Readings for air and water 
temperatures, dissolved oxygen, pH, and alkalinity were regularly taken. 

The most important rotifers present under winter conditions were 
Polyarthra platyptera and Conochiloides nutans. As spring conditions 
became established, the importance of these two species diminished and 
Keratella sp., Synchaeta pectinata, and Asplanchna brightwelli became 
the predominate forms. The significant factor in the change from 
winter to spring fauna was observed to be a change to a greater number 
of individual species, rather than a great increase of total individuals 
of all species. A total of thirty-nine species and thirty-two genera was 
recorded during the investigation. 

The metabolic effect of the administration of Thiouracil on Peri- 
planeta americana. Robert A. Rehm, DePauw University. — Since the 
appearance of thiouracil within the last few years, there has been a 
great deal published concerning its effect on the vertebrates; but a 
relatively small amount of work has been directed toward the inverte- 
brates. 

For this work the metabolic index employed was that of the carbon 
dioxide output as determined by a modification of Lund's (1919) method. 



296 Indiana Academy of Science 

The experimental animals were fed a mixture of powdered bread and 
thiouracil, consisting of 150 grams of bread and 0.150 grams of thiouracil. 
In the period of twenty-one days the metabolic rate of the experimental 
animals had been inhibited by forty-four per cent. 

An effective method of demonstrating longitudinal binary fission of 
Euglena. Arthur Louis Schipper. — Microcultures of Euglena are made 
by: (1.) ringing a microscope slide with melted petroleum jelly, 
(2.) placing a small drop of Euglena culture in the center of the ring, 
and (3.) affixing a coverslip to the petroleum jelly in such a way that 
an effective seal is made. These microcultures are then exposed to 
artificial light for a period of approximately twelve hours prior to use. 
Subsequent examinations will reveal the presence of numerous fissioning 
euglenae. Best results are obtained if the microcultures are used within 
twenty-four hours after preparation. Since locomotion is extremely 
limited during fission, this process can be observed for its entirety 
without necessitating the movement of the microscope slide. 

Polyvitelliny in Stagnicola reflexa (Say). Arthur Louis Schipper. — 
The presence of two or more embryos in an egg has been reported for 
other Lymnaeid snails. This condition has been noted to be of frequent 
occurrence upon examination of egg clutches of Stagnicola reflexa. In 
most instances not more than one egg of a clutch will contain multiple 
embryos. Normal development and hatching occurs if not more than 
two embryos are present. If the egg contains numerous embryos 
development continues until the egg becomes completely filled. Under 
such conditions hatching has not been observed. 

Birds of the Sierra de Palenque Foothills, Chiapas, Mexico. Richard 
E. Tashian, Purdue University. — During the summer of 1949, a section 
of northeastern Chiapas, Mexico, in the vicinity of the Mayan ruins of 
Palenque, was visited for the purpose of gathering ecological, distribu- 
tional, and taxonomic data on the ornithology of that region. The area 
studied was situated in tropical rain forest located in the foothills of the 
Sierra de Palenque at an elevation of 210 meters. 

Eighty species of birds representing 31 families were observed or 
collected. This constituted a resident population with the exception of 
two specimens of a Louisiana Waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla) collected 
on July 21 and Aug. 2, and one specimen of a Least Flycatcher 
(Empidonax minimus) collected Aug. 6. Nesting data were obtained on 
the Mexican Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhyyichus mexicanus) and the 
Guatemalan Spotted-breasted Wren (Thryothorus rutilus). There was 
evidence of breeding in 27 species, and molting was evident in 30 species. 
Twenty-three per cent of the species examined were found to be 
infected with helminth parasites in the following percentages: Cestoda, 
44%; Nematoda, 36%; Trematoda, 12%; and Acanthacephala, 8%. To 
the recorded forms known from the Palenque region 36 were added of 



Zoology 297 

which 6 were new to the Gulf lowlands of southern Mexico, and two 
previously unrecorded from Chiapas. 

Preneoplastic manifestations in mammalian thyroid glands. John 
H. Van Dyke, Indiana University School of Medicine. — During develop- 
ment an enigmatic epithelial structure (the ultimobranchial body), de- 
rived from the hind end of the embryonic pharynx, comes to lie within 
or near the center of each lateral lobe of the thyroid gland. Here, 
apparently, it becomes induced to transform into functional thyroid 
parenchyma ( ? ) . 

However, in rats postnatal ultimobranchial tissue, which is normally 
indistinguishable from thyroid tissue, may be modified by feeding 
vitamin A deficient diet; or similarly altered by administration of estro- 
gens or methylcholanthrene. 

Following initial hyperplasia, this tissue usually transforms, through 
metaplasia, into multiple cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium. 
The adjacent peripheral thyroid follicles undergo general atrophy. Nor- 
mal old age rats frequently exhibit this metaplasia; often associated 
with spontaneous cystadenomata. 

In rats the usual site of maximal mitoses appears to be in the center 
of each thyroid lobe, particularly during experimental hyperplasias. In 
yearling sheep, spontaneously activated thyroid glands containing 
ultimobranchial cysts exhibit little or no evidence of mitosis in general 
thyroid parenchyma. In contrast, however, there is a compensatory pro- 
liferation of masses of relatively undifferentiated cells from the bases 
of epithelial cysts of ultimobranchial tissue origin. These cells transform, 
presumably "on demand", into typical thyroid tissue in a manner to be 
described. 

The evidence suggests that ultimobranchial tissue is plastic, nor- 
mally indistinguishable from thyroid tfesue, and may function after birth 
as a thyroid growth center, or, being labile, may undergo cyclic phe- 
nomena depending upon factors altering thyroid activity. Conditions 
augmenting thyroid hyperactivity in mammals (including man), particu- 
larly those with ultimobranchial lesions, may predispose individuals to 
certain compensatory neoplasms — especially during senility. 

Plans for an experimental laboratory in the Biological Sciences now 
being conducted at the College of the University of Chicago. Howard 
H. Vogel, Jr., University of Chicago — During the past year a com- 
mittee of the staff of the Biological Sciences in the College of the 
University of Chicago has been planning a laboratory for the general 
introductory course. This is a course in general education which has 
been offered for the past eighteen years, usually with an enrollment of 
500 to 800 students. The course was largely organized by Dr. Merle 
Coulter who was its chairman until July, 1948 when he resigned to 
become Associate Dean of the Division of Biological Sciences in the 
University. 



298 Indiana Academy of Science 

The course is well known for a series of excellent laboratory dem- 
onstrations, but because of physical limitations of space and equipment, 
it has never before tried individual laboratory sections. During* this 
year of 1949-50 the laboratory program will be carried out on an experi- 
mental basis. 

A laboratory section will consist of 24 students. The laboratory 
program will be divided into three quarters. During the fall quarter the 
dynamics of protoplasm will be the general heading. The students will 
be confronted with a problem: '"What are the broadest attributes which 
characterize protoplasm as a living substance?" The laboratory work 
of the winter quarter will center around the dynamics of the organism 
and will draw mainly from the fields of physiology and psychology. The 
spring quarter will deal with the dynamics of the species and will consist 
largely of genetic and ecological studies. 

Several unique characteristics of this laboratory program should be 
pointed out: 

(1) The material is all presented in the form of broad general 
questions to the students. Problems are broken up into several sub-prob- 
lems, each of which is studied by a separate committee of from two to 
six students. 

(2) After each main problem the various sub-committees convene 
in the laboratory as a "committee of the whole" to discuss their results 
and integrate these to the main problems formulated. In this way we 
plan a good deal of discussion to go on concurrently with the experi- 
mental portion of the laboratory program. 

(3) There is no credit at present given for this laboratory. The 
program is optional and is added to the student's course work. There 
are no grades given for the laboratory. 

An investigation in the natural history of spiders. Gertrude L. 
Ward, Earlham College. — -Spiders were collected and observed over a 
period of four months, at Ann Arbor, Mich. Temperature and activity 
of the spider at the time of capture were correlated. During captivity, 
records were kept on molting, feeding habits, building of nests, egg 
laying, and death. 

The effect of methyl folic acid on the alkaline phosphatase of the 
oviduct of chicks. M. X. Zarrow, Purdue University. — Histochemical 
studies were carried out on the alkaline phosphatase content of the 
oviduct of folic acid deficient chicks. At 19 days of age the oviducts of 
the untreated birds showed a high concentration of alkaline phosphatase 
while the oviducts of the birds treated with the folic acid antagonist 
were markedly depleted of the enzyme. Injection of stilboestrol in 
normal chicks caused an increase in the weight of the oviduct and a high 
concentration of the enzyme was observed. However, the effect of stil- 
boestrol on the oviduct of the folic acid deficient chick was markedly 
inhibited with regard to both increase in weight and amount of alkaline 
phosphatase. 



The Effects of Pinealectomy on Young 
White Leghorn Cockerels 1 

C. J. Shellabarger and W. R. Breneman 



Introduction 

The possibility that the pineal body is an endocrine gland has been 
a perplexing problem for many years. Pinealectomy has proved to 
be difficult, and previous investgators have been hampered by not 
obtaining enough operated animals to draw valid conclusions. Moreover, 
these investigators have reported results that are in conflict. Jullien 
(4) reported for example, that guinea pigs implanted with pineal 
substance have smaller gonads while Borrel and Ostrom (2) reported 
similar results when rats were pinealectomized. 

Material and Methods 

White Leghorn cockerels were used because they have a relatively 
fast growth and the maturation of the gonads occurs at relatively 
early age. The chicks were raised in battery brooders on the same 
food, and under the same light, heat, and space conditions. Each cage 
utilized contained equal numbers of the three groups of animals used 
in this study, i.e. control, sham operated, and operated. 

Operations were performed at four days post-hatching in the 
following manner. The chicks were anesthetized with ether, placed under 
a binocular microscope, and a median incision 2 cm. long was made 
through the skin at the apex of the head. The fascia was removed by 
scraping with a sharp scapel and a incision was made at the fusion of 
the frontal and parietal bones, followed by a + incision through the 
dura. The last incision ruptured the dural sinus, and exposed the 
pineal body, which was then removed by means of fine jewelers forceps 
after which the edges of the skin were sewed together and gentian 
violet applied to prevent cannibalism. In addition to unoperated-controls 
sham operated-control animals were used and were handled in the 
same manner as those which were pinealectomized, with the exception 
that the pineal body was not removed. 

The bodies, combs, and the endocrine glands were weighed at 
autopsy, and special care was taken with operated chicks to determine if 
the pineal body was completely removed. Chicks with a partial removal 
of the pineal body were discarded. 



1 Contribution No. 413 from the Department of Zoolog-y, Indiana 
University, and No. 99 from Waterman Institute, Indiana University. 

299 



3U0 



Indiana Academy op Science 



Observations 

No significant difference was found in the body weights, or in 
the weights of adrenals, thyroids, or the pituitaries. The comb weights 
of the pinealectomized chicks were found to be significantly larger than 
the comb weights of the two control groups, only at the age of 70 days. 

The pinealectomized chicks, however, were found to have signficantly 
smaller testis weights than the controls at the age of 19 days. The 
testis weight, however, returned to normal at the age of 28 days and 
remained so until about 40 days. Shortly after the age of 40 days, the 
operated chicks were found to have significantly larger testis weights, 
but this increase was no longer evident at 94 days. 

The operative mortality is summarized in table I and the testis 
weights are summarized in table II. 

Table I. Operative Mortality 



Series 1 


totals 


female 


died 
from 
opera- 
tion* 


gland 
not 
re- 
moved 


dis- 
carded 


died 


autop- 
sied 




55 

22 
18 


3 



1 


10 

3 



8 





2 



1 



1 


30 


Sham operated- 
controls 

Control 


19 
15 


Totals 


95 


4 


13 


8 


3 


3 


64 




100.0 


4.2 


13.6 


8.4 


3.2 


3.2 


67.4 






Series 2 


78 

60 
47 


5 

1 
3 


15 

11 



9 






1 


2 

3 
3 


47 


Sham operated- 
controls 

Control 


43 
40 


Totals 


185 


9 


26 


9 


3 


8 


130 


Percentage 


100.0 


5.0 


14.0 


5.0 


16 


4.4 


70.0 



* Chicks that died within 72 hours after operation were placed in thi 
classification. 



Discussion 

When a significant statistical difference was found between the 
testis weights of the pinealectomized chicks and the controls, a signficant 
statistical difference could usually be demonstrated between the pineal- 
ectomized chicks and the sham controls. Also, the testis weights of 
the control chicks were never found to differ from the testis weights 
of the sham controls. Thus it is suggested that the effects on testis 
weights were due to the removal of the pineal body rather than the 
effects of the operation. 



Zoology 
Table II. Testis Weights 



301 



Ag-e in 
days 


operated 


sham operated- 
control 


control 


t-value 


19 


N 15 


15 


15 


2.329* 


28 


mean 28 mg 
N 11 


43 

9 


36 
9 




40 


mean 54 mg 
N 10 


51 
8 


52 
9 




42 


mean 88 rag 
N 15 


95 
9 


92 
5 


2.104* 


50 


mean 160 rag 
N 11 


133 

11 


115 
11 


2.544* 


70 


mean 155 mg 

N 10 


133 

5 


122 
5 


2.177* 


94 


mean 597 mg 

N 5 


288 
5 


382 

r 






mean 5.8 gm 


6.0 


6.5 





* t-value computed on operated chicks compared to control chicks. 

The weights of the testes of the operated chicks seemed to vary in 
two directions. First, the testis weights of the operated chicks were 
decreased at an early age (19 days). At the next age group autopsied 
(28 days) the weights of the testis of the pinealectomized chicks has 
returned to normal and remained normal until 42 days. Then an 
increase in testis weights of the operated chicks was noted, and increased 
testis weights remained above the weights of the testis of the control 
chicks until somewhere between 70 and 94 days. A corresponding 
increase in comb weights was noted at 70 days. These data might 
suggest that possible effects of pinealectomy should be looked for during 
the early part of the chick's life cycle. 

It was mentioned earlier that a paradox seems to exist between the 
results of implantation and pinealectomy and these reports may be 
examined in the light of our observations on age differences in response 
to pinealectomy. Jullien implanted pineal substance into guinea pigs 
and stated that the gonads were smaller in the experimental animals, 
and on the other hand, Borell and Ostrom reported smaller gonads 
following pinealectomy of rats. Einhorn and Rowntree (3) reported 
that injection of pineal substance resulted in earlier breeding of succes- 
sive generations of rats, but Martin and Davis (6) obtained earlier 
breeding in cats following pinealectomy. 

Badertscher (1) reported the gonad weights of pinealectomized 
chicks to be unchanged. It is suggested by my data that somewhere 



302 Indiana Academy of Science 

after 70 days, in the chick, the pineal body has no effect on the testis, 
and Badertscher did not autopsy any chicks until the 228th day and thus 
his samples were autopsied at an age that would have been too old to 
detect any differences in testis weights. 

Likewise, Kolzelka (5) reported that the implantation of pineal 
substances into cocks resulted in unchanged testis weights of the 
experimental animals. This might also be the result of the lateness of 
the implantation, as the chicks were half-grown, which would be beyond 
the 90 day limit suggested by my data. 

Now, in an attempt to bring a small amount of order out of this 
seeming chaos, two assumptions must be made. Assumption one — the 
removal of the pineal body results in a dual effect on gonad weights. 
Assumption two — it would seem reasonable to expect that the removal 
of the pineal body would produce the opposite effect as the addition of 
pineal substance by injection or implantation. Since the time factor is 
important, if the pineal body were removed at an early age, a decrease 
of testis weights might be expected if the experimental animals were 
autopsied at an early age. If the pineal body substance were added 
by injection or implant at an early age, and the experimental animals 
were autopsied at a much later age, a decrease of testis weights might 
also be expected. 

Thus it seems that both the technique of pinealectomy and the 
technique of implantation and injection should be re-explored during 
early growth periods, while maintaining a constant time factor. The 
conflict in reported results might eliminated in such a manner. 

Summary 

It is suggested that pinealectomy of four day old White Leghorn 
Cockerels has the dual effect of first decreasing the weights of the 
testes and later causing an increase in the weights of the testes. 

Literature Cited 

1. Badertscher, J. A. 1924. Results following the extirpation of the pineal 

gland in newly hatched chicks. Anat. Rec. 28(3) :177. 

2. Borrell,, U. and A. Ostrom. 1947. On the function of the pineal body. Acta 

Physiologica Scandinavica 13:11-2 (67-71). 

3. Eihorn, N. H. and L. G. Rowntree. 1939. Experimental phases of the pineal 

problem. Endocrinol. 24:221. 

4. Jullien, G. 1946. Physiological activity of the pineal gland in the adult and 

pineal-hypophyseal antagonism. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la 
Societe de Biolgie et de ses Piliales. 140/17-18 (648). (Taken from 
Excerpta Medica, Sec. Ill, 1(1) :8, 1947. 

5. Kolzelka, A. W. 1933. Implantation of pineal glands in the leghorn fowl. 

Proc. Soc, ex Bil, and Med. 30:882. 

6. Martin, J. and L. Davis. 1941. Destruction of the pineal gland. Arch. Int. 

Med. 67:1119. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR CONTRIBUTORS 
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to submit papers for publication in the Proceedings. When a paper is signed 
by two or several authors, all must be members in good standing. 
Preferably, eligibility should be established before submitting the paper, as 
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303 



304 Indiana Academy of Science 

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Every year a few more papers are submitted than can be published with 
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INDEX 



Acetyl transphosphorylase metal re- 
quirement, 37 

Actinomyces scabies, 43 

Adams, N. E., vi 

Adams, W. R., 19 

Adis-Castro, Elias, 17 

Africa, 34 

Agropyron repens, 75 

Ahrendt, M. H., vi 

Algae, 41, 44, 80 

Allyn, W. P., vi 

Aluminum, effect on potato scab, 43 

Analytical Chemistry, Academic Train- 
ing in, 131 

Angel Site, 19, 25, 28 

Antagonism, by Streptomyces albus, 
71. 

Anthropology, Section on, 17 

Antibiotics, 38 

Apprentices, Selection of, 289 

Asher, E. J., v, 283 

Atrypa, A new species of, 246 

Auckerman, L. W., 266 

Authors, Directions to, 303 

Bacteria, of urinary infections, 3 8 

Bacteriology, Section on, 37 

Baldinger, Lawrence H., vi 

Banta, Edna, vi 

Barnes, W. B., vi 

Barton, Thomas F., 216 

Beal, Juna L., vi 

Bechtel, A. R., v, vi, 40 

Beckert, C. H., 212 

Beckmann rearrangement of oximes of 
quinolylketones., 134 

Beech, 82 

Beghtel, Floyd, vi 

Behrens, C. A., v, xi, xiv 

Beller, Emanuel K., 283 

Bennett, R. E., 37 

Berg, Philip W., 157 

Bessel functions, 264 

Beta spectra, 266, 270 

Bieber, C. L., 221 

Birds of northeastern Chiapas, Mex- 
ico, 296 

Blattella germanica L., 173 

Bleuler, E., 270 

Bloom, W. W., 53 

Bohman, Frank E., 156 

Botanists of Indiana and Pakistan, 47 

Botany, Section on, 40 

Breneman, W. R., 299 

Brock, J. E., 267 



Brodie, H. J., vi 

Brown County, Ecology in, 4 5 

Bruce, R. W., 283, 284 

Brucella, 37 

Bruner, J. A., 266 

Bryophytes, Indiana, 112, 115 

Buls, Erwin J., 225 

Burr, I. W., 2 64 

Buss, Arnold H., 284 

Byren, E., Jr., vi 

Calculus, History of, 265 

Campaigne, E., 122 

Caribs, Anthropology of, 17 

Carnahan, Walter H., 264 

Carpenter, I. W., Jr., 41 

Carpenter, T. R., 40 

Carr, Arthur B., 212 

Chandler, Leland, 82 

Chanin, M., vi 

Chemistry, Section on, 122 

Chemistry texts, 140 

Chen, H. H., 126 

Chiapas, Mexico, Birds, 296 

Chloral alcoholate and chloral hydrate, 

comparative toxicity., 291 
Chlorophyll therapy, 41 
Christy, O. B., v, vi, xiv, xv 
Chromosomes, Lateral loop, 291 
Cleland, Ralph E., v, vi, 40 
Coats, Nellie M., v, vi, x 
Cohen, B. D., 285 
Cohen, I. Roy, 37 
Cole, L. C, vi 
Concept formation, 284 
Contributors, Instructions for, 303 
Commerce of Ireland, 251 
Computer for mean deviations, 273 
Conditioned response, 287 
Congo Culture Area, 34 
Corley, R. C, vii, 123 
Corn, 2, 4-D effects, 44 
Corum, C. J., 38 
Cottingham, John O., 58 
Craig, David, 285 
Crowell, S., 291 
Cummins, George B., 40 
Curry, Hilda J., 25 

DDT toxicity, 157, 185 
Daily, Fay Kenoyer, vi, 41 
Daily, William A., v, x, xi 
Damon, S. R., 37 
Dannin, Albert G., 41 
Davis, Delmar O., 2 67 



305 



30n 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Davis, J. J., v, vi 
Deam, C. C, v, 4S 
Deay, Howard O., vi, 156 
Deckard, Anne De Boer, 123 
Degering. Ed. F., v, 126, 150 
Dehl, Lamont, 213 

Dehydrogenations by means of sulfur, 
153 



3 7 



De Moss, R. D 
DenUyl, Daniel, v 
Deuterons, 267 
Deviations, mean 



5 9 



Computor for, 



Devonian of Montana, A new species 
of Atrypa from the, 246 

Dextrins, limit, utilization of in ani- 
mal body, 12 3 

Diphenylketene, 150 

Dodson, Edward O., 291 

Disintegration energy of AY-^, 2 70 

Dreher, Robert E., 286 

Driver, Harold E., 17 

Drummond, Robert R., 213 

Earth mover, 213 

Ecology, Brown County, 4 5 

Edington, Will E., v, vi, 1 

Edwards, P. D., vi, vii, xiv 

Electrical behavior of semi conductors, 

268 
Electron accelerator, linear 26 9 
Elliott, F. R., vi 
Elliott, S. E., vi, vii 
Ellson, D. G., 2S6 
Elving, Philip J., 129 
Elzay, Richard, xx 
Enders, H. E., v 
Entomology, Section on, 156 
Epistemic Correlation, The, 2 65 
Ervin, Robert F., v 
Esten, Mabel M., 41 
Esten, S. R., vi 
Estes, William K., 287 
Esthetics, Psychology of, 2 86 
Euglena, binary fisson in, 29 6 
En Oenothera, 40 
Everly, Ray F., 164 
Evolution, in Plecoptera, 197 
Eye reaction indicating emotion, 289 

Fertility in Agropyron repens, 75 

Fireblight, pear resistance to, 40 

Fischer, Robert B., 131 

Fishes, identification of, 294 

Fission, Euglena, 296 

Fluoboric acid, preparation, 144 

Fluosilicic acid, reaction with boric 

acid, 144 
Flutes, Bone, 2 8 
Food Animals, Indian, 19 
Folktales, African, 3 4 
Fontaine, W. E., 2 67 



Friesner, Ray C, v, vi, vii, x, 4 2, 4 8 

Fuller, Harry J., xiii 

Fuller, P. R., 2 86 

Fungi of Marion County, Indiana, 58 

Gantz, E. S., v, vii 

Garner, M. R., v, 291 

Gay, Kathleen, 37 

Gene theory, 291 

Genzer, Jerome D., 134 

Geographic Recreational Aspects of 
Unglaciated Indiana, 216 

Geology and Geography, Section on, 
212 

German Roach, 173 

Gibbium psylloides. Biology of, 156 

Gingery, W. G., vi 

Glacial drift, 214 

Glow discharge, influenced by irradia- 
tion, 269 

Glutamic Acid, 286 

Goodnight, Clarence J., 291 

Goodspeed, James C, 13 4 

Gopalkrishnan, K. S., 42 

Gould, G. E., 173 

Grand Portage Fur Traders Route, 22 5 

Grassi, Gino V., 43 

Grave, Benjamin H, 1 

Greenspoon, J., 2 87 

Gries, George A., 43 

Ground-water levels in Indiana, 236 

Group, Individuals role in, 290 

Growth-rainfall trend coefficients, 4 2 

Guard, Arthur T., vii 

Guennel, G. K., 43 

Guernsey, James L., 230 

Gunsalus, I. C, 3 7 

Guttman, Norman, 2 87 

Haas, H. B., 150 

Hall effect, 269 

Hammond, Phillip V., 291, 293 

Hanske, Carl F., 1 

Hare, Robert R., 2 64 

Hargitt, Thomas F., 3 

Harned, R. L., 38 

Hartsell, S. E., 38 

Hartzler, H. Harold, 267 

Hass, H. B., 150 

Heiser, Charles B., 64 

Heller, Z. H, 267 

Helminths, parasitic in voles, 2 93 

Hennion, G. F., vi 

Herbicides, 4 4 

Hickman, C. P., 292 

I Tidy, P. H, 3S 

Hiestand, William A., 291, 293 

llnshaw, Robert W., 41 

Hovorka, E. J., 288 

Howell, L. B., vi 

Dung, C. S., 268 

Huyck Preserve, Algae of, 80 



Index 



307 



Hyatt, J. D., vi 

Hydrogen detector, electronic, 266 

Illinoian Tillplain, Secondary succes- 
sion on, 95 

India, Botanists of, 47 

Indiana plant distribution records, 48 

Insect control, Ultrasonics in, 156 

Insecticides, toxicity of DDT isomers 
and analogues, 157 

Insecticide tests, 173 

Insects of peaches, 181 

Insects, toxicity of DDT, 157 

Interference fringes, 267 

Iodine, orthatolidine method for de- 
termining, 155 

Iodine trichloride, 122 

Ireland, Commerce of, 251 

Lopropenyl acetate, acetylation with, 
126 

Ives, R. L., 273 

James, Hubert M., 268 

Jaskoski, Benedict J., 292 

Johnson, W. H., v, vi, xi 

Johnson, V. A., 269 

Jones, K. L., 3 8 

Jump, J. A., 71 

Junior Academy of Science, vi, x, xix, 

xx 
Just, Theodor, v 

Karling, John S., vi 

Karst valley in western Monroe 

County, 258 
Kaslow, C. E., 134 
Keesom, P. H., 2 68 
Kessel, W. G., v, 122, 140 
Ketene, 150 
Ketones, Quinolyl, 13 4 
Kingsbury, T. M., 213 
Kintner, Edward, v, vi, 156 
Klaer, Fred H., Jr., 236 
Klopp, George D., 4 
Koch, G. David, 213 
Koffler, Henry, 37 
Korevaar, T., 265 
Kottlowski, Frank E., 246 
Kuns, M. L., 293 

Laboratory, experimental, Plans for, 

297 
La Croix, J. Donald, 44 
Lake Chicago, glacial, Forests of, 43 
Langer, L. M., 2 66, 270 
Lark-Horovitz, K., 268, 269 
Lead coated iron, 144 
Leckrone, Walter, vi 
Lefforge, J. H, 75 
Lefier, R. W., vi, x 
Legume pollination, 164 



Leonard, G. W., Jr., 144 

Leuconostoc acetyl transpbosphoylase, 
37 

Lilly, Eli, v, vii 

Limestone, rapid analysis of, 149 

Limnology, 295 

Lindsey, A., v, vi 

Liriodendron, 41 

Liver glycogen of rat after adminis- 
tration of limit dextrins, 123 

Liverworts, Indiana, 112 

Loew, Fred A., vi 

Long, Alma, vi 

Lost River, 214 

Lysozyme, the microbiological deter- 
mination of, 38 

McBurney, Marion J., 38 

McClure, S. M., 147 

McCormick, E. J., 289 

McCoy, Scott, vi 

McGrain, Preston, v, 212, 214 

MacKay, John W., 269 

McQueeney, Carl R., 45 

Machard, H. H., v 

Mackell, J. F, v 

Mahin, E. G., v, vi 

Malott, Clyde A., v, 214 

Mann, David E., 293 

Maple, Sugar, -±6 

Mapping, Topographic, 212 

Markle, M. S., v, vi, 40, 80 

Marling, J. A., vi 

Marshall, G. E., 181 

Martin, R. Earl, vi 

Mathematics, Section on, 264 

Mathematics, European, 265 

Mathers, F C, 144 

Mean Deviations, Electrical Computer 
for, 273 

Means, K. S., v, vi, vii 

Median, Distribution of, from a cer- 
tain general population, 264 

Meissner, K. W., 267, 269 

Mellon, M. G., xiii, xiv 

Members, new, 1949, xvi 

Methyl folic acid, effect on chick ovi- 
duct, 298 

Meyer, A. H., vi 

Michaud, H. H, v, vi, x, xxiii, xxiv 

Microscope stages, Centering of rotat- 
ing, 129 

Microwaves, 271 

Miller, Chester W., 4 6 

Miller, Maurice M., 270 

Minutes, Executive Committee, viii 

Minutes, General session, xiii 

Mizelle, John D., 2 94 

Moffat, D., 26 6 

Monogenetic trematodes, 294 

Monroe County, Karst valley in, 2 58 



308 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Moon, Tom, xx 

Moretti, J. B., 289 

Morgan, Will P., v, vi, viii 

Moss, Melvin J., 129 

Motz, J., 270 

Mullett, R. P., 185 

Muscle contraction, 294 

Musical instruments, archaeological, 

28 
Mycologist, responsibilities of, 8 

Necrology Memorials, 1 

Nematocide screening, 156 

Neumann, George K., 17 

New Members, xvi 

Niemann, Lois Jean, 265 

Nitrogen Tetroxide, 150 

Noyes, Bessie, vi 

Nuclear shell structure, 270 

Numerical systems, Analysis of, 18 

Oenothera taxonomy, 40 

Ohio River formation, 215 

Oil, Secondary recovery of, 213 

Operant conditioning, 2 88 

Orthotolidine method for determining 

iodine, 155 
Ort, Robert S., 289 
Outwash patterns, 221 
Ovens, John Paul, 2 94 
Overman, Paul, 264 

Painting, negative, 25 

Palmer, C. M., xiii, 47 

Patton, John B., 215 

Payne, P., v, vi 

Peach Insects, 181 

Pear, fireblight in, 40 

Pearson Type III distribution, sam- 
pling from a, 2 65 

Periplaneta americavia, 295 

Personnel selection, 2 89 

Phaseolus, root-stem transition, 43 

Phillips, F. J., 149 

Phosphate, pebble, 212 

Physics, Section on, 266 

Physoderma graminis, 42 

Pierson, R. M., 2 69 

Pinealectomy in cockerels, 299 

Pits, sand and gravel, 221 

Plant distribution records, 48 

Plecoptera, Evolutionary trends in, 
197 

Pollen analysis, Bog, 43 

Polley, J. Crawford, vi, 265 

Pollination, legume, 164 

Polyploidy, 6 4 

Polypodium spp., 102 

Polyvitclliny, 296 

Porter, Charles L., v, vi, viii, 8 

Porter County pteridophytes, 53 



Posey County, 17 

Potato scab, Effect of aluminum ions, 

43 
Potzger, Esther, 95 
Potzger, J. E., vi, 82, 95 
Pray, Francis A., 295 
Presidential address, 8 
Price, H. C, 270 
Pseudococcus maritimuS; 210 
Psychology, Section on, 283 
Pteridophytes, 53 

Railway pattern, Canadian, 215 

Rail, Waldo, 270 

Ramsey, R. R., v 

Rasp, notched, 17 

Recreational Aspects, Unglaciated In- 
diana, 216 

Reed, H. J., vii 

Reflection echelon, shape of fringes, 
267 

Regeneration in planted conifers, 59 

Rehm, Robert A., 295 

Remmers, H. H., vi 

Reynolds, A. E., vi 

Rhynsburger, Willert, 215 

Ricker, W. E., v, vi, ix, 197 

Riel, F. J., 150 

Ripley County, Beech in the forests of 
Laughery Creek, 82 

Rockhold, William T., 293 

Roller, D., xiii, 266 

Rorschach technique, 285 

Rosenthal, Arthur, 265 

Rothrock, David A., 5 

Rotifer populations, 295 

Rubber, Crystallization of, 2 68 

Rusts, /S£ipa-mallow, 40 

Salamanders, Study of, 292 

Salzmann, Zdenek, 18 

Sand and gravel pits, 221 

Sand, character of, 215 

Sand, High-silica, 215 

Schaeffer, H. F, 153 

Schipper, Arthur Louis, 296 

Schuder, D. L, 210 

Schweinsberger, Sanchia, 2 8 

Science Talent Search, vi, x 

Scintillation counter, 270 

Scott, Richard A., 102 

Seidlitz, L., 270 

Semi-conductors, 267, 268 

Seybert, J. E., vi 

Seymour, Keith, 122 

Shellabarger, C. J., 299 

Shepherdson, W., vi 

Silber, Leo M., 271 

Single Subject System in chemistry, 

147 
Smith, Howard W., 156 



Index 



309 



Smolelis, A. N., 38 

Snail, fresh water, 296 

Social Attitude, 283 

Spiders' natural history, 298 

Stagnicola reflexa, 296 

Starkey, O. P., 212 

Star, photoelectric light curve of, 268 

Steels, stress-rupture, 267 

Step Function Stimuli, Responses to, 

285 
Stimulus generalization, 288 
Stipa-m&Uow rusts, 40 
Stoneman, E. A., 251 
Streptomyces albus, antagonism by, 

71 
Streptomycete, antibiotic, 71 
Strickler, A., vi 
Stullken, Donald E., 291 
Succession, in an abandoned field, 95 
Sulfur, dehydrogenations by means 

of, 153 
Swallow holes, 214, 258 
Switzer, J. E., v, vi 

Tapscott, Marjorie, xx 

Tarson, Samuel, 267 

Tashian, R. E., 296 

Taccus Mealybug, Control of, 210 

Tendam, D. J., 267, 270 

Terre Haute, Trade area, 230 

Testing, Personnel, 289 

Tetraonchinae, Generic separation of, 

292 
Thiouracil, 295 
Thomas, A. R., v, 266 
Thompson, R. L., 38 
Thompson, "Wayne, 122 
Thrun, W. E., 155 
Thunderstorms of Indiana, 255 
Thyroid gland, 297 
Tolypella prolifera Leonh., 41 
Trematode parasites, 294 
Tropical rain forest ecology, 291 



2, 4-D, Butyl ester of, 44 
2, 4-D effects on corn, 44 
Unglaciated Indiana, 21 (i 
Urmston, R., 286 

Vaccinia virus, 3 8 

Valparaiso Moraine, Pteridophytes of, 

53 
Van Dyke, John EL, 297 
Veratrum viride, effects of on blood 

sugar of albino rat, 293 
Verbal reinforcement, 287 
Vernberg, F. John, 292 
Visher, Stephen S., v, vii, 255 
Vitamin B ia Assay, 37 
Vogel, Howard H., Jr., vi, 2 97 
Voles, helminth parasites of, 293 

Wabash drainage basin, 214 
Wade, F. B., v, vi 
Wagner, K. A., 112 
Wallace, F. N., v, vi, vii, x 
Wallace, William, v 
Ward, Gertrude L., 298 
Warren, C. P., h4 
Water well records, 213, 236 
Waveguides, iris-loaded, 271 
Wayne, William J., 258 
Weatherwax, Paul, v, vi, vii 
Weeds, 64 

Welch, Winona H., v, vi, 115 
Whitaker, P. L., vi 
Wilkin, Marian L., 38 
Wood, Homer G., 290 
Wright, J. S., v, vi, vii, viii 

Youse, Howard Ray, vii 
Yunker, T. G., v, vi, ix, 48 

Zarrow, M. X., 298 
Zieman, C. M., 271 
Zoology, Section on, 291 
Zupko, Arthur G., 293